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Leaves fromthe Book of Nature: Descriptive Narrative, de.


R. GEORGE JESSE, in his “Re

searches into the History of the Hlowing curious list of the attri.

British Dog,” publishes the fol.

butes of the dog.
The Dog risks his life to give help.
Goes for assistance.
Saves life from drowning, fire, other animals, men, &c.
Assists distress.
Guards property (perhaps the only animal which does

80, the elephant excepted). ·
Knows boundaries.
Resents injuries offered to others or himself.
Repays benefits.
Communicates ideas.
Combines (with other dogs) to avenge an injury, give

assistance, hunt, &c.
Understands language.
His own voice most expressive, and its range wide.
Knows if he is dying, or to be put to death.
Knows death in the human.
His whole life devoted to the object of his love.
Dies of grief.
Dies of joy.
Dies in his master's defence (or of his property, or in

Commits suicide.
Remains by the dead.
Gives alarm (or warning) of fire, falling buildings, dc.
Knows characters of men.
Feeds men and dogs confined.
Recognizes a portrait.
Recognizes men after long absence.
Fond of praise (" like men of a generous spirit"-

Sensible of ridicule.
Feels shame.
Most alive to praise and censure.
Is sensible of a fault, and good action.
Delights to please.
Resentful to enemies.
Trustful, but, if deceived, becomes suspicious.

Apportions punishment.
Looks to man for help.
Adapts himself to circumstances.
Injury or ingratitude does not abate his fidelity.
Distress does not detach him.
Is incorruptible.
Profits by experience.
Hides food when he has more than he needs.
l'inds his way back from distant countries, and by

untraversed roads. Largely capable of instruction. Communicates hereditary tendencies and mental

qualities. Knows his owner's property, and will punish dogs

which touch it. Revenges his master's death. Will die of hunger rather than violate or desert his

charge. Measures time. Has presentiments. Will rarely injure children, or drunken men. Is sensible of surgical treatment for its benefit, and

will bring an injured dog to receive it. Hostile at first to foreigners, strangers, and beggars. When dying, takes a last farewell: affection supreme

at the last moment of existence. It may be truly said of him, “Much waters cannot quench love,

neither can the floods drown it.” IIas a sense of justice. Will present its offspring to its master. Dreams. Is subject to lunacy or delirium, and sees

visions. Will assist his

enemy: Will relinquish his enmity towards another of his own

species, or towards man on receiving a benefit. The bitch has been known to seek, and obtain, the

assistance of another in suckling her whelps, when

her own milk was insufficient. IIas been said to die of jealousy on the marriage of his


Doubtless, each attribute thus assigned to the dog, might easily be illustrated by anecdotes, but space forbidding any attempt to do this, we have selected a few particularly striking and not generally known instances of the perception, discrimination, and attachment of dogs.

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One of the well-known Samuel Drew's early The Ettrick Shepherd, ia his essay on the friends, having to travel much from home, over shepherd's dog, says, “ It will appear strange the Cornish Moors, and, having been set upon

to hear a dog's reasoning faculty mentioned as by robbers, was advised to have as his com

it has been, but I have hardly ever seen a sheppanion a Newfoundland dog-his conscience herd's dog do anything without perceiving his not permitting him to employ arms. This large reasons for it. I have often amused myself in dog made the acquaintance of a smaller one, calculating what his motives were for such bred in the same house, and the following and such things, and I generally found them incident happened when Mr. Drew was residing

very cogent ones.” Indeed, the shepherd's at Polpea. The great metaphysician says :- dog, the colley, exhibits the race, perhaps

in its chief aspects, in the highest state of “Our dairy was under a room which was used

culture. occasionally as a barn and apple-chamber, into which

A shepherd's dog is invaluable,

and above all price. A single shepherd the fowls sometimes found their way, and, in scratching among the chaff, scattered the dust on the pans of

and his dog, the Ettrick She

erd tells milk below, to the great annoyance of my mother-in

us, will do more in gathering a flock of law. In this, a favourite cock of hers was the chief sheep from a Highland farm than twenty transgressor. One day, in harvest, she went into the shepherds could do without dogs. The dairy, followed by the little dog; and finding dust shepherd's uncle, John Hogg, one Sabbath again thrown on her milk-pans, she exclaimed, 'I wish afternoon, among the hills at a Cameronian that cock were dead.' Not long after, she being with Sacrament, was indisposed to leave the afterus in the harvest field, we observed the little dog noon service; and yet he was compelled to dragging along the cock, just killed, which, with an

have his ewes at a certain place by a certain air of triumph, he laid at my mother-in-law's feet.

hour; so he gave his dog a quiet hint; instantly She was dreadfully exasperated at the literal fulfil

she went away, took to the hills, and gathered ment of her hastily uttered wish, and snatching a stick

the whole flock of ewes and brought them as from the hedge, attempted to give the luckless dog a beating. The dog, seeing the reception he was likely carefully and quietly as if the shepherd himself to meet with, left the bird, and ran off-she brandish

had been with her. The thousand people ing her stick, and saying in a loud, angry tone, ‘I'll

assembled at the Sacrament, saw with astonishpay thee for this by-and-by.' In the evening, she was

ment the feat, for the flock was scattered over about to put her threat into execution, when she found two large and steep hills. the little dog established in a corner of the room, and Dr. Brown (Horce Subsecivæ) writes : the large one standing before it. Endeavouring to Mr. Carruthers of Inverness told me a new story of fulfil her intention, by first driving off the large dog, those wise sheep-dogs. A butcher from Inverness had he gave her plainly to understand that he was not at

purchased some sheep at Dingwall, and giving them all disposed to relinquish his post. She then sought in charge to his dog, left the road. The dog drove to get at the small dog behind the other ; but the

them on till, coming to a toll, the toll-wife stood before threatening gesture and fiercer growl of the large one the drove, demanding her dues. The dog looked at sufficiently indicated that the attempt would be not

her, and, jumping on her back, crossed his forelegs over a little perilous. The result was that she was obliged her arms. The sheep passed through, and the dog took to abandon her design. In killing the cock, I can

his place behind them, and went on his way. scarcely think that the dog understood the preciso import of my step-mother's wish, as his immediate execution of it would seem to imply. The cock was

Mr. Edward Jesse says, “I have had many a more recent favourite, and had received some atten- opportunities of observing how readily dogs tions which had previously been bestowed upon comprehend language, and how they are aware himself. This, I think, had led him to entertain a when they are the subject of conversation. A feeling of hostility to the bird, which he did not pre- gentleman once said in the hearing of an old sume to indulge until my mother's tone and manner and favourite dog, who was at the time basking indicated that the cock was no longer under her pro- in the sun, “I must have Ponto killed, for he tection. In the power of communicating with each other, which these dogs evidently possessed, and

gets old, and is offensive.” The dog slunk which, in some instances, has been displayed by other away, and never came near his master after.

wards. species of animals, a faculty seems to be developed of which we know very little. On the whole, I never

IV. remember to have met with a case in which, to human A poor boy, in a manufacturing town, conappearance, there was a nearer approach to moral per- trived from his hard earnings to keep a dog, ception than in that of my father's two dogs." Passing to his work, he was dreadfully maimed


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by the fall of scaffolding; carried on a shutter, spectacle for the Spaniards, or the Christians, maimed and bleeding, to the hospital near, he as their contemporary historian and fellow. was attended by his dog, but the dog was not Christian calls them, even while he is relating permitted to enter the ward: he was driven this story. The reader will judge what the beyond the outer gate. He walked round and state of natural and general feeling must have round the walls; he lay down and watched been, when a man of his extraordinary acquirewith wistful eyes those who entered, imploring ments and talents, and who gives evident proofs admittance. He never left the precincts night in his book of a sincere religious belief, could or day; and by the time the poor boy had relate these circumstances without the slightest breathed his last, his faithful dog, too, had expression of horror, and undoubtedly without ceased to live.Professor Low.

the slightest feeling that there was anything

unusual, anything unfitting, still less that The affection which some dogs show to their

there was anything devilish and damnable masters and mistresses is not only very sur

related. Salazar gave the old woman a letter, prising, but even affecting. An instance of

and told her to go with it to the governor at this lately occurred at Brighton. The wife of

Aymaco. The poor creature went her way a member of the town council at that place joyfully, expecting to be set at liberty when had been an invalid for some time, and at last

The intent

she had performed her errand. was confined to her bed. During this period

was merely to get her away from the rest, that she was constantly attended by a faithful and

the dog might have a fair field, and the beholders affectionate dog, who either slept in her room

a full sight. Accordingly, when she had proor outside her door. She died, was buried, and

ceeded little farther than a stone's throw, the dog followed the remains of his beloved

Bezerrillo was set at her. Hearing him come, mistress to her grave. After the funeral, the

the woman threw herself on the ground; and husband and his friends returned to his house;

her simple faith in Salazar's intention, and in and while they were partaking of some refresh

the animal's sagacity, saved her : for she held ment, the dog put its paws on his master's

out the letter to the dog, and said, “O sir dog, arm, as if to attract his attention, looked wist- sir dog! I am carrying a letter to the lord fully in his face, and then laid down and in- governor; don't hurt me, sir dog.” The dog stantly expired.

seemed to understand her; and did understand

her, in fact, sufficiently to know that she did VI.

not look upon herself as a condemned person, The most powerful mind the world has known

and that she implored his mercy; and he came during the last two centuries had its emotions

up to her gently, and did her no harm. raised by, and left its testimony to, the sablime

The Christians held this for a thing of much attachment of the dog.

mystery, knowing the fierceness of the dog; The great Napoleon, when riding over the

and the captain also, seeing the clemency field of Bassano after the battle, observed a

which the dog had shown, ordered him to be dog guarding the body of his slain master.

up; and they called back the


Indian He turned to his staff, and, pointing to the

woman, and she came back to the Christians animal, said, “There, gentlemen, that dog

in dismay, thinking they had sent the dog to teaches us a lesson of humanity.”

bring her, and trembling with fear she sat VII.

herself down. And after a little while, the TRADITION OF THE INDIAN DOG, BEZERRILLO. governor Juan Ponce arrived, and being inSalazar had one day taken an old Indian formed of what had happened, he would not woman, among other prisoners, after a defeat be less compassionate with the woman than of the natives, and for no assigned or assign- the dog had been, and he gave orders that she able reason, but in mere wantonness of cruelty, should be set at liberty, and allowed to go he determined to set this dog upon the poor whither she would; and accordingly so it was wretch. But it was to be made a sport of, a done.

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GENTLEMAN at Coniston gives how is it that such regular discipline can be
the following curious account of maintained as to keep a sentinel ever strictly
the effects produced on birds by the on the watch to give signals of any approaching

very severe cold, and long continu. danger? Is the sentinel some grave old patriance of snow on the hard frozen surface of the arch of the flock, who shows his chieftainship ground, in January and February, 1865. by watching over the safety of his tribe? or is

"Four species of Titmouse(Parus) were fami- he some unlucky junior, who dares but obey liar visitors, and greedy after any sort of kitchen his elders, and remain patiently at his post of refuse. That well-known and now deeply re- observation, even if it excludes him from his gretted benevolent observer and naturalist, Sir share in the feast? John Richardson, erected at Lancrigg, a strong “Another strange pensioner was a waterpole with a erossbar, to one end of which he hen (Gallinula), starved out from ber accustied a basket filled with crumbs of bread and tomed reedy haunts on the edges of Coniston such-like dainties, for the refection of hungry Lake; she came in haste to partake of any Linnets, Robins, Chaffinches, and a miscella- fragments of food within reach, and then as neous company of visitors to the welcome hastily departed to her biding-place. feast; at the other end of the crossbar was a “I once had the opportunity of watching a net bag containing lumps of fat, which proved pair of these birds in the fenny districts of particularly attractive to the Titmouse family Buckinghamshire, in an old orchard filled with (Parus). The beautiful blue Tit, whose lively grotesque old trees, thickly coated with grey manners have been so well described by White, lichens, and yet very productive of good apples and which, whatever may be said of him, is and enormously large stewing pears; there was really a great friend to gardeners, by destroy- in one corner a dark pond, the remains of part ing quantities of insects, is rather numerous in of an ancient moat, fringed and almost hidden Westmoreland, and must be dear to all lovers by sedges and brambles. By the edge of this, of roses for its active assistance in waging and fastened to an overhanging branch, the war against the Bracken Clocks, a sort of Gallinules built their cradle-nest of sticks. minute beetle (Chrysomela) with shining me- The female sat very closely under cover of the tallic wing cases, which seem to descend in shrubs, but by stealing gently round behind clouds from the neighbouring heath and fern. the bushes, I every day threw near her the covered mountains as soon as the roses begin crumbs and scraps from the children's dinner, to open; and bright and beautiful to the eye which were always eaten, and by-and-by I had as is this glittering shower of sparks of eme- the pleasure of seeing a flock of six or eight ralds, rubies, and diamonds that dazzle as such beautiful silky little black balls darting they pass' through the sunshine, we soon lose and squirting about in the most lively and all admiration for the false and fair visitants, restless manner, caring little for the shelter of who ruthlessly bury themselves among the the mother's wing. But in a day or two the petals of the roses, and mutilate and devour

whole family had disappeared. The Ouse was the choicest blooms in the most aggravating out, a common occurrence with that sluggish way. So if the Tomtits help us a little to keep river, and probably the pretty Gallinules had down these pests in the summer, they well adjourned to the wide swampy fishing.grounds deserve their regale of fat to help them through to seek their living in company with the lordly the season when no insect larvæ can be found. crested grey heron, who would stand there for

But during that very severe weather, not hours, with meekly bowed head on his breast, only tribes of small birds, but even the very one foot tucked under his feathers-one might Rooks came to be fed, and enjoyed picking feet imagine to warm it, if he only changed his bones, especially a bone from a sirloin now and then; but it seemed to be always on of beef which had been previously boiled the same leg, in the shallow water, balancing for soup for the poor. The smaller bones the himself in perfect stillness till he pounced on Rooks flew away with to enjoy in their his prey, and secured his fish with that same own selfish corners, like 'little Jack Horner,' sharp hard bill wherewith his ancestors have without allowing a taste to a hungry brother. stilettoed so many a noble falcon in the olden Peevish and quarrelsome among themselves, days of that sport."

P. S. B.

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To sing when summer's golden hours are

Through cloudless skies ;
To fade, and still to sing, without repining,

When summer dies.
As in the music of some grand rehearsal

All sounds unite,
At once to swell the chorus universal,

If tuned aright;
So in the garden-song around our dwelling-

All parts complete, Each tender note of leaf or floweret swelling

The anthem sweet, Rises the strain, unnumbered voices blending,

Their burden oneOne hymn of praise, for evermore ascending

To God's high throne.

ISTEN! the blossom-laden breeze is


A garden song: Sweet voices from the flowery depths are springing

All the day long. There is no silence where the clustering roses

And lilies grow; Where branches wave, and tender green reposus

In shade below.
There is no silence where the buds are swelling,

And flowers unfold,
Leaf unto leaf its tale of gladness telling,

Yet never told.
There is no silence for the ear that listens,

And fain would know
The joy of Nature when the dewdrop glistens,

And soft winds blow. When wakes the morn, or shines the noontide glory

Of summer days,
Ten thousand voices tell the same sweet story

In hymns of praise.
O'er the wide forest, by the restless ocean,

Or the still vale,
Sun, moon, and stars, in their perpetual

Tell the same tale. But deeper, clearer, where the heart reposes,

Their sound is heard; Where the loved garden of our home encloses

Each welcome word. Speak, then, sweet voices! for I wait to hear you

In this calm spot. Alas! how often has my soul dwelt near you,

And heard you not.
Sing, gentle flowers, and teach me by your

How sweet a thing
It is to wake each morn to love and duty,

And still to sing:

The Snowdrop.
EEP lies the snow-wreath on my breast,

Around me all is dark and chill,
Yet something breaks my silent rest,
And seems my startled ear to fill.
A voice that never speaks in vain,
Whispers of Spring returned again;
And close, my folded leaves within,
I feel the stir of life begin.
And now I wake-I live-I feel!

And through the curtains of my bed,
While glimmering rays of daylight steal,

I know the sun shines overhead;
I know, within my earthy home,
That Spring, rejoicing Spring has come;
I feel, beneath my snowy sheet,
That light is pleasant-life is sweet.
Joy! joy! the curtains cold and white,

The icy covering of my bed,
Now melt beneath the morning light,
grass-green turf

appears instead.
My snowy mantle falls away;
I look, and lo! the glorious day!
But droop my head again to see
No flower in all the world but me.

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