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British Sion ;-as long as the British as showing that Burke, because neglimonarchy, not more limited than fenc- gent of trivial inaccuracies, was not at ed by the orders of the state, shall, all the less anxious about the larger like the proud Keep of Windsor, risa proprieties and decorums; [for this ing in the majesty of proportion, and passage, confessedly so labored, has girt with the double belt of its kin- several instances of slovenliness in tridred and coeval towers, as long as this files ;] and that, in the midst of his awful structure shall oversee and apparent hurry, he carried out a jeaguard the subjected land-so long the lous vigilance upon what he wrote, and mounds and dykes of the low, fat, the eye of a person practised in artiBedford level* will have nothing to ficial effects. fear from all the pickaxes of all the An ally of Burke's upon East Inlevellers of France. As long as our dian politics, ought to have a few words sovereign lord the king, and his faith- of notice, not so much for any power ful subjects the lords and commons of that he actually had as a rhetorician, this realm, the triple cord which no but because he is sometimes reputed man can break; the solemn sworn such. This was Sir Philip Francis, constitutional frank pledge of this na- who, under his early disguise of Jution; the firm guarantees of each other's nius, had such a success as no writer of being, and each other's rights; the joint libels ever will have again. It is our and several securities, each in its place private opinion, that this success restand order for every kind and every qua- ed upon a great delusion which has lity of property and of dignity,-as long never been exposed. The general as these endure, so long the Duke of belief is—that Junius was read for Bedford is safe ; and we are all safe his elegance; we believe no such together;—the high from the blights thing. The pen of an angel would of envy, and the spoliation of rapacity; not, upon such a theme as personal the low from the iron hand of oppres- politics, have upheld the interest atsion, and the insolent spurn of con- tached to Junius, had there been no tempt. Amen! and so be it : and so other cause in coöperation. Lanit will be,
guage, after all, is a limited instrument, • Dum domus Æneæ Capitoli immobile
and it must be remembered that Jusaxum
nius, by the extreme narrowness of his Accolet ; imperiumque pater Romanus ha- range, which went entirely upon mat
ters of fact, and personal interests, This was the sounding passage still further limited the compass of which Burke alleged as the chef that limited instrument. For it is d'œuvre of his rhetoric ; and the ar- only in the expression and managegument, upon which he justified his ment of general ideas, that any room choice, is specious—if not convincing. arises for conspicuous elegance. He laid it down as a maxim of com- The real truth is this : the interest in position, that every passage in a rheto- Junius travelled downwards ; he was rical performance, which was brought read in the lower ranks, because in forward prominently, and relied upon London it speedily became known that as a key (to use the language of war) he was read with peculiar interest in in sustaining the inain position of the the highest. This was already a writer, ought to involve a thought, an marvel ; for newspaper patriots, under image, and a sentiment : and such a the signatures of Publicola, Brutus, synthesis he found in the passage and so forth, had become a jest and a which we have quoted. This criti- by-word to the real, practical statescism, over and above the pleasure man; and any man at leisure to write which it always gives to hear a great for so disinterested a purpose as “his man's opinion of himself, is valuable, country's good,” was presumed, of
* Bedford level, a rich tract of land so called in Bedfordshire.
course, to write in a garret. But is a standing enigma. One talent, unhere for the first time a pretended doubtedly, he had in a rare perfecpatriot, a Junius Brutus, was antici- tion—the talent of sarcasm. He stung pated with anxiety, and read with agi- like a scorpion. But, besides that tation. Is any man simple enough to such a talent has a narrow application, believe that such a contagion could an interest of personality cannot be extend to cabinet ministers, and offi- other than fugitive, take what direccial persons overladen with public bu- tion it may; and malignity cannot siness, on so feeble an excitement as a embalm itself in materials that are little reputation in the art of con- themselves perishable. Such were structing sentences with elegance; an the materials of Junius. His vaunted elegance which, after all, excluded elegance was, in a great measure, the eloquence and every other positive gift of his subject : general terseness, quality of excellence? That this can short sentences, and a careful avoidhave been believed, shows the readi- ing of all awkwardness of construcness with which men swallow marvels. tion—these were his advantages. And The real secret was this ;-Junius was from these he would have been disread with the profoundest interest by lodged by a higher subject, or one members of the cabinet, who would that would have forced him out into a not have paid half a crown for all the wider compass of thought. Rhetoriwit and elegance of this world, simply cian he was none, though he has often because it was most evident that some been treated as such ; for, without traitor was amongst them; and that sentiment, without imagery, without either directly by one of themselves, generalization, how should it be posor through some abuse of his confi- sible for rhetoric to subsist? It is an dence by a servant, the secrets of of- absolute fact, that Junius has not one fice were betrayed. The circum- principle, aphorism, or remark of a stances of this breach of trust are now general nature in his whole armoryfully known; and it is readily under- not in a solitary instance did his barstood why letters, which were the ren understanding ascend to an abchannel for those perfidies, should in- straction, or general idea, but lingered terest the ministry of that day in the forever in the dust and rubbish of deepest degree. The existence of individuality, amongst the tangible resuch an interest, but not its cause, alities of things and persons. Hence, had immediately become known: it the peculiar absurdity of that hypodescended, as might be expected, thesis which discovered Junius in the amongst all classes : once excited, it person of Burke. The opposition seemed to be justified by the real was here too pointedly ludicrous bemerits of the letters; which merit tween Burke, who exalted the merest again, illustrated by its effects, appear- personal themes into the dignity of ed a thousand times greater than it philosophic speculations, and Junius, was ; and finally, this interest was in whose hands the very loftiest dwinheightened and sustained by the mys- dled into questions of person and tery which invested the author. How party. much that mystery availed in keeping Last of the family of rhetoricians, alive the reputation of Junius, is clear and in a form of rhetoric as florid as from this fact, that, since the detec- the age could bear, came Mr. Cantion of Junius, the Letters have much ning. “Sufficit,” says a Roman audeclined in popularity ; and orna- thor, “ in una civitate esse unum rhemented editions of them are no longer torem." But, if more were in his the saleable article which they were age unnecessary, in ours they would some years ago.
have been intolerable. Three or four In fact, upon any other principle, Mr. Cannings would have been found the continued triumph of Junius, and a nuisance : indeed, the very admirabis establishment as a classical author, tion which crowned his great displays,
manifested of itself the unsuitableness stamped upon his manner, agreeable of his style to the atmosphere of pub- rather to his original character, than lic affairs ; for it was of that kind to the wrench which it had received which is offered to a young lady rising from an ambition resting too much on from a brilliant performance on the mere personal merits. Wbat a pity pianoforte. Something, undoubtedly, that this “ gay creature of the elethere was of too juvenile an air, too ments" had not taken his place congaudy a Autter of plumage, in Mr. tentedly, where nature had assigned Canning's more solemn exhibitions ; it, as one of the ornamental performbut much indulgence was reasonably ers of the time! His station was extended to a man, who, in his class, with the lilies of the field, which toil was so complete. He was formed for not, neither do they spin. He should winning a favorable attention by every have thrown himself upon the admirspecies of popular fascination : to the ing sympathies of the world as the eye he recommended himself almost most dazzling of rhetorical artists, as much as the Bolingbroke of a cen- rather than have challenged their antury before : his voice, and his man- gry passions in a vulgar scuffle for agement of it, were no less pleasing : power. In that case he would have and upon him, as upon St. John, the been alive at this hour—he would air of a gentleman sate with a native have had a perpetuity of that admiragrace. Scholarship and literature, as tion which to him was as the breath far as they belong to the accomplish- of his nostrils ; and would not, by ments of a gentleman, he too brought forcing the character of rhetorician forward in the most graceful manner: into an incongruous alliance with that and, above all, there was an impres- of trading politician, have run the risk sion of honor, generosity, and candor, of making both ridiculous.
BREAKING THE SPELL.
In many of the more upland and se- of this inveterate superstition is the cluded parts of the south of Scotland existence and extensive circulation of the belief in witches still prevails, and a very foolish book among the peanot many years have elapsed since it santry ; this book is entitled “ Satan's was universal. The continuation of Invisible World discovered ;" and it such a belief among a people who are has other faults besides the cento of shrewd and intelligent, is partly owing diablery which it narrates and deto two causes ; the first of these is the scribes as established facts. literal meaning they attach to the in- One of the places where, if not cantations of the Witch of Endor, now, at least very lately, the witches mentioned in the first book of Samuel, had free range, was on the Lammerand the effect that they had in bring. muir hills, between the counties of ing up that prophet from the dead to East Lothian and Berwick. The inreprove the King of Israel. Finding habitants there are a detached and a this in the Bible, and not being able singular people ; they are shepherds, to see the difference between an alle- several of them proprietors of their gory and a simple invention, they be. sheep walks ; their manners are prilieve it literally; and when one witch mitive-Anglicè, they are very dirty. is firmly believed in, there is no pos- They hang up the carcasses of the sibility of closing the door upon other casualty sheep in the turf-smoke of witches. So dangerous is supersti.. the hut, and tear off a piece when tion, that if people believe one thing they are hungry. In the adjoining without, or contrary to, rational evi- Lowlands, the men are called “ Lamdence, they cannot prevent themselves mermuir lairds," the women “Lamfrom believing more. The other cause mermuir ladies," and the sheep “ Lam
mermuir lions,” which latter name is Accordingly, Betty put on her best, applied to persons wanting in cou- got her nicest basket, Jaid a couple of rage, who are said to be « as bold as bottles of her choicest brandy in the Lammermuir lions.”
bottom, and over them a dozen or At certain seasons of the year, the two of her freshest eggs; and thus Lammermuir ladies come to the fairs freighted, she fidgeted off to the to dispose of the wool of the flocks, manse, offered her peace-offering, and and purchase the few simple necessa- hinted that she wished to speak with ries that they may want for their rude his Reverence in “preevat.” households; and from the singularity “What is your will, Betty ?" said of their appearance and costuine they the minister of Dunse. “An unco are, or were very lately, all elevated uncanny mishap,” replied the tapto the honor of witchcraft. This is ster's wife. contrary to the usual dispensations of “Has Mattie not been behaving ?” that honor, which requires some talent said the minister. “Like an innocent as well as irregularity of appearance, lamb," quoth Betty Falla. while these people are, in all but pas. " Then ?" said the minister, toral matters, ignorance itself. About lacking the rest of the query. “ Anent twenty years ago, we were driven to the yill,” said Betty. take shelter in the mansion of a Lam- " The ale !” said the minister, Ipermuir laird, and he tried to impress “ has anybody been drinking and reus with a sense of his erudition, by fused to pay ?” bolding the shorter catechism, which « Na," said Betty, “they winna appeared to belong to one of his drink a drap.” children, with the wrong end to him, “And would you have me to enand rehearsing the sounds“ multe A, courage the sin of drunkenness ?” crooked s, ypersie &," with as much asked the minister. solemnity as ever author read his ma- “Na, na,” said Betty, “ far frae nuscript to a bookseller, when a bar- that; I only want your kin' han' to gain and sale depended upon his or- get in yill again as they can drink.” thoepy.
“ I am no brewer, Betty," said the A widow of the name of Betty minister gravely. Falla kept an alehouse in one of the “Gude forfend, Sir,” said Betty, market-towns frequented by the Lam- «that the like o' you should be evenmermuir ladies, (Dunse, we believe,) ed to the gyle tub. I dinna wish for and a number of them used to lodge onything o' the kind.” at her house during the fair. One - Then what is the matter ?” askyear Betty's ale turned sour soon after ed the minister. the fair; there had been a thunder - It's witched, clean witched, as storm in the interim, and Betty's ale sure as I'm a born woman,” said was, as they say in that country, Betty ; “ naebody else will drink it, “ strongest in the water.” Betty did an' I canna drink it mysel'.” not understand the first of these causes, “ You must not be superstitious, and she did not wish to understand Betty," said the ininister.-" I'm no the latter. The ale was not palata- onything o' the kin',” said Betty, ble ; and Betty brewed again to the coloring, “an' ye ken it yoursel’; but same strength of water. Again it twa brousts wadna be vinegar for thundered ; and again the swipes be- naething." (She lowered her voice) came vinegar. Betty was at her wits' " Ye mun ken, sir, that o' a' the ledend,-no long journey ; but she was dies frae the Lammermuir, that hae breathless.
been comin' and gaen, there was an Having got to her own wits' end, auld rudas wife this fair, an' I'm cerBetty naturally wished to draw upon tie she's witched the yill; and ye the stock of another; and where mun just look into ye'r buiks, an' tak should she find it in such abundance off the witchin'!” as with the minister of the parish. “ When do you brew, Betty ?”
“ This blessed day gin it like you, pli's name put in three shoolfu's of Sir."
malt; and when you have done that, " Then, Betty, here is the thing go three times round the vat, against you want : The same malt and water the sun, and, in the devil's name, take as usual- "
out three bucketfuls of water; and “Nae difference, Sir?”
take my word for it, the ale will be " Then when you have put the better." water to the malt, go three times ~ Thanks to your Reverence ; gude round the vat, with the sun, and in mornin'."
THE IMAGE OF THE DEAD.
BY MRS. HEMANS.
_“ True indeed it is
Nor falsehood disavow."-Byron.
I call thee blest !—though now the voice be fled,
Whicb to thy soul brought dayspring with its tone,
Far through thy breast :
Or changed in every chord since He is gone,
I call thec blest.
As mid the waste an Isle of Founi and Palm,
'Tis thine, all thine!
From weary words, cold greetings, heartless eyes,
In its own shrine.
To reach that Temple of the Past ;-no sway
From its hush'd air.
Sole thing whereon a deathless love may rest,
If only there!
Never to fade !-a refuge from distrust,
With flowers divine.