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• Thank you. I think I must prove my perversity by showing that I am not so simple as you suppose. I agree with you, a wife should be a companion; and, as really valuable companions are not to be met with very easily, I can wait.”

As I said this, I recollected that Laura was only eighteen. My aunt smiled, as if she was reading my thoughts; and, I added hastily, “What became of the widow of the great Richard Hooker?”

“She was not long his widow; she married a clown, who was also a tyrant, and ended her days miserably.”

I was going to say, “Serve her right; I am glad of it;" but my aunt added, “It will be very sad, for the best of us, if we get our just recompense.” And in that I am sure she was right. I thought so then, and I know it now, as I recall, after an interval of years, the con. versation of that night; and look, at the other side of my cosy fire-place, at the face of my sweet bride, Laura-an undeserved blessinga joy and a crown! All the more dear and precious, that I had to work and wait seven years before I won her.

C. L. B.

Sçience, Art, and History.


(Continued from p. 447: See Frontispiece, p. 509).

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HE diet of the Bedouins consists of wooden bowl, containing the melted grease of

various kinds of paste, made some- the animal, is put and pressed down in the times of flour and water unleavened, midst of the burgoul, and every morsel is

or of flour and sour camels' milk, dipped into the grease before it is swallowed. or of rice and flour boiled with sweet camels' If a camel should be killed (which rarely hapmilk, or of bread, butter, and dates. Their pens), it is cut into large pieces; some part is bread is of two sorts, both unleavened; it is boiled, and its grease mixed with burgoul; baked in round cakes upon a plate of iron, part is roasted, and, like the boiled, put upon or by spreading out in a circle a great number the dish of burgoul. The whole tribe then of small stones, over which a brisk fire is partakes of the delicious feast. Camels' flesh kindled. When the stones are sufficiently is more esteemed in winter than in summer, heated and swept clean, the paste is spread and the she-camel more than the male. The over them and covered with hot ashes until grease of the camel is kept in goat-skins, and baked. Wheat boiled with leaven and dried, used like butter. and then, after a year's keeping, boiled with The Arabs are rather slovenly in their butter and oil, is a common dish throughout manner of eating; they thrust the whole Syria. This is called burgoul.

hand into the dish before them, shape the For a common guest, bread is baked, and burgoul into balls as large as a hen's egg, served up; if the guest is of some consideration, and thus swallow it. They wash their hands coffee is prepared for him, and behatta, or ftita, or just before dinner, but seldom after, being bread with melted butter. For a man of rank, a content to lick the grease off their fingers, kid or lamb is killed. When this occurs, they and rub their hands upon the leather scabboil the lamb with burgoul and camels' milk, bards of their swords, or clean them with and serve it up in a large wooden dish, round the roffe of the tent. The common hour the edge of which the meat is placed. A of breakfast is about ten o'clock; dinner

or supper is served at sunset. If there is for they have lost much of their excellent plenty of pasture, camels' milk is handed qualities in those parts where they are exposed round after dinner. The Arabs eat heartily, to the continual passage of strangers. Thus, and with much eagerness.

The boiled dish on the pilgrim road, both of the Syrian and set before them being always very hot, it Egyptian caravan, little mercy is ever shown requires some practice to avoid burning one's to hadjys in distress. The hospitality or asfingers, and yet to keep pace with the voracious sistance of the Bedouins in those places can company.

only be purchased by foreigners with money; The women eat in the meharrem what is left and the stories related by pilgrims, even if not of the men's dinner; they seldom are per- exaggerated, would be sufficient to make the mitted to taste any meat, except the head, most impartial judge form a very bad opinion feet, and liver of the lambs.

of Bedouins in general. This is also the case Of the arts but little is known: two or three in Hedjaz, and principally between Mecca and blacksmiths to shoe the horses, and some Medina, where the caravan travellers have as saddlers to mend the leather-work, are the little chance of obtaining anything from the only artists found even in the most numerous hospitality of the Bedouins on the road, as if tribes.

they were among the treacherous inhabitants “An Arab's property,” says Burckhardt, of the Nubian desert. “consists almost wholly in his horses and Yet even in those places a helpless solitary camels. The profits arising from his butter traveller is sure of finding relief; and the imenable him to procure the necessary provisions mense distance of space between Mecca and of wheat and barley, and occasionally a new Damascus is often traversed by a poor single suit of clothes for his wife and daughters. No Syrian, who trusts altogether to Bedouin hosArab family can exist without one camel at pitality for the means of subsistence during least; a man who has but ten is reckoned his journey. Among such poor people as poor; thirty or forty place a man in easy cir- Bedouins generally are, no stronger proof of cumstances; and he who possesses sixty is hospitality can be given than to state that, rich. I once inquired of an Arab in easy

cir- with very few exceptions, a hungry Bedouin cumstances what was the amount of his yearly will always divide his scanty meal with a still expenditure, and he said that in ordinary years more hungry stranger, although he may not he consumed

himself have the means of procuring a supply; Four camel-loads of wheat, piastres 200

nor will he ever let the stranger know how

much he has sacrificed to his necessities. Barley for his mare

100 Clothing for his women and children 200

Somewhat inconsistent with this spirit of Luxuries, as coffee, kammerdin, debs,

hospitality is the inordinate love of gain and tobacco, and half a dozen lambs. 200

money which forms a principal feature in the

Levantine character. This pervades all classes,

700 from the Pasha to the wandering Arab, and piastres, or £35 or £40 sterling."

there are few individuals who, to acquire Wealth, however, among the Arabs is ex- wealth, would not practise the meanest or tremely precarious, and the most rapid changes most illegal act. Thus with the Bedouin, the of fortune are daily experienced. The bold constant object of his mind is gain; interest incursions of robbers, and sudden attacks of appears the motive of all his actions. Lying, hostile parties, reduce, in a few days, the richest cheating, intriguing, and other vices arising man to a state of beggary; and we may ven- from this source, are as prevalent in the ture to say that there are not many fathers of desert as in the market-towns of Syria; and families who have escaped such disasters. on the common occasions of buying and selling

The hospitality of the Bedouin is proverbial. (where his dakheil is not required), the word To be a Bedouin is to be hospitable; his con- of an Arab is not entitled to more credit dition is so intimately connected with hospi. than the oath of a broker in the bazaar of tality, that no circumstances, however urgent Aleppo. and embarrassing, can ever palliate his neglect The Arab displays his manly character when of that social virtue.

he defends his guest at the peril of his own The influx of foreign manners, however, by life, and submits to the reverses of fortune, which no nation has ever benefited, seems to to disappointment and distress, with the most be pernicious in its effects upon the Bedouins, patient resignation. He is, besides, distin.


guished from a Turk by the virtues of pity for news of his tribe and his neighbours, and and of gratitude, which the Turk seldom pos- the politics of the desert are discussed.

The Turk is cruel, the Arab of a more In matters of religion the Bedouins are kind temper; he pities and supports the lax Mohammedans. That peculiar form of wretched, and never forgets the generosity Islamism which was originated in the latter shown to him, even by an enemy.

end of the twelfth century by Abd el Wahab, In his tent, the Arab is most indolent and sought to extend its influence over them. This lazy; his only occupation is feeding the horse, may be described as a Mohammedan puri. or milking the camels in the evening, and he tanism, incorporated with a Bedouin govern. now and then goes to hunt with his hawk. A ment, in which the great chiefs stand forth as man, hired for the purpose, takes care of the political and religious leaders. This system herds and flocks, while the wife and daughters reckoned among its followers some of the perform all the domestic business. They grind Bedouin tribes, who attached themselves to it wheat in the handmill, or pound it in the with a view to the promotion of their own mortar; they prepare the breakfast and dinner; temporal interests. But when its power was knead and bake the bread; make butter, fetch broken by Mohammed Ali Pasha, they forsook water, work at the loom, mend the tent-cover- it, and lapsed into greater irregularities than ing, and are, it must be owned, indefatigable; before. They are described by Burckhardt as while the husband or brother sits before the “the most tolerant of Eastern nations;" yet tent smoking his pipe, or, perceiving that a it would be erroneous to suppose that an stranger has arrived in the camp, by the ex- avowed Christian going among them would traordinary volume of smoke issuing from the be well treated, without some powerful means meharrem (or women's apartment) of the tent, of commanding their services.

They class where the stranger has been received as a Christians with the foreign race of Turks, guest, to that tent he goes, salutes the stranger, whom they despise most heartily. Both Chrisand expects an invitation to dine and drink tians and Turks are treated in a manner coffee with him.

equally unkind, because their skins are fair, The Arabs salute a stranger with the salam and their beards long, and because their cusaleyk !(Peace be with you !) This they ad- toms seem extraordinary; they are also reck. dress even to Christians; if the stranger is an oned effeminate, and much less hardy than old acquaintance, they embrace him; if a great the tawny Bedouin. man, they kiss his beard. When the stranger Those Bedouin sheikhs who are connected bas seated himself upon a carpet (which the with the government towns in the vicinity of host always spreads out for him on his arrival), their tribes, keep up the practice of prayer it is reckoned a tribute of politeness due to whenever they repair to a town, in order to the whole company that he should ask each make themselves respected there. But the individual bow he does. The conversation inferior Arabs will not even take that trouble, then becomes animated; they ask the stranger | and very seldom pray either in or out of town.

C. A. H. B.



NE hot day in the month of June valuable fleeces on record. At length the

a splendid Lincolnshire hogget was shepherd entered the field, and gently drove observed to be greatly oppressed the noble fellow to the fold to be shorn, and

with heat, and being “as silly as a presently he took off his fleece, which proved sheep,” was, of course, continually moving to be a large bundle of fine wool weighing full from place to place-now under the stately twenty pounds. It is the history of this oak, now under the tall chesnut; then to the identical fleece that I am about to give: or shady hedge, and again to the spreading trees; rather I intend to permit the fleece, in as but the more he moved the hotter he grew, till concise a form as possible, to give its own he was wellnigh overcome; and well he might history. be, for he bore upon his back one of the most "I was grown" (said the fleece) “upon the

back of a splendid Lincolnshire hogget sheep, except by the aid of the teeth of my fibres, and was taken off and wound into a fleece on which take hold of the cotton fibre in the pro. or about the 15th of June, 1863. The shepherd cess of weaving, and hold both together, thus who took me from the sheep, spread me out to making a sound and serviceable cloth. my greatest length and breadth; he then tore "In the process of manufacture which I was me into two parts, and, laying one half upon compelled to undergo, I was first submitted to the other, rolled me up compactly. He next the process of dyeing, i.e., made to assume the drew from my midst a sufficient length of my colour I was intended subsequently to wear. wool, which, being twisted, he put round me, I was then most unceremoniously subjected to and tied and tucked me into proper form, pro- what might in some circumstances be called a nouncing me to be one of the finest fleeces, and cruel operation; I was torn bit from bit, till I weighing full twenty pounds. He proudly became separated into very minute portions. placed me in the 'pile.' I was there visited This was done by a machine known as the and admired by several ‘wool buyers :' and scribbler,' which consists of a number of large the pile of wool was at length sold by my wooden cylinders, placed horizontally on a owner for the sum of sixty-three shillings per frame, and almost touching each other, with tod-my own value being taken to be about smaller cylinders placed above them, and also forty-eight shillings upon the day of weighing, nearly touching. To these a rotatory motion is i. e., allowing a trifle for my extra size and given by steam power. These cylinders are quality.

covered with iron teeth, very minute and “I was speedily taken up to what are termed closely set, and slightly bent. They revolve in the manufacturing districts, and consigned to opposite directions, in close contact, so that an intermediate man of business, called a wool. the teeth work against or within each other. stapler, who' assorts' wool, and thus prepares I was put into this machine, and was so torit for the manufacturer. He soon opened me mented and torn to pieces, and transferred out, and with his quick eye and delicate touch from one cylinder to another, that at last I separated me into no less than ten different came forth like a thin flake, of most gauze-like parcels, which he thus designated: the pick- texture, having by this process lost my woolly lock, the prime, the choice, the super, the head, appearance altogether. I was then taken to the downrights, the seconds, the abb, the another tormentor called a 'carder,' having livery, and the breech wool. For all these numerous cylinders, with wires, or teeth, of ‘sorts’ he had separate baskets into which finer texture. I was again subjected to a they were thrown. To my credit be it known, similar process, but more definitely; for I now I was subsequently found, with but trifling

came forth in sm rolls, about thirty inches deduction, in the first four named baskets; so long, and was immediately taken up by children, that, with the exception of small portions of and dexterously put-to, and was joined upon me, that came from the head, legs, breech, &c., the "billy,' a sort of preparatory spinning of the hogget, I was taken for sound good for the spinning machine, technically called wool, and thus offered to the manufacturers. slubbing.'

"I was first bought by a spinner of woollen "In this rough state I was next subjected to yarn, and sold as yarn to a manufacturer of the spinning machine, where I underwent all alpaca cloths. According to my varied quality the turnings and twistings and gradations, I was appropriated—the picklock for the finest from that wondrously ingenious machine, qualities, and so in degree for the other necessary to draw me out into the finest qualities of alpaca cloths. Before, however, and longest yarn, or thread, imaginable. I was put under process of manufacture, an I cannot state, or attempt to calculate, the examination of my qualities took place. It enormous length to which my fibres were was found that it would take above 500 of my drawn out or extended. I, however, can give fibres to cover the diameter of an inch; and some reliable estimate, from what is authenti. the number of serrations or saw-like teeth of cally recorded in the books, of other spinnings, an inch in length of my fibres, would reach and from fibres much like my own. At Norfully 1,860, or nearly 2,000 serrations


wich, many years since, 39,200 yards, or 224 in length. This, I learned, made me miles, were spun from a pound of wool; and valuable in the manufacture to which I was Miss Ives, of Spalding, Lincolnshire, spun now to be appropriated. The cotton admixture 168,000 yards, or about 95} miles, of woollen in these fabrics will not hold well together thread from a pound of wool, from a sheep the


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produce of a Lincoln ewe. This was fifty or shillings per yard, would amount to ninety. sixty years ago. What can be accomplished seven pounds ten shillings; taking off onenow? The quantity of yarn, or thread, spun third for my cotton colleague, just leaves for from my fleece was, I would say, almost in- my manufactured fleece the sum of sixty-five credible.

pounds, which sum has been paid by those who “I was next handed over to the weaver, who, wear me. Of course, it is understood that I being determined to make the most of me, was manufactured into one of the finest made me work up an unusual quantity of varieties of alpaca cloth, or I should not have cotton, so that I was again spread out to a attained such a high price in the original pro. very broad extent; and the quantity of cloth duce market, nor retained it in the retail trade. made by my fibre, or yarn, and the yarns of "I was delighted, in the first instance, my colleague, cotton, was also incredible. The with the favour I received, and the price paid fabric we jointly made, called 'fine alpaca,' for me by the 'wool-buyer'-i.e., forty-eight was three feet wide, and was extended to the shillings; but I never could have conceived extraordinary length of at least six hundred that, by one means or other-call it transmi. and fifty yards. Nor was this the whole of my gration, transformation, or transfiguration - I fleece; for though but little was found in the could ever become of the value of sixty-five "bad baskets,' yet that little sufficed for a few pounds, or, combined with my cotton colleague, socks for the children who so dexterously ninety-seven pounds ten shillings. Little did manipulated me on the billy.'

I think of such a change of state, when I was "Well, I was now embodied into a fine alpaca quietly reposing on and adorning the back of cloth; and as such, it was my lot to be sold to the Lincolnshire hogget; nor could any of the a retail shopkeeper, resident in an old-fashioned eighty or ninety ladies in the quiet old country country town, who introduced me to his town, who at length wore me in all the broad customers as 'the newest thing out; both expanse of crinoline, suppose that they were cheap and good, a substitute for silk as a dress, indebted to one single fleece for all their and not exceeding three shillings per yard.' comeliness and beauty of dress. The thing, This shopkeeper's beautiful fabric was con- incredible as it appears, is, however, founded sidered fashionable. It took; and presently on fact, and I need only refer you to my manuevery lady in the town, together with most of facturer, to testify to the truth of it. If it their grown daughters, were clothed from my had not been for skilled labour and perfected fleece, and that without exhausting his stock. machinery, I should have been confined to the The sum received by this shopkeeper for me, meanest sphere of usefulness; but by such aids would be something like this (for I don't I was enabled to diffuse my native warmth estimate my colleague very highly): The and beauty to almost every family in the oldprice of six hundred and fifty yards, at three fashioned town."

ROM the subversion of the Roman young lady. The better sort of citizens used
Empire to the fourteenth or fifteenth splinters of wood and rags dipped in oil, in-
century, women spent most of their stead of candles, which, in those days, were a

time alone, almost entire strangers rarity hardly to be met with. To ride in a to the joys of social life; they seldom went two-wheeled cart, along the dirty rugged abroad, but to be spectators of such public streets, was reckoned a grandeur of so envi

. diversions and amusements as the fashions of able a nature, that Philip the Fair prohibited the times countenanced. Francis I. was the the wives of citizens from enjoying it. In the first who introduced women on public days to time of Henry VIII. of England, the peers of Court. In the thirteenth and fourteenth cen. the realm carried their wives behind them on turies, the use of linen was not known; and horseback, when they went to London; and the most delicate of the fair sex wore woollen in the same manner took them back to their shifts. In Paris they had meat only three country seats, with hoods of waxed linen over times a week; and one hundred livres (about their heads, and wrapped in mantles of cloth five pounds sterling) was a large portion for a to secure them from the cold,

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