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HE privations

quently differed 100 degrees in ten steps of a and sufferings

ladder.” of Arctic ex

Mr. M.Dougall gives lengthened details of plorers could

wintering experience; and though our er. not easily be exaggerated;

tracts must be brief, we will venture to select but of all the discomforts

a few :attendant on wintering

“ November 4th. This day was altogether within the Arctic Circle,

one of the finest we had experienced since our none perbaps is so much

arrival here. The sky to the southward was felt as the absence of

composed of the most brilliant tints; crimson light. The gloom affects

and an intense yellow predominating. At in no slight degree the

1.15 p.m. the upper limb sank beneath the body, but it is chiefly in.

golden-hued horizon; the tints gradually bejurious to the mind. Who

came fainter, as the arch of light travelled to does not appreciate the

the westward. And thus the sun departed on intrepid and buoyant

a tour to the southward, sincerely regretted by energy of British sailors,

all on board. Alas! like other friends, until so bearing up under such

lost his value was not sufficiently appreciated.” trying circumstances, as

" Sunday, December 12th. After Divine serto enable the historian of

vice, the officers and crew of the Resolute prothe Resolute expedition to

ceeded on board the Intrepid, where it had been write as follows ? “The

arranged that the burial service should be read sweet and soothing influ

over one of our expedition, George Drover ence of memory, assisted

(the excellent captain of forecastle, Intrepid)

. by bright hopes for the Balloon employed by Arctic The temperature was too low to expose

the future, tended to sustain explorers—as many as 800

men for any length of time in a standing posiour spirits under the chil. tail of quick-match, and so tion in the open air. Much difficulty had been ling influence of a posi- dispersed to be picked up

experienced in digging a grave; for in addition tion at once novel and

to the heavy gale, which increased the discom. unnatural, amidst eternal ice and snow; and fort, whilst performing such a melancholy existing between two atmospheres, which fre. | task, the ground was frozen as hard as

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granite, on which the crowbars, pickaxes, and been employed making boots; the sailmakers shovels made little or no impression. The have been busy about the tents, robes, ma intemperature, varying from 17 degrees to 30 toshes, and other articles necessary for the degrees minus, rendered it necessary to pitch perfect equipment of a tent. Each man, during a tent over the grave, in order to shelter the his leisure hours, is employing himself making men from the wind. After five days' work, his travelling costume, whilst the officers are they were obliged to have recourse to a wood going into the weights of the various fire, which was lighted on the spot, to thaw the articles, and scorn not to work out the total surface. At length, after a week's labour, a to ounces; in short, there is not an idler on depth of two feet ten inches was obtained-in board." this poor Drover was buried."

"Saturday, February 5th.-For the last few December 21st.--The advent of the shortest days the sun's near approach to the horizon day was welcomed with feelings of pleasure by had been proclaimed by an extended arch of all on board, for it was the turning point of light, with a few small crimson clouds floating the winter, when, although the temperature in a golden sea. Oh, with what pleasure did might reasonably be expected to increase in we all look forward to his actual presence! severity, the light-that great and blessed gift Refraction-corrections of all descriptions of the Almighty-would gradually increase to -not forgetting the dip from the top of a continued day of several months' duration.” Dealy Island, 160 feet high---were worked out

Christmas-day was not without its becoming minutely, and the result of our calculations and hospitable observance :

led us to expect he might possibly be seen for "Many were the expressions of goodwill and the space of a few minutes at noon on the 4th. friendship interchanged. The Intrepids, with “The weather on that day, however, was their usual hospitality, provided luncheon ; unfavourable; a cold sharp wind, with mist, and, after a walk for an appetite, all the officers prevailed. But this has been a glorious day, of the squadron met at 5 p.m. in the gunroom clear, cloudless, and cold. of the Resolute, and sat down to a substantial “During the forenoon officers and men dinner. Besides other delicacies, there was a might have been observed stopping occasionally splendid piece of roast beef (killed in April), during their monotonous walk on the floe, and an Arctic hare, and a noble haunch of Arctic contemplating with feelings of quiet rapture venison weighing twenty-one pounds. The the southern horizon, as the arch gradually latter was the favourite dish, and called forth increased in extent and brilliancy. the unqualified praise of all present. I had “Officers-aye, and sedate ones too, on most almost forgotten to say, the men had an extra occasions-might have been observed jumping allowance issued, and at 1 p.m. sat down to as high as the weight of their clothes pergood fare, the various tables being decorated mitted, fondly hoping to be the first to wel. with transparencies, flags, and devices of va- come the glorious source of light and warmth rious descriptions alike appropriate and to these in hospitable shores. tasteful.

At length, at 11.30 a.m., the flag on Dealy The New Year was ushered in with a lower Island was hoisted, announcing to the little degree of temperature than we had yet expe- world below the fact of the sun being visible rienced. On the 2nd mercury became solid from that elevation. The ensigns on board for the first time, and from this we may fairly both vessels were immediately hoisted, in date the commencement of the months of ex- honour of the prodigal's return, after an treme cold. On the 4th the thermometer stood absence of ninety-three days. at 48 degrees minus. Bacon, which under the "A few minutes only elapsed, when the forecastle had become like slabs of granite, rays of his upper enlightened limb dazzled the was taken below, and placed beside the Syl. eyes of those who were anxiously gazing from vester stove ; and even there, several days the floe. Every eyelid drooped before the elapsed ere it became in a fit state to be sub- novel glare, but the features of all bore an jected to the process of boiling."

expression indicative of happiness. The very Throughout December and January active dogs appeared more animated, and seemed to preparations were in progress for the

prosecu. have an innate sense that better days were tion of the enterprise as soon as the season coming. Giving an additional cock to their permitted :

tails and ears, they gambolled with each other, "Shoemakers, for the last two months, have and looked, in truth, a set of merry dogs.

"In addition to the feelings of intense satis- “The sledges, with banners displayed, were faction which the return of the sun occasioned, drawn up in two divisions, with their heads, it is to be hoped there were in the breast of or bows, pointing in the direction of their in. every individual composing the expedition, tended destination, surrounded by the travel. feelings of heartfelt gratitude to the Giver of ling parties in their quaint dresses. A few

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all goodness, for the preservation of their lives minutes elapsed, whilst friends grasped each and health throughout the trying period of an other's hands, and whispered their last mes. arctic winter. The duration of such a winter sages, and then all were at their posts." is sufficiently unpleasant and monotonous; but The annexed cut gives the names of H. M. all other evils sink into utter insignificance, / sledges employed by the various exploring

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when compared with the disheartening nature | parties in connection with the Resolute, with of utter darkness for the space of ninety-three their distinguishing flags and mottoes. days."

The privations of these travelling parties About the middle of March various land were of no ordinary character. Space forbids expeditions were undertaken.

our giving details; but, as an example, we may


mention that the daily scale of provisions- The above was the daily allowance for each apparently almost inconsistent with the suste

An extra for seven men consisted of nance of life—to which one party was reduced three gills of concentrated rum. From the whilst travelling, was as follows :

small quantity of fuel, it is obvious that no

attempt was made to warm anything but the Pemican 14 oz. Eaten raw. Fuel not being chocolate; the remainder of the fuel was barely sufficient to cook it.

sufficient to dissolve snow, to enable the men Biscuit 1 lb.

to obtain a drink of cold water, after six hours' Chocolate 1 oz. Fuel just sufficient to

hard labour. Our second illustration will Sugar warm it.

serve to give an idea of the difficulties of cook. Oatmeal 2 oz.

ing in the Arctic regions.

1 oz.


HE very name of Persia gives to the periods of Persian history: but it was brief. mind an immediate idea of remote- Eastern luxury and voluptuousness brought ness and antiquity, lying as it does the usual consequences; and in the beginning

to the west of the continent of India, of the last century, the country was overrun and on the further side of those countries by the Afghans, who carried fire and sword which have only at a comparatively recent throughout it, and reduced its proudest capitals date been brought to the notice of Europeans to ashes. The atrocities of the Afghans were --we refer more particularly to the Punjaub avenged, and the independence of Persia vindiand Afghanistan. The name of Persia, more- cated, by Nadir Shah; but its modern bistory over, has somewhat of a refined sound, savage has almost been a continued succession of civil as in reality it has always been, and still is wars. It may be regarded as a token of a for the most part, even at the present day. better state of things, that we have now a The fine persons and picturesque costumes of representative of Great Britain in the Persian the few Persians amongst us, has tended to court. produce this impression; and this has been, to The empire is bounded on the west by the some extent, fostered by the Eastern tales, Euphrates and the Tigris; on the north the both in prose and verse, which in a past gene- Caucasian ridges form a vast and almost im. ration were so popular.

passable barrier, with the Caspian Sea; to the Persia is a vast empire which, for nearly south is the Persian Gulf; and on the east two thousand years, has been united into one that vast desert of sand extending to the Indus, monarchy, although its actual limits have and the mountainous regions of Afghanistan undergone, from time to time, great changes. and Beloochistan. The climate shows all the The nation first rose into notice on the ruins of variations which we might expect from its the great empires founded on the Euphrates, situation : whilst at one extremity there is the the river mentioned in the earliest record we heat of India, at the other there are moun. possess, the Book of Genesis (ii. 14). Babylon tains clothed with perpetual snow. was taken by Cyrus, whose empire extended These mountains constitute the most promi. wider than any before established in the world. nent feature of the country. Although they At length it succumbed to the brave and disci. consist of many hundreds of miles of unbroken plined armies of Alexander. His decease led and inaccessible precipices, they are here and to its being split into fragments; but Greek there intersected or broken by ravines, which sovereigns continued during several centuries are so narrow and steep, that they may be to reign over the empire. Then followed the compared to vast cracks. Others again form monarchy of the Parthians ; the Mahometan a succession of the sharpest peaks, rising to a dynasty; and the successive invasions of the great height. Between some of these there descendants of Zingis and Timur, and of the are passes, or, as they are more appropriately Turks. At length, in 1506, a native dynasty called, "gorges,” presenting ground of such a again arose in the person of Abbas. This character as to baffle even the passage of a appears to have been one of the most brilliant large force. This kind of scenery extends towards India, the Kyber Pass in Cabool being The population is variously estimated : pera familiar and terrible example, connected with haps it approaches 10,000,000. The people are events too recent to be a story of the past. gay and active, very ostentatious in their dress, Our engraving of “The Gorge of Ishtazin" lavishing upon their persons jewels and gold (P. 340) presents a striking view of this feature ornaments of all descriptions. There is no of the mountainous districts of Persia. It also country where the beard is regarded with displays the costume of the people. The reader such veneration ;, during the day it is rewill notice that this costume is of a mixed peatedly washed, combed, and adjusted. The character, indicating the well-known fact that luxury and splendour of the great leads to an in the fifth century the descendants of Zingis extensive demand for the finer fabrics. The were associated with those tribes to whom we wool of their flocks is very good, and is manu. now give the name of Turks.

factured into beautiful carpets and shawls. As a whole, Persia may be regarded as a They particularly excel in brocade and em. thinly peopled country, the numerous inva- broidery. sions, and the disturbed state of the empire The nations of the East have never been consequent thereupon, being highly discou- celebrated for literature : but the Persians raging to agriculture; although vast plains stand foremost amongst them in this respect. have always been inhabited by those who fol. Poetry is their ruling passion. The names of lowed a shepherd's life, as best suited to so Hafiz, Ferdusi, and Sadi, are classic even in uncertain a condition of society. The people Europe. It must, however, be added, that are fond of riding, the Turkoman breed of those poetical effusions are chiefly confined to horses being preferred, and the camel and mule love songs, and these are far from possessing are much used.

a tone of morality. The productions of the country are not Bearing in mind the influence necessarily numerous : salt is found in great quantities, as exercised by Mohammedanism, a system of is bitumen and petroleum, and the Khorassan politico-religion so specially adapted to enHills produce the beautiful turquoise stone. courage the tendencies of corrupt human The centre and south, although almost desti- nature, this is certainly not to be wondered at. tute of trees, yet produce abundant fruits; the Borrowing a few religious truths from Chris. vine flourishes in several provinces. The mul- tianity which have served to give a measure of berry in the northern provinces is very plenti. weight to the teaching of the Koran, the ful, so much so as to render silk the staple system of Mahommed altogether ignores the acproduct of the empire. The sugar-cane is tual nature of sin, and the real character of found in some of the well-watered plains; but Divine holiness and righteousness. It makes a deficiency of water is the great want of the its appeal to men's passions and to men's country. Poppies are largely grown for the fears; offering to the one, spoil and sensual sake of opium, and roses for the highly-valued | indulgence, and presenting to the other the extract which they produce. A third of the sword. Its religious observances consist in surface of the land, however, is nothing more gross and glaring superstitions--pilgrimages than a desert. The zoology includes most of to Mecca, certain gesticulations and repetitions the common domestic animals of Europe, with of some Arabic phrases or Koran passages, an excellent breed of mules, the camel, the ass, mostly not even understood by the person who and the goat. The wild animals are lions, bears, uses them, charms or amulets written on paper tigers, wild boars, jackals, wolves, and hyenas. or parchment as means of curing or preventing

The government of Persia is an absolute disease, and as protective against the injurious autocracy, but this power has been variously influences of bad men and evil spirits, credence used by the different shahs. There is no regular given to traditionary stories of the most childish army, the chief dependence being placed on nature-these things make up the religion of the wandering tribes, who are naturally of the people. Can we marvel if the claims of mo. predatory, and therefore warlike, habits. Under rality are feebly recognized and less practised? these circumstances, it is not to be wondered By way of specimen, we append a few of the at, that the tenure upon which the monarch traditionary stories to which we have alluded. holds his position is precarious; but, although It is asserted that Mahommed was sinless, perhaps it is a country which could be easily and that the black spot of original sin was conquered, it would also be equally difficult to taken out of his breast, in his boyhood, in the retain possession of it.

following miraculous way

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