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OUR SKETCH-BOOK ABROAD. VI. -THE ARCTIC REGIONS-MORAL AND SPIRITUAL CONDITION OF THE ESQUI MAUX.
HROUGHOUT Captain Hall's narra- colonies, churches, schools, storehouses, and
tivemany deeply interesting incidents stores of every needful variety, are to be found are recorded, calculated to arrest the interspersed from Cape Farewell to Upernavik,
attention of the Christian philan. and the inhabitants comfortable and happy. thropist to the claims upon sympathy of this Clergy and catechists, schoolmasters and remarkable people. His own opinion of the schoolmistresses, are educated to their several steps which might and should be taken is thus posts, and are well paid for their services from expressed :
His Majesty's coffers. Danes emigrate to the " Plant among them a colony of men and land, marry and intermarry with the Esqui. women having right-minded principles, and, maux. Knowledge and virtue, industry and after some patient toil, glorious fruits must prosperity, are the results. And, notwith. follow. I cannot realise the fact that here is a standing the expenses for the support of all people, having much of nobleness and even this, including the salaries of inspectors, govergreatness in their composition, yet unvisited nors, and several scores of employés, yet the and apparently uncared for by the missionary net proceeds of this apparently desolate land world. Nothing, however, could be done to. exceed ten thousand dollars, federal money, Fards their good until a course is adopted per annum! This is well for Greenland. Pay. similar to that pursued by the King of Den- ing for all her imports ; paying the expenses mark with Greenland. It is a painful, but too of some ten ships annually from and to Copenevident fact, that the Esquimaux on the west hagen; paying all the other expenses named, of Davis's Straits are woefully debased, and including missionaries, and yet realising an fallen from their original virtues—though pos- annual return of net profit for the King of sessing many still—owing to the visits of Denmark of ten thousand dollars! How many reckless white men on their coasts. In nations of this modern day do better? And, Greenland the case is different. There, with this fact before us, why shall not the ander the Danish king's control, Christian same occur (adopting the same plan) in the land of the Esquimaux on the west side of “In all the trials made on one occasion in Davis's Straits ? Let my countrymen look to the cabin, by both male and female-by old it whenever the first opportunity arrives.” and young-by all, I found none but could
Captain Hall states that there are reckoned read, and read well. to be 1,700 Esquimaux sealers in Greenland, “I was surprised to see the rapidity-the 400 fishers, and one Esquimaux officer (a full, clear enunciation of every syllable-with clerk), whose father was a Dane and the which they read; and one little Esquimaus Governor of Lieveley-Goodhavn. In addition, boy seemed to exceed the rest, though all did there are of Esquimaux 17 foremen and boats- well. men; 22 coopers and blacksmiths; 87 sailors ; · Perhaps I cannot give my readers a better 15 pensioners, whose business is to look after idea of this than by reprinting a small portion goats, and who get half-rations of beer, pork, of a child's First Primer, beginning at the almeat, and butter, &c., but full rations of peas, phabet, and giving the sound of each letter. barley, &c.
“The Greenland Esquimaux alphabet con. There are also 20 native catechists or mis. sists of twenty-four letters, as follows :sionaries.
"A, B, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, K', L, M, The European missionaries number 13 Ger. N, O, P, R, S, T, U, V, Y, Æ, O. man and 11 Danish.
The sound of each letter only varies from Of first and second governors there are 31. what we give to the same in the following:Three doctors visit each place one year.
“G is ke; H, ho; I, e; J, yoge; K, qu; K', There are 36 European clerks; 7 boat-steerers; qu; R, er ; U, 00; Y, ce-i. 28 coopers, carpenters, and blacksmiths; 19. The following is the Lord's Prayer in Essailors and cooks; and 8 pensioners.
quimaux :The whole body of missionaries are paid per “Atâtarput k'illangmêtottina! Ak'kit usannum, in Danish money, 16,360 dollars; of fornarfille ! Nálægâvêt tikkiudle! Pekkosfæt which amount Government House gives 14,650 k’illangmifut nunnamisāak taimāikille! Tun. dollars, and the East India Missions, at the nisfigut udlome pikfavtinnik! Pisfaräunatta outside, 2,000 dollars. For schools and school- akkêtforavta, pisfængillavuttaak akkêtfortivut! books the sum of 6,500 dollars is appropriated. Usfernartomut pisfitfarāunatta, ajortomidle
One Sunday morning, Captain Hall tells us, annāutigut! Nâlægāunerogavit pirfarfounehe visited the church at Holsteinborg. He rudluttidlo usfornarnerudluttidlo isfok'angitthus refers to this visit, introducing other in- tomut. Amen.' formation bearing upon the educational pros- “The minister Kjer had been at work transpects of the Esquimaux:
lating 'Robinson Crusoe' into Esquimaus, “The school teacher-a native Esquimaux, that copies might be printed and distributed preached exceedingly well; and I must say among his people in Greenland. In his library that the general attention given would do there is an Esquimaux Bible, and everything credit to people anywhere. The preacher is done to make the natives of Holsteinborg played an organ, and went through the whole good and happy. Dr. Rink, so well known by service in a most praiseworthy manner. In- repute among scientific men, has also issued deed, I was much struck with the great advance some useful story books in Esquimaux, one of made by the native inhabitants of Holstein. which books, and also a copy of the doctor's borg in Christian and general educational famous work, the governor kindly gave me." knowledge. Their school is well attended, and In another part of Captain Hall's work, we reading and writing are carried on admirably. meet with a passage, which we quote on ac
“Very few persons here at home have any count of the practical testimony it yields to true conception of the great advance made in the success of missionary labours, and also education by these Greenland Esquimaux. It because at the same time it conveys a reproof has often astonished me when listening to the which can scarcely fail to reach the conscience apt and ready way in which even children and touch the heart of every English reader:would pronounce some of their extraordinarily "By the bye, Tookoolito said to me during long words, some of those words consisting of the entertainment just described, 'I feel very no less than fifty letters !
sorry to say that many of the whaling people “The following is one of their long words, are very bad, making the Innuits bad too; but not the longest :
they swear very much, and make our people “ Piniagagssakardluarungnaerângat.
I wish they would not do so. Ameri
cans swear a great deal—more and worse than bounds of civilization, planting philanthropic the English. I wish no one would swear. It and Christian institutions where darkness and is a very bad practice, I believe.'
ignorance had before reigned universal." "How think you, beloved Americans, I felt We can only express the earnest hope that with these hot coals on my head ? Oh that such men may be multiplied; and that Chrisevery swearing man, and every saint, could tian missionary enterprise may be stimulated have seen and heard that Esquimaux woman to increased and increasing efforts for the as she spoke thus! I had just returned from evangelization of the Esquimaux. a hárd encounter with deep snow-falling snow, driven by almost a hurricane; but, O God,
ARCTIC SCENES. give me a thousand storms—worse, if they The following account of the pursuit of could be-rather than have the like thundering Musk Oxen in the Arctic Regions is from the in my ears again! Her words, her looks, her journal of “The Resolute Expedition":voice, her tears, are in my very soul still. During the forenoon, no fewer than thirtyHere, one of the iron daughters of the rocky, five musk-oxen, in different herds, were obice-ribbed North, standing like an angel, served at one time. At noon, a party, making
pleading the cause of the true God, weeping in all twelve barrels, landed in the cutter to go for the sad haroc made and making among in pursuit of the nearest herd of seven oxen, her people by those of my countrymen who quietly grazing abreast of the ship. should have been, and ever should be, the "On landing, word was given to the boat's glorious representatives of freedom, civiliza- crew to follow, but to keep well in the rear, to tion, and Christianity! It was too much; I avoid frightening the animals. On our ap. was a child. I confess I blushed for this stain proach, the herd congregated closely together upon my country's honour--not only this, but in line, with their heads towards us, the for the wickedness diffused almost throughout calves being in the centre. We now spread the unenlightened world by the instrumentality out our little force into the form of a crescent, of whalers hailing from civilized lands. and advanced in open order to within about
"This I am ready to admit, that some com. twenty yards of our prey. A little shuffling manderg, some officers, and ome crews of was the only movement we observed on closing, whaling ships are as they should be, exemplary but, with heads lowered, they awaited the atmen-men who take pleasure in doing good tack in silence. wherever they are—who seek to extend the “They really appeared very formidable,
drawn up as they were, with their huge un
“The musk-ox is seldom solitary, but genegainly heads, enveloped in dark, shaggy hair, rally grazes in herds of from five to twenty in ready for the charge. Waiting until all were number. A bull is always on the qui vive, and prepared, we fired together; for a moment rarely fails in giving due notice of approaching they stood, and thus enabled us to take ac- danger. On such occasions the bulls form in curate aim with our second barrels. No sooner line in front, facing the enemy, keeping the had they received the contents, than the poor cows and calves in the rear. A single shot brutes, all wounded, maddened with rage and seldom proves fatal, in consequence of the perpain, dispersed in all directions. Before we severance of the animal (even when wounded) loaded to go in chase, two out of the seven had to face its persecutor, thus preventing the fallen. Leaving them to be skinned by the hunter selecting a fatal spot, which is immeboat's crew, we set out after the wounded diately behind the fore-shoulder : the horny animals. Two of them were making to the excrescence on their heads is almost impervious westward, along the beach; whilst the other to a ball, and most of them died more from three took inshore. The result was, that not exhaustion, occasioned by loss of blood, than only none of the seven escaped, but four others by effective shots. were killed out of a herd of twelve, which were "They seldom attack when in herds, but descried a mile or two to the westward.
content themselves with shielding the weaker Thus, in the course of a few hours, no less animals with their bodies. When alone, how. than eleven animals were killed, the quantity ever, great precaution is necessary, for a wound of meat obtained being 1,970 lbs., an average
has been known to irritate the musk-ox to such of nearly 1881 lbs. each animal.
a degree, as to cause him to make a furious “ The musk-ox is difficult to kill, in conse- charge on the sportsman; this is the more quence of its coat of thick long hair, as well as dangerous, as, from the peculiar character of a mass of fine wool, interwoven between the the country, shelter from the infuriated animal hair near the skin,
can seldom be obtained.”
OHRISTIANITY AND HUMAN BROTHERHOOD.
OT till the word barbarian was struck speech present itself as a problem that called
out of the dictionary of mankind, and for a solution in the eyes of thoughtful obreplaced by brother, can we look even servers; and I, therefore, date the real be
for the first beginning of a science of ginning of the science of language from the language. This change was effected by Chris- first day of Pentecost. After that day of tianity. To the Hindu every man not twice cloven tongues, a new light is spreading over born was a Mlechha; to the Greek every man the world, and objects rise into view which not speaking Greek was a barbarian; to the had been hid from the eyes of the nations of Jew every person not circumcised was a Gen- antiquity. Old words assume a new meaning, tile; to a Mohammedan every man not believing old problems a new interest, old sciences a new in the prophet is a Giaour or Kaffir. It was purpose. It is no valid objection that so many Christianity, which first broke down the barriers centuries should have elapsed before the spirit between Jew and Gentile, between Greek and which Christianity infused into every branch barbarian, between the white and the black. of scientific inquiry produced visible results
, Humanity is a word which you look for in We see, in the oaken fleet which rides the vain in Plato or Aristotle; the idea of man. ocean, the small acorn which was buried in the kind as one family, as the children of one God, ground hundreds of years ago, and we recog. is an idea of Christian growth; and the science nise, in the researches of the greatest philoof mankind and the languages of mankind, is sophers of our own age, the sound of that key. a science which, without Christianity, would note of thought which had been struck for never have sprung into life. When people had the first time by the Apostle of the Gentiles been taught to look upon all men as brethren, (Rom. i. 20). then, and only then, did the variety of human
Urbino on the 6th April, 1483. His Raphael; but in 1833 his tomb was opened, and
excellent painter. Raphael lost his A mould was taken from the skull, and the mother when he was eight years old, and his tomb was closed up again. father three years later. This led to his uncle's He was of a sallow complexion, had brown placing him with the then celebrated Perugino. eyes, was slight in form, and was about five
In 1504 he visited Florence, and was greatly feet eight inches high. Several portraits of impressed with the works of the painters of him are extant, from his childhood upwards.* this advanced school. He made Florence his He was never married, although he was said headquarters until 1508, when he was invited to to have been engaged to Maria Bibiena, niece of Rome. His great work here was the decoration Cardinal Bibiena"; she died before him. His of the dwelling-rooms of the popes in the Vatican paintings and works of art he bequeathed palace, now, through these very frescoes, world- to his two favourite scholars, Penni and Ro. renowned as the Vatican Stanze. They consist mano, then both young men, on condition of of four principal rooms, and are generally de- completing his unfinished works. signated after the most remarkable frescoes There are few departments in the painter's which they contain. The frescoes are of a art in which Raphael did not excel, whether mixed historical and representative or sym.
in history or portrait, allegory or ornament. bolical character, illustrating the establish- About nine hundred various works and draw. ment of the temporal as well as the spiritual ings are attributed to him. His designs are power of the popes; for example, the first room distinguished for religious sentiment, or the contains the “Triumph of Constantine over
utmost dramatic vigour. He evidently had Maxentius," the "Appearance of the Cross,"
no tolerance for the separation of the sound the “Baptism of Constantine,” and the “Pre-body from the sound mind, believing one as sentation of Rome to the Pope.” In this way worthy of representation as the other. He the genius of Raphael was to a great extent
knew that God made the body as well as the made subservient to the growing assumptions
soul, and was free from the superstitious deof the Papacy. As works of art, notwithstand- lusion which has not unfrequently led men to ing the difficulties thrown in the painter's way
infer that an emaciated body, if resulting from from the unsuitable character of the walls,
self-torture inflicted in the desecrated name of and the general meanness of the rooms, these religion, indicates sanctity of spirit. frescoes are truly monumental, although they
An admirer of Raphael thus refers to an are now, through the neglect and ill-treatment existing prejudice which has arisen in conthey suffered in the seventeenth century, in a
nection with this characteristic of his paintings: deplorable state. All are grand in character “ The grand, vigorous character of Raphael's and in the dramatic truth of composition, and representations, compared with the prevailing some are magnificent even in colour,
predominance of sentiment in earlier works at From this period Raphael was overwhelmed the expense of the physical, has led modern with commissions from his patrons. He pro
affectation and ignorance to pronounce his art duced, amongst other less important works, profane, and a new adjective has been introthe magnificent series of Cartoons, of which duced into our art criticism, pre-Raphaelite, to seven are now at Hampton Court; and from express this disparagement.” We sympathize the year 1514 he was the superintending archi.
with this vindication of the artist, but his works tect of the new church of St. Peter's.
will never fail to be a security for his fame. Doubtless owing to his multifarious occupa
The same writer refers to “ another innova. tions, weakening his constitution, the career
tion of modern times ; spelling his name in of Raphael terminated at the early age of England as the modern Italians spell it, thirty-seven. The proximate cause of his death Raffaelle, a word of four syllables, and yet was fever, brought on by a cold caught whilst pronouncing this Italian word as if it were prosecuting his labours. His body lay in state,
English, as Raphael.” “Vasari wrote Raffaello; with his last work, the “Transfiguration,” at
he himself wrote Raphael on his pictures, and his head, and was buried with great pomp in
has signed the only autograph letter we have the Pantheon, or Santa Maria della Rotonda,
of his, Raphaello."
A. at Rome. Superstition long pointed to a skull, * See Frontispiece (a copy from one at Paris), page 285.