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S¢ience, Art

, and History.

THE HA VANA.

(See Frontispiece, p. 621.)

HE island of Cuba was discovered by slaves, divided into nearly equal proportions. Columbus in the year 1492, but it did The Havana, or the Havannah, which in Spanish not submit to the jurisdiction of (Habana) signifies "the harbour," is the capital

Spain till 1511. In the year 1762 it of the island. It is situated on the north was captured by the British, but restored to coast, at the mouth of the river Lagida. Our the Spaniards again in the following year. In Frontispiece gives a view of the entrance to the 1850 and 1851 a band of United States' ad. harbour, which is one of the best in the world. venturers made piratical attempts upon the It is capable of holding commodiously one island ; but they were repulsed, and their thousand ships : but has so narrow a channel, leader, Marasso Lopez, executed.

that only one vessel can enter at a time. This Cuba is the largest of the West Indian channel is strongly fortified; the city is also islands, and is situated at the entrance of the surmounted with works, all furnished with Gulf of Mexico. It is about double the length heavy artillery. A square citadel of great of England, with a varying breadth of from strength is erected near the centre of the seventy-four to one hundred and thirty miles. town; and here is the captain-general's palace, Its area, including its dependent islands, is where the treasure is deposited. The city about 33,000 square miles. A chain of moun. contains a number of fine churches, two tains extends from east to west along the whole hospitals, a dockyard, lazaretto, and numerous length of the island, and divides it into two public buildings. An aqueduct supplies the parts. In the south-east these mountains at- shipping with water, and turns the saw-mills tain an elevation of about 6,900 feet above the in the dockyard. The town stands in a plain level of the sea. Great fertility, however, on the west side of the harbour ; and the exists in the valleys, and the sides of many houses, which are elegant, are mostly of stone. parts of the mountains are covered with dense The great square is a fine ornament of the forests. The huita, a kind of rat, is the only place. The cigars which are manufactured indigenous quadruped; but amphibious reptiles, here, and bear the name of the city, are cele as the alligator, tortoise, and serpents, abound. brated throughout the world. The manufacBirds are numerous, and rich in their plumage; tures also include chocolate, straw hats, and whilst the rivers and coasts are well supplied woollen fabrics. The trade of the port is with fish. The productions of the island chiefly carried on with the United States, Great include ginger, long pepper, and other spices Britain, Germany, and Spain. The population in abundance; aloes, mastic, cassia, manioc, is about 130,000, of whom half are slares. The maize, cocoa, potatoes, yams, and bananas. city has been frequently attacked: it was taken Tobacco grows to great perfection; also sugar, in 1536 by a French pirate, but ransomed for coffee, cotton, and indigo. In the plains large seven hundred dollars. It was subsequently flocks of cattle are reared. The population is taken by the English, by the French, and by the estimated at 1,000,000, of whom about a fifth buccaneers. In 1762 the British took possession are whites, and the rest free coloured and of it, but restored it in 1763.

OLD OLOTHES

HEN the hawker working the sub- restore as far as possible the garments to their

urban district comes by with his pristine appearance; black cloth garments barrow blooming with flowers, and pass into the hands of the “revivers," who

petitioning for old clothes, old hats, rejuvenate seedy black coats, and, for the and old boots, &c., in exchange for them, the moment, make them look as good as new. bargain seems so one-sided that most people The “translator's” duty is of a higher order; are only too glad to begin the barter. We all his office is to transform one garment into get so sick of frowsy old clothes, that it seems another—the skirts of a cast-off coat, being almost a mercy to get rid of them at any price; the least worn part of the garment, make but to be able to translate them into geraniums capital waistcoats and tunics for children, &c. and fuchsias, &c., to exchange musty, fusty Hats are revived in a still more wonderful gabardines for fresh odours and rainbow hues, manner; they are cut down to take out the is more than anybody ever expected to do. grease marks, relined, and appear in the shops

The coster who initiated this subtle method like new ones. The streets surrounding the of weeding our wardrobes must have had a old clothes' market are full of shops where special insight into female character, ever these “clobbered” and “revived” goods are ready to exchange the solid and useful for the exposed for sale; and really a stranger to the brightly decorative-at all events, this almost trade would not know but that they were new poetical method of filling old clothes' bags goods. There is a department of the market deserves to be mentioned as one of the most itself also dedicated to old clothes, male and abundant means of building up a trade which female, “clobbered” and “revived." It is a has now assumed enormous proportions. The touching sight to see the class of persons who great dealers into whose hands our cast-off frequent the men's market, and turn over the skins ultimately fall bave arrived at the digni- seedy black garments that are doing their best fied position of merchants. The value of their to put on a good appearance-the toilworn exports to foreign countries makes no incon. clerks, who for some social reason are expected siderable item in our annual trade returns. to apparel themselves in black, and the equally The streams of old clothes that hour by hour careworn members of the clerical profession, are seductively drained, either by floral ex- chiefly curates, whose meagre stipends do not change, attractive advertisement, or by the permit of the extravagance of new suits of downright pestering of “Old Ikeys," cul- clothes. minate in the great old clothes’mart in Hounds- The ladies' market is a vast wardrobe of silk ditch, where Hebrews most do congregate. dresses, but if we are to believe the saleswoman,

This inodorous spot has been so often de- the matrons of England are more thrifty than scribed in popular works, that people are now we gave them credit for. “ Servants come pretty familiar with it, by name at least. But here to purchase, sir! No, indeed, sir, ladies having described the fierce contest which en- worth hundreds of pounds," was the reply we sues over the mounds of old clothes therein got to our inquiries as to the class of pur. daily deposited, our social statisticians seem to chasers. Black cloth clothes that are too far have had enough of them, and have proceeded gone to be “clobbered” and “revived,” are no further. But the true interest in the story always sent abroad to be cut up to make caps. of old clothes begins just at the point where France takes the best of these old clothes for they leave off. To the question of what be- this purpose. The linings are stripped out, comes of them, we might answer that the and in this condition they are admitted duty greater part of them are now about to set out free as old rags. Russia and Poland, where upon their travels, to enter new circles of caps seem to be universally worn by the work. society, and to see life, both savage and civi- ing population, are content with still more lized, under a thousand new phases.

threadbare garments to be cut up for this Those that are intended to remain in this purpose. country have to be tutored and transformed. The great bulk of our cast-off clothes of all The "clobberer,” the “reviver,” and the “trans- kinds, however, find their way to two markets lator” lay hands upon them. The duty of the - Ireland and Holland. The old clothes' bags "clobberer" is to patch, to sew up, and to of the collectors may, in fact, be said to be emptied out in the land of Erin, as far as the hats, as regularly to them as a London tailor ordinary order of clothes go, while to Holland sends his clothes to his country customers. only special articles of apparel are exported. And Mumbo Jumbo will not be put off with Singularly enough, the destination of the red inferior articles; the slightest blemish in colour tunics of the whole British infantry is the or inferiority in cloth is instantly detected and chest of the sturdy Dutchman. There seems rejected by these semi-savages; hence the to be some popular belief or superstition in greatest care is necessary in catering for their that waterlogged country that red cloth affords wants. the best protection against rheumatism; con. It is just possible that the Lord Mayors for sequently these jackets all find their way to these last dozen years would be able to recog. the land of dykes. The sleeves are cut off, nise their own splendid liveries on the backs of and they are made to button in a double- a council of these potentates if they could ever breasted fashion ; thus remodelled, they are be got together for any purpose whatever. We worn next to the skin like a flannel waist- ourselves saw an assortment of well-preserved coat by all careful Dutchmen among the liveries of the heir to the proudest throne in labouring classes.

the world just being packed for exportation to The Irish chiefly favour corduroys, and we the grand destination of all fine liveries we suspect the worn-out legs of British pantaloons have just mentioned. It should be some solace of this material are cut off, and converted into to the parish beadle that his clothes, instead of breeches for Pat. Where he gets those wonder. descending in the social scale like those of ful swallow-tailed coats with brass buttons is a ordinary civilians, are destined to flame upon puzzle to all the dealers; it is very certain they the back of some autocrat who holds the lives do not come from this side of the Channel, and of thousands of men at his disposal, instead of it is equally clear they are remnants of cos- only being the emblems of terror to poor tume two generations back.

parish boys. Our readers will perhaps have noticed the The vast majority of the scarlet coats of our special avidity the dealers in old clothes evince officers that are a little worn, find their way to for all kinds of regimentals, full-dress liveries, the great annual fair at Leipsic. There is a belief Volunteers' uniforms, beadles' coats, &c. Any. in the trade that the destination of this bright thing specially splendid in this line is marked scarlet cloth is the cuffs and facings of the by the collectors as a sportsman marks any

civil officials in the Russian Government. Howrare and brilliantly plumaged bird, and ulti- ever this may be, the fact of second-hand regi. mately it is sure to be bagged by them. One mentals finding their way to the great German of the largest dealers in London in these showy fair is undoubted. The pepper-and-salt greatdresses once said to us, seeing a Guardsman coats of our infantry go to our agricultural going along the street, -—“ A thousand to one districts and to the Cape, but the heavier and that coat comes into my hands.” Really more valuable artillery cloaks find their way to the inevitability there appears to be about the Holland; and that country and Ireland absorb destination of these regimentals, if known to between them the cast-off clothes of the police. their wearers, should make them very uncom- There is one odd item of old clothes that has fortable. The dealers would, if they could, a singular history. There is still a certain strip them off their backs just as an eel-woman class in the community addicted to the use of skins an eеl. A Lord Mayor's footman's full- silk-velvet waistcoats. This class is generally dress livery is viewed by these gentry with to be found among the well-to-do tradesmen of wolfish eyes. These are the great prizes of country towns. The longevity of a black silk the profession--and their baz baric splendours velvet waistcoat is proverbial; it will not wear are destined for a special market--the South out. After adorning the respectable corporaCoast of Africa, where nature puts on her most tion of some provincial grocer until he is gorgeous apparel, and the great ones of the thoroughly tired of it, what does our reader land are determined to have something to think is its ultimate destination--the pate of match. Travellers often tell us of the mar- some German or Polish Jew! In obedience to vellous appearance of the chiefs of these parts a Rabbinical law, it is not considered right by when in full mufti; but we scarcely expected some of the more conscientious Hebrews to go to find our old clothes' dealers the regular uncovered, and these second-hand waistcoats costumiers of these sable dignitaries, transmit- are bought up to make skull-caps for their ting regimentals, laced liveries, and cocked

use.

But old clothes, after they have served the the woollen manufactures of this country. purposes of two or three classes of society, are Here is a grand transformation. No man can yet far from closing their career; when they say that the materials of the coat he is wearing have seen their worst, they take altogether a has not been already on the back of some greasy new lease of existence. As old Jason was beggar. In one corner of the “animal pro. renewed, in ancient story, by being ground in ducts department” in the South Kensington a mill, so are our garments in the present day. Museum, the visitor can see hundreds of speci. When old clothes are too bad for anything else, mens of this shoddy and mungo-a perfect they are still good enough for Shoddy and resurrection of the old clothes from every Mungo. Batley, Dewsbury, and Leeds, have country in Europe. The cast-off wardrobes of been described as the grand centres of woollen civilized man by a law of commerce are sucked rags—the tatterdemalion capitals, into which into this country, and mainly into this me. are drawn all the greasy, frowsy, cast-off tropolis, and in return we distribute it in perclothes of Europe, and whence issue the pilot fect fabrics, destined to go once more the round cloths, the Petershams, the beavers, the Tal- of civilization; woollen fabrics are hard to die, mas, the Chesterfields, and the Mohairs in and, for all we know, clothes are thus ground which our modern dandies disport themselves. up over and over again.

The old rags, after being reduced to the con- The final destination, however, of all old dition of wool by enormous toothed wheels, are

clothes is the soil; when art can do no more mixed with a varying amount of fresh wool, for much-vexed woollen fibre it becomes a land and the whole is then worked up into the rag, and here as a manure it yields its final fabrics we have mentioned, which now have service, aiding in the production of food for the run of fashion. It is estimated that Shoddy the veritable body which it once clothed. and Mungo supply the materials for a third of

T.

THE HOUR-GLASS.
HE use of the Hour-glass can be traced

church wardens' books of St. Helen's, Abingto ancient Greece. In Christie's Greek don, date 1599, is a charge of fourpence for an

Vases, one is engraved from a scarabæus hour-glass for the pulpit; in 1564 we find in of sardonyx, in the Towneley collection: it is the books of St. Katherine's, Christ Church, exactly like the modern hour-glass.

Aldgate, “paid for an hour-glass that hangeth Bloomfield, in one of his rural tales, “The by the pulpit when the preacher doth make a Widow to her Hour-glass,” sings :

sermon, that he may know how the hour

passeth away-one shilling;” and in the books “I've often watched thy streaming sand,

of St. Mary's, Lambeth, 1579 and 1615, are And seen the growing mountain rise,

similar entries. Butler, in “ Hudibras," alludes And often found life's hope to stand On props as weak in wisdom's eyes :

to pulpit hour-glasses having been used by the Its conic crown

Puritans: the preacher having named the text, Still sliding down,

turned up the glass; and if the sermon did not Again heaped up, then down again :

last till the sand was out, it was said by the The sand above more hollow grew,

congregation that the preacher was lazy; but Like days and years still filtering through, if, on the other hand, he continued much longer, And mingling joy and pain."

they would yawn and stretch till the discourse

was finished. At the old church of St. DunstanThe Hour-glass has almost entirely given in-the-West, Fleet Street, was a large hourplace to the more useful, because to a greater glass in a silver frame, of which latter, when extent self-acting, instrument; and it is now the instrument was taken down, in 1723, two seldom seen except upon the table of the heads were made for the parish staves. Holecturer or private teacher, in the study of the garth, in his "Sleepy Congregation," has inphilosopher, in the cottage of the peasant, or troduced an hour-glass on the west side of the in the hand of the old emblematic figure of pulpit. A very perfect hour-glass is preserved Time. We still sometimes see it in the work- in the church of St. Alban, Wood Street, Cheapshop of the cork-cutter. The half-minute glass side; it is placed on the right of the reading. is still employed on board ship; and the two desk within a frame of twisted columns and and a half or three minute glass for boiling an arches, supported on a spiral column: the four egg with exactness,

sides have angels sounding trumpets; and each Preaching by the Hour-glass was formerly end has a line of crosses patées and fleurs-decommon; and public speakers are timed, in lis, somewhat resembling the imperial crown. the present day, by the same means. In the

JOHN TIMBS, F.S.A.

Leaves fromthe Book of Nature: Descriptive Narrative, &t.

SHELLS.

as

HE Carinaria form a remarkable group

of mollusca. They were formerly known to collectors Venus's

Slipper and the Glass Nautilus. The body of the animal is sub-cylindrical, elongated, transparent, dotted with elevated points, prolonged posteriorly, and furnished towards the upper part of its extremity with a sort of fin, which performs the part of a rudder. A reddish, thin, compressed, semicircular fin, beautifully reticulated, and furnished with a kind of sucker, rises from the belly, nearly opposite to the point on the back occupied by the shell; and with the aid of this fin it floats along. The head is capable of contraction within the body, and is provided with a retractile proboscis.

Other varieties of shells are remarkable in a different way. Some are very large in size. As an example of this we may mention those which have been made to form fonts in one of the churches in Paris. Speaking of one of these, the eminent naturalist, Dr. Johnstone, says :

· When shrunk within its shell you might well deem any animal that could hide itself there, all too small and weak to carry about a burden larger and heavier than itself; and that safety might be here advantageously exchanged for relief from so much heaviness of armour,

and from such an impediment to every journey. There is in my cabinet a fine specimen of Cassis tuberosa, which measures fully ten inches in length, and upwards of eight in breadth; another of Strombus gigas, is nearly one foot in length.

“ Yet,” continues this distinguished natu. ralist, “though the weight of the former, the Cassis tuberosa-is four pounds, two ounces, and that of the latter-the Strombus gigas—is four pounds, nine ounces, the mollusc creeps under this load with apparent ease. Nor are you much surprised when you see it actually in motion, for the seeming disproportion between the contained animal and containing shell has disappeared.

“On issuing from his shell, like eastern genii freed from their exorcism, the animal has grown visibly–has assumed a portlier size and more pedestrious figure. The body has sud. denly become tumid and elastic, the skin and exterior organs stretched and displayed; the foot has grown in length and in breadth, and, with additional firmness, it has acquired the capability of being directed, bent and modified in shape to a considerable degree, as the surface of the road traversed may require.”

Examples of shelled creatures will be found in the annexed engraving.

66

A THOUSAND AND ONE STORIES FROM NATURE.

ORIGINAL AND SELECTED.

BY THE REV. F. 0. MORRIS, B.A., RECTOR OF NUNBURNHOLME, YORKSHIRE, AND CHAPLAIN TO HIS GRACE
THE DUKE OF CLEVELAND, AUTHOR OF A “HISTORY OF BRITISH BIRDS (DEDICATED BY PERMISSION

TO HER MAJESTY TUE QUEEN), ETC., ETC.
THE Dog.

&c., she went and buried it, intending to disCXX.

cuss it gastronomically at a more convenient We had a pointer in the country, some years season, or preparing for an evil day. As the ago, which exhibited many most interesting dog grew old, this habit increased upon her, traits of instinct. She was fed regularly at but without the corresponding good memory certain periods, but it frequently happened so that frequently after she was dead, the that she obtained food in the interval unknown gardener would dig up large pieces of bread, to us in the field, and was disinclined to eat. mouldy and black, which she had interred She used to watch her opportunity, and if the months before. meat was in a solid form, such as bread, bones, Jess (for such was her name), though a

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