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were rescued by the Isabella. As showing the countrymen. This we now know to have been state to which the men were physically re- the case; while the quantity of the abandoned duced, we are told “they had been so long food raised very melancholy apprehensions as

" used to sleeping on rocks and snow, that the to the state of their provisions. ordinary comforts of life had lost their charm. The

voyage of Sir Robert M'Clure resulted They could not sleep in beds; and even the in the discovery of the long-sought Northcaptain was obliged to throw himself into an West Passage; but no information was obtained arm-chair in order to get any sleep.”

of the missing men. Another expedition followed, in 1836, under At length Dr. Rae, lately the companion of Captain Back, which proved still more fruitless Richardson, having been appointed by the and disastrous.

Hudson's Bay Company, in 1853, to complete The courage of our countrymen seems to the survey of the western shore of Boothia, fell have been somewhat damped by these failures, in with a party of Esquimaux in Pelly Bay; and it was not until eight years later that and from one of them he learnt that “a party another Arctic expedition was proposed. This of kabloonas (white men) had died of hunger proposal originated with Sir John Barrow, and a long way to the west of where he then was, 80 great was the enthusiasm of Franklin, who and beyond a great river.” But the man said was anxious to undertake the charge of the that he had never been there himself, and could expedition, that when a doubt was raised about not travel with them so far. Dr. Rae at once the propriety of sending out so old a man, his pursued his inquiries, and elicited from dif- . friend Sir Edward Parry said, “ If you do not


persons other particulars, which led him let him go, the man will die of disappoint- to believe that the river spoken of was no other ment." It proved, alas! his final voyage. than Back's, or the Great Fish River, and also

In May, 1845, Sir John Franklin sailed as that he was certainly on the track of a part of commander of the Erebus, and of the expedi- Frankiin's expedition. tion-Captain Crozier being appointed captain From what he could gather, it appeared of the Terror; and the transport Barretto, that when first seen they were about forty under the command of Lieutenant Griffiths, in number, and headed by a man who seemed accompanied them. The two vessels were pro- to be an officer; they were dragging a boat visioned for more than three years, and the two and sledges southwards over the ice. They crews consisted of 138 men.

could not speak the Esquimaux language It was not expected that news could be re- well enough to be understood; but by signs ceived for nearly two years after entering the they made the natives understand that their ice. Lieutenant Griffiths, of the Barretto, left ships had been crushed by the ice, and that "" "all well and in good spirits ;” and the Prince they were going where they hoped to find of Wales, whaling-vessel, saw them shortly deer. This was about the year 1850; and later afterwards moored to an iceberg in the middle in the same season, but before the breaking of Baffin's Bay.

up of the ice, some graves were found by From that time a terrible silence ensued; the Esquimaux, and about thirty corpses, some and when the allotted two years had fully ex- in a tent, others under a boat, and others scat. pired, the suspense rapidly grew into a fearful tered about. But the most dreadful fact of all anxiety.

was that, from the mutilated state of some of In 1848, Sir John Richardson and Dr. Rae, the bodies, as well as from the contents of the and two other parties of explorers, one under cooking.vessels, there was reason to believe Sir James Ross, sailed in search of the missing that the unhappy men had been reduced even vessels; but although every effort was made, to cannibalism. the three expeditions proved failures.

At the same time there was nothing to lead From 1850 to 1854, numerous private voyages Dr. Rae to suppose that any violence had been were planned. In 1850, Captain Penny dis- offered to them by the natives ; although some covered, on Beechey Island, at the entrance of of the articles thrown away by the white men Wellington Channel, three sailors' graves, and were in their possession, and Dr. Rae puran immense number of cases of preserved chased several things of them-amongst others, meats-apparently discarded because they had a silver star, on which were engraved the words turned putrid. From these things the captain “Sir John Franklin.” No writings or papers gathered that, at some time or other, this spot of any kind had come to hand; and many had been the wintering-place of his missing were the treasures supposed to be still lying on




the desert ice. The promised reward of £10,000 island in a river. The next morning the whole was adjudged to Dr. Rae and his men as the population of the village, forty-five people, first discoverers of some traces of the expedition, came out, and readily sold silver spoons, a and a very general desire was felt to pursue silver medal which had belonged to Mr. A. the research still further.

M'Donald, assistant surgeon ; part of a gold The British Government did not consider it chain, several buttons, knives, and bows and right to risk more lives, or to spend more arrows made of different parts of the wreck. treasure, in this perilous enterprise, especially Coming over to King William's Island, since Dr. Rae's information seemed to destroy Captain M'Clintock met with more natives all hopes of saving life. It devolved therefore who also knew about this wreck, of which they upon the enthusiasm and devotedness of Lady said little remained, as their countrymen bad Franklin to arouse her countrymen to follow carried much of it away. They sold more plate, up this new track, and endeavour to rescue, if bearing the crests or initials of Franklin, not the lives of her husband and his com. Crozier, and M.Donald. An old woman also panions, yet at least their reputation from spoke of the white men who dropped down and oblivion.

died as they travelled to the river, of whom she Aided by many eminent philanthropic and said some were buried, and some were not. scientific men, the Fox, a screw yacht, was Proceeding on their explorations, on the 25th purchased in 1857, and under the command of of May Captain M Clintock came on a very Captain M'Clintock proceeded on its northern painful relic, namely, the skeleton of a slight voyage. After wintering on the ice, about the young man, who from his dress, and especially middle of July they reached Beechey Island the loose bow-knot in which his handkerchief depot. There a marble tablet sent out by Lady was tied, was judged to have been a steward or Franklin was erected. The inscription was as officer's servant; but the face and limbs had follows:

been gnawed away or broken by wild beasts.

Near him was found a frozen pocket-book, a To the Memory of

clothes-brush, and pocket horn comb; all which FRANKLIN, CROZIER, FITZJAMES,

articles, had the Esquimaux discovered him,

would have been stolen. The poor young Gallant Oficers and Faithful Companions

fellow seems to have fallen down exhausted : Who have suffered and perished

probably fell asleep, and so died.
In the cause of science
And the service of their country,

The discovery of a written record, soldered
This Tablet

up in a thin tin cylinder, in a cairn at Point Is erected near the spot where they passed

Victory, on the north-west of the island,
Their first Arctic winter, and whence

speedily followed. We give an extract :-
They issued forth to conquer
Difficulties or to die.

_April 25, 1848.-II.M. ships Terror and Erebus It commemorates the grief of their admiring

were deserted on the 22d of April, five leagues W.N.W. Countrymen and friends, and the anguish, Subdued by faith, of her who has

of this, having been beset since 12th September, 1846. Lost, in the heroic leader of

The officers and crews, consisting of 105 souls, under The Expedition, the most

the command of Capt. T. R. M. Crozier, landed here Devoted and affectionate of

in lat. 69° 37' 42" N., long. 98° 41' W. Sir John Husbands.

Franklin died on the 11th of June, 1847, and the total "And so He bringeth them unto the haven where loss by deaths in the expedition has been to this date they would be."

9 officers and 15 men.

(Signed) “T. R. M. CROZIER, On the 1st of March in the following year,

Captain and Senior Officer. the Fox arrived at the Magnetic Pole. To the



“Captain H.M.S. Ercbus. captain's great joy, he saw four natives approaching. None had previously been seen,

“And start (on) to-morrow, 26th, for Back's Fish

River.” which had caused him to fear that the journey would be fruitless. By means of Petersen, the On the 29th of May the western point of the interpreter, a conversation was at once begun. island was reached. The next day they came Discovery now rapidly followed upon discovery. to a large boat. This boat contained an im. One of the men had a naval button on his mense quantity of clothing, though not one dress, which he explained to have come from article bore its owner's name; but the first some white people who were starved on an sight showed them what turned their atten

And all their


tion from everything else-namely, parts of We have thus briefly sketched the career of two human skeletons. It was a sight which an officer who served his country well for struck them all with horror; but no part of nearly half a century, and whose name will be the skull of either was found which could lead enshrined

among those great heroes of whose to the identification of the persons, for they glory and whose fame England is justly had both been the food of wolves.

proud. A pair of worked slippers lay near to one, and Our narrative will fitly close with a brief by the other five watches. But the search for description of the statue of Sir John Franklin journals or pocket-books was again vain; five or in Waterloo Place, which has just been insix small books only were found—all devotional ! augurated in the presence of the First Lord of ones except the “ Vicar of Wakefield.” A the Admiralty, Sir John Pakington. small Bible also lay there, in which were whole “ The memorial consists of a pedestal of passages underlined, and many marginal notes; polished granite, surmounted by a bronze and there were, besides, the covers of a New statue 8 feet 4 inches in height. The sculptor Testament and Prayer-book. No food was (Mr. Noble) has sought to represent the moment found in this boat, except tea and chocolate; when the great Arctic explorer announces to but of other articles there was a great his officers and men that their work was variety, including plate, with the well-known accomplished—that a North-West Passage crests of many of the officers of the ships. was discovered. He wears the uniform of a This boat, which rested on a sledge, was about naval commander, but over that is a loose outer fifty miles from Point Victory, and seventy coat of fur, which suggests the bleakness of miles from the first skeleton found. It was the region in which his life was lost. In one directed towards the ships, as if returning to hand he holds telescope, chart, and compass. them. Perhaps a party had gone forward for The sculptor's success in presenting a likeness fresh supplies, leaving these two in charge of of Franklin is pronounced to be complete by the boat, and had not been able to return. Lady Franklin herself, as well as by those

Captain M'Clintock was now most anxious eminent scientific and other men to whom the to find the wreck itself; but no sign of her was features and character of the hero were most to be seen, nor did he find any other relics. familiar. In front, the pedestal is adorned by

The searching parties returned to the Fox. a bas-relief which represents the funeral of Sir The return voyage home at once commenced, John Franklin. Captain Crozier, to whom the and on the 21st of September, Captain M'Clin- death of his chief gave the command of the tock reached London. The relics brought home expedition, stands swathed in fur, as in the act were deposited at the United Service Institu

of reading the burial service. Around him tion, and it is needless to state that those who and the coffin of their great leader are gathered had so nobly devoted their energies to the the officers and men of the Erebus and Terror. prosecution of this expedition were every- Beneath the bas-relief the following inscrip. where received with the hearty welcome so tion is given:well merited.

FRANKLIN. Captain C. F. Hall, of the whaling barque

To the Great Arctic Navigator George Henry, has made still more recent voy

And his brave Companions, ages to the Arctic regions, and ventures to

Who sacrificed their Lives in completing draw some deductions in favour of yet dis

The Discovery of the North-West Passage,

A.D. 1847. covering some of the survivors of Sir John

Erected by the unanimous Vote of Parliament. Franklin's expedition; but we fear this is " hoping against hope;" and we cannot but The back of the pedestal holds a chart of the acquiesce in the opinion of Captain M'Clin- Arctic regions in bronze, which shows the tock that “it is wholly unlikely that any of position of the two ships and their crews at the 134 men who sailed in the Erebus and Terror the time of Franklin's death. On the north could have escaped death by taking refuge side of the pedestal are inscribed the names of among the Esquimaux, as there were very those who belonged to the Erebus, and on the few on the island; and these, generally, were south the names of the officers and crew of the so ready to give information that, had they Terror. Each list of names is supplemented helped the poor whites, they would certainly with the legend, “They forged the last link bave spoken of it.

with their lives."




HE Prophetic Almanacs of the last conjurors and framers of prophecies and alma.

two centuries form a curious chapter nacs, exceeding the limits of allowable astrology, in the history of the “Books of the shall be punished severely in their persons; and

People.” The superstitious practice we forbid all printers and booksellers, under formerly observed in all almanacs, but now the same penalties, to print, or expose for sale, almost exploded, of placing each limb of the any almanacs or prophecies which shall not body under a particular sign of the Zodiac, is first have been seen and revised by the arch. of high antiquity, being attributed to Nechepsos, bishop, the bishop (or those who shall be exor Nerepsos, an Egyptian, and author of several pressly appointed forthat purpose), andapproved treatises on astronomy, astrology,and medicine, of by their certificates signed by their own hand, who lived in the age of Sesostris. His object, and, in addition, shall have permission from us we are told, was to enable the medical prac- or from our ordinary judges.” titioners (who are supposed to have been of the We have a volume of old almanacs now before priestly order), to apply suitable remedies to us, the mere titles of which are worth enume. diseases affecting any particularmember. From rating, if they only show the amount of credu. Egypt this superstition passed to the Greeks lity possessed by one individual—the binder of and Romans; from them to the Saracens; and the said volume. The almanacs are all for being by the latter transmitted to the school of the same year, 1734, and they range as follows: Salerno, it was acted upon in the medical prac- The Woman's Almanac-Gadbury's Diarytice of every European country. Such ab- Wing's Almanac-Parker's Ephemeris, the fivesurdities, assuredly, afford no very favourable and-fortieth impression—John Partridge's Mer. indication of the vaunted science of that extra- linus Liberatus-Francis Moore's Vox Stellarum ordinary people among whom they took their - William Andrews' News from the Starsrise; but it would be rash to conclude that the Richard Saunders' Apollo Anglicanus-Henry attestations of the highest ancient authorities Coley's Merlinus Anglicus Junior-Salem Pearce's to the progress of the Egyptians in the sciences, Celestial Diary - Edmund Weaver's British at a remote period, are groundless, because Telescope-John Hartley's Angelus Sideralistheir knowledge was mixed up with supersti. Henry Season's Speculum Anni—Poor Robin's tions inconsistent with truth and sound phi. Almanack after the Good Old Fashion, &c. losophy.

The lives of these worthy astrologers would Our ancestors certainly exceeded us in the form an instructive volume, but only some brief depth of their predictions. In Shakspeare's particulars of a few of them are known. Some. day, for example, Leonard Digges, the Francis times indeed we meet with a conceited fellow Moore of that period, not only prognosticated who prefaces his almanacwith his autobiography for the day, week, or year, but " for all time," - Henry Season, “Professor of Physick, and as the title-page of his almanac shows : “A Student in the Celestial Sciences,” to wit. This Prognostication everlastinge of right good effect, Professor says, in his Preface to the Candid fruitfully augmented by the auctor, contayning Reader, “ I was born at the place I now live at, plaine, briefe, pleasaunte, chosen rules to judge a village call’d Broomham, three miles from the of the Weather by the Sunne, Moone, Starres, town of Devizes in Wilts, on January the 23rd, Comets, Rainebow, Thunder, Cloudes, with but the year and hour I conceal; 'tis no point other extraordinarye tokens, not omitting the of prudence to reveal that, as the learned in aspects of the Planets, with a briefe judgement | astrology and my own experience have informed for ever, of Plenty, Lucke, Sickness, Dearth, me; for should any one's nativity fall into the Warres, &c., opening also many natural causes hands of an artist in astrology that is his worthy to be known.” (1575.)

enemy, he knows when to hurt him, because he It is singular how long the human mind will knows when bad directions take place; cum cling to folly to which it is accustomed-long multis aliis ways to circumvent and mischief after the understanding is satisfied of its want him.” He then enters into some particulars of of truth. As far back as 1607, we find the his career and closes by saying, “ Next year, if following prohibition of prophetic almanacs ; I write, I shall, in the place of this epistle, write and yet even at the present day, some wretched a piece of poetry-an original copy in praise of trash is published under the same title. “All the propagators of learning.”

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