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Mr. FLORIO. I would just quote at this point a significant paragraph. It says:
During the last legislative sessions three additional States passed laws requiring a 21-year minimum drinking age for all alcoholic beverages. The total number of such States with a law of that type is now 19. The lack of uniformity among State laws is especially critical regarding the minimum legal drinking age because the incentive to drink and drive is established due to young persons commuting to border States where the drinking age is lower. There is simply no way to adequately address the needless tragedies caused by young persons commuting to border States without establishing a uniform drinking age among States. In order to reduce the death rate of American young people, the minimum legal age for all alcoholic beverages should be raised to 21.
I think that very succinctly states the most forceful argument for having the uniformity rather than have to try to deal with this whole problem on a State-by-State basis.
The last point that I would like to raise is this question about the insurance study that has been done by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, which is a very significant piece of work, and we will be hearing, I understand, from representatives at our next hearing, and I would like to ask unanimous consent that the report be included in the record, and without objection, that is so ordered.
[Additional materials submitted with this study may be found with the statement of Ben Kelley and Allan Williams, held on October 19, 1983, as the second day of this hearing.)
[The material referred to follows:]
Death and the Legal Drinking Age:
A Tri-State Study
Michael M. Birkley
Changes in highway crash involvement among drivers affected by raising the legal drinking age in Michigan and Illinois were compared with crash experiences among the same driver age group in Wisconsin, which retained 18 as the legal drinking age throughout the study period. In each of the states studied, crashes involving 18-20 year-old drivers decreased relative to those involving the next older age group, 21-24 , during the study period. Reductions in alcohol-related highway crashes involving 18-20 year-old Wisconsin drivers (14.4%-28.6%) exceeded those for drivers of the same age subsequent to raising the age in Michigan (17.7%) and 11linois (8.8%). Chances for reductions of this magnitude occuring without intervention range from .05 (5 in 100) to .001 (i in 1,000), supporting the conclusion that the change in Wisconsin, and the changes in Michigan and Illinois are not due to chance fluctuation, or changing the legal drinking age, but to changes in other influences on younger drivers' drinking and driving behaviors. Although there clearly is a compelling public purpose to be served by reducing the incidence of alcohol-related highway crashes among young people, the results of this study do not support the proposition that rescinding the legal drinking priveleges of 18, 19, or 20 year-old adults is an appropriate or effective mechanism for accomplishing that public purpose.