Imágenes de páginas

ent quantity of milk, and a small piece of butter, until the beverage assumes a chocolate colour, which it receives from the colouring matter of the husks. The liquor should be then strained through gauze, sweetened till palatable, and brought to table for use. I have drank it thus made, except that it was unstrained; and though I could perceive no taste resembling chocolate, yet it was a beverage quite savoury and pleasant. To make four pints of a pleasant, nutritious, and, I presume, a wholesome beverage, to serve as an economical article of diet, in lieu of chocolate, tea, or coffee, the expense may be calculated as follows, viz. cents. For 4 oz. of the chocolate-meal (or flour made from the seed of the Holcus bicolor, at 5cts. per lb.) 14 23 ditto of sugar, at 16 cts. per b. 23 1 ditto of butter, at 20 cts. per lb. 14

1 pint of milk, at . . . . . . 3 3 pints of water . . . . . . 0 8

The proportions of the several articles here mentioned are to be boiled together, and in such quantities as may be required. When sufficiently boiled, and just before it is taken from the fire, the butter is to be well stirred up with the boiling liquor—it is then fit for use. The proportions of the materials may be varied, so as to suit different palates ; but the above are agreeable to the directions given to Mr. William Barton, by the person who furnished him with the seed.—“In makin the experiment with the Holcus in my family,” says Mr. Barton; “the seed were ground in a common coffee-mill; but as they could not be ground fine enough in this way, nor their farina be sufficiently disengaged from its integument or husk, too much of a coarse bran was deposited in the liquor, after boiling. The kind of grinding performed by the trituration of mill-stones would make a better meal; and I should much prefer bolting it, after being ground in a proper corn-mill, to straining the liquor when boiled, in order to separate the coarsest of the bran from §. of the seed.” The plant in question resembles common broom corn very much. It is eight or ten feet in height—is an annual, of rapid wth—and requires no particular care in its cultivation. The leaves are long, channelled, nerved, and sheathing the stem. The fruit, and, of course, the inflorescence, which I have not seen, is borne in a terminal, close and compact panicle, of an oblong-ovate form; in this

respect differing widely from sorghum saccharatum, or common broom, the pannicle of which is diffuse and spreading. It differs also from the broom in the colour of the husks, they being in the chocolue broom (for so I shall call the plant in question in want of a better name) of a deep shining black colour, and glabrous; and in the common broom of a reddishbrown hue, and pubescent, sometimes even hairy. The seeds are white, roundish, and hard, enclosed in shining black husks. Holcus bicolor is a native of Persia. It is unqestionably not a native of any part of the United States, or even of North America; though Prush says, that sorghum saccharatum, which is nearly allied to it, is

sometimes found wild in our country.

This plant thrives perfectly well in Lancaster county; and will, probably, grow equally well in most parts of the United States. I conjecture, from its appearance, that, when mature, a single stalk will yield about a pint of seed. I will attempt an estimate, then, of the quantity of seed that may be procured from one acre of ground, planted with the Holcus; by which it will appear, that it is not an unprofitable product.

Supposing an acre planted in rows or lines, three feet apart, so as to produce one stalk only in a hill,—and at the same distance from one another, along each row ;-the number of plants will, in this case, be 4840; and calculating that each plant will yield a pint of seed, the product of an acre will be 75; bushels. I have no means of ascertaining, just now, what quantity of meal (or flour) could be made from a bushel of seed, on separating the farinaceous parts from the rest, by grinding and bolting in the common mode : but I will suppose, that not less than 15lbs. of meal, sufficiently bolted from the bran, would be obtained, clear of the toll,from a bushes of the seed. At this rate, an acre would yield 1134;lbs of the flour or meal, which, if valued at only 5 cents per lb. would produce $56,72. There can be little doubt that the trouble and expense of cultivating an acre of the Holcus would be amply compensated by the value of the plant as fodder for cattle, when stripped of its seed, dried, and housed; and, perhaps, some useful vegetable might, besides, be planted or sown between the rows. The net profit, therefore, of cultivating this plant would be not less than $56.72 per acre.

The seeds which produced the specimens, now before the society, were pro

cured from the Manor, in Lancaster county, where the plant is said to be much cultivated, and the beverage a good deal in use. How the Germans of that settlement became acquainted with the plant, or from whence they received the original seeds, I had no opportunity of learning. Should I visit Lancaster in the course of the next snmmer, I will endeavour, by personal inquiries at the Manor, to become possessed of the knowledge of these interesting particulars. At present I have given all the facts concerning this vegetable, with which I became acquainted. It appears to me, first:—That as the plant is readily cultivated, is hardy, and produces plentifully, it is worthy of some attention, on account of the farina yielded by its seed. This is sensibly mild and mucilaginous, upon mastication, and may consequently prove extremely nutritious. Secondly : That, as it is proved to yield a pleasant beverage, with the addition only of a little butter to those articles which are necessary to render coffee, tea, and chocolate palatable—it might, from the ease with which it is propagated, be rendered, by being well known, a cheap and nutritious substitute for tea, coffee, or chocolate, at the tables of the country-poor, and those residing in country towns and villages, where each hut, however miserable, is generally furnished with atolerable-sized garden plot. I believe that a single plant will yield seed enough to produce, by the second year's crop, a sufficiency of flour to furnish a poor family, of six or eight persons, one entire year, with a good and nourishing substitute for the meagre and unhealthful liquors used by them, under the names of tea and coffee. For 8 cents, as much of the liquor, here described, may be prepared from them, as, with a due proportion of bread—to the value, perhaps, of twelve cents—will constitute a good and nutritive breakfast, or supper, for four grown persons; being at the rate of five cents for each person. I do not, however, profess myself competent, at this time, to offer more than conjecture on these points. I have made no experiments with the plant as yet, to ascertain the proportions of mucilage and farina contained in the seeds; but have merely thrown thus hastily together, a few facts and hints, which may perhaps prove indirectly serviceable to the poor and the peasantry. I take the liberty of recommending the plant to the attention of surgeons, and commanders of navy-yards, forts, or bar.

racks, for to all such posts a sufficiency of ground generally appertains to admit the cultivation of enough to supply the sailors, marines, or soldiers, with an occasional meal of a grateful, and, I believe, a healthful beverage. My experience, both in the navy and army practice, induces me to believe, that the diet of seamen, marines, and soldiers, cannot be too strictly attended to, in order to preserve their health and vigour; and when an opportunity is presented of furnishing all those on shore stations, and in barracks or garrisons, with a comfortable vegetable diet like the one above-mentioned, and that too without any cost, it should certainly not be suffered to pass without at least a trial.

P. S. The calculations in the o paper, as to the quantity of meal a bushe of the seed would produce, is probably 190 per cent, lower than they should be.

HOLD, that part of a ship which lies between the keelson and the lower deck; in which, divided by bulk heads, are the steward’s-room, powder-room, breadroom, and the boatswain's and carpenter's store-rooms. In a merchantman, all the goods and lading in general are stowed in the hold. Holm-fast, a large piece of iron, in the shape of the letter S, fixed into a wall to strengthen it. Also a tool used by joiners, carvers, &c. which goes through their benches, to hold fast stich work as cannot be finished by its being held in the hand. HOLLAND, in commerce, a fine and close kind of linen, so called from its being first manufactured in Holland. HOLLOA, in sea language, an exclamation of answer to any person who calls to another to ask some question, or to give a particular order: thus, when the master means to give any order to the people in the main top, he previously calls “Main-top hoay,” to which they answer, “Holloa,” to show that they hear him and are ready. It is also the answer in hailing a ship at a distance. See HAILING. HOLLOW square, in the military art, a body of foot drawn up, with an empty space in the middle for colours, drums, and baggage. HOLLY. See ILEx. HOLOMETER, a mathematical instrument that serves universally for taking all measures, both on the earth and in the heavens. HOLORACEAE, in botany, the name of the twelfth order in Linnaeus's “Frag

ments of a Natural Method,” consisting of pot-herbs, or plants used for the table, and entering into the economy of domestic affairs. This order is separated into two divisions. 1. Hermaphrodite plants. 2. Male, female, androgynous, and polygamous plants. This order contains trees, shrubs, and perennial and annual herbs; some of the woody vegetables, as the bay, retain their green leaves during the winter; the roots are long; the stems and young branches are cylindric. In the greatest part of the aquatic plants of this order, the stalks are hollow within; the buds are of a conical form ; the leaves are generally simple, alternate, entire, and attached to the branches by a cylindric foot-stalk, which is sometimes very long, but generally short. HOLOSTEUM, in botany, a genus of the Triandria Trigynia class and order. Natural order of Caryophyllei. Essential character: calyx five-leaved; petals five ; capsule one-celled, subcylindrical, opening at top. There are five species. HOLOTHURIA, in natural history, a genus of the Vermes Mollusca class and order. Body detached, cylindrical, thick, naked, and open at the extremity; mouth surrounded by fleshy branched tentacula or feelers. These are all inhabitants of the sea, and expand or contract themselves at pleasure ; the anterior aperture serves them both as a mouth and vent, and from the hinder one they reject waters which had been previously drawn in; the tentacula are retractile. There are twenty-three species. H. pentactes, or five-rowed Holothuria is noticed by Pennant. It has an incurvated cylindric body, marked with longitudinal rows of papilla: ; out of the centre of each issue at pleasure, slender feelers like the horns of snails; the upper extremity retractile ; when exerted it assumes a cordated sprin, surrounded at the apex with eight tentacula, elegantly ramified, of a yellow and silver colour. It is found on the shores near Penzance. H. tremula is a foot long, inhabits the Mediterranean and Adriatic seas; the body is cylindrical when extended, and oblong when contracted ; it is various in colour, but generally of a beautiful mixture of red and white; the cylindrical tubes beneath the body act as so many suckers, by which the animal fixes itself firmly to the bottom of the sea. Another curious species noticed by Gmelin is 1. denudata, is oblong, with interrupted lateral lines, and without a crest or tail, inhabits the Annerican ocean. It is three or four inches long, with a body

slowly tapering at both ends, transparent, of a firm gelatinous consistence and hollow, opening by a small triangular aperture next the crest, and a narrow round one at the other extremity; they have a spiral milky line down the back, under this another larger opaque one, and on each side below these another smaller. purple one. They are sometimes found single, and frequently sticking lengthways together. • The word holothuria is used by Pliny and Aristotle; but Mr. Pennant supposes they both intended, under this name, to describe those marine bodies now denominated zoophyta. Aristotle, however, seems to have admitted that they possessed animal life, a circumstance that has in modern times been completely ascertained. HOMALIUM, in botany, a genus of the Polyandria Trigynia class and order. Natural order of Rosaceae, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx six or seven parted; corolla six or seven petalled; stamens twenty-one, in three bodies; pericarpium one-celled, many seeded. There are two species. HOMER, OMER, Conus, or Chomen, in Jewish antiquities, a measure containing ten baths, or seventy-five gallons and five pints, as a measure for things liquid ; and thirty-two pecks and one pint, as a measure for things dry. The homer was most commonly a measure for things dry, and the greatest that was used among the Jews: it contained, according to the Rabbins, ten ephas, or thirty fata or seahs. Corus is the most usual term in the historical writers, and homer, omer, or chomer, among the prophets. HOMICIDE, in law, is the killing of a man by a man. Of this there are several species, as homicide by self-defence, homicide by misadventure, justifiable homicide, man-slaughter, chance-medley, and murder. Homicide by self-defence, se defendendo, or in a man's own defence, is where one has no other possible means of preserving his life from one who combats with him on a sudden quarrel, and kills the person by whom he is reduced to such inevitable necessity. And not only he, who on assault, retreats to a wall, or some such strait, beyond which he can go no farther, before he kills the other, is judged by the law to act upon unavoidable necessity; but also he, who being assaulted in such a manner, and in such a place, that he cannot go back without manifestly endangering his life, kills the other without retreating at all. And though a person who retreats from an assault to the wall should give the other wounds in his retreat, yet, if he give him no mortal wound till he get thither, and then kill him, he is guilty of homicide se defendendo only. But if the mortal wound were given first, then it is manslaughter. Homicide by misadventure, is where a man is doing a lawful act, without any intent of hurt, unfortunately chances to kill another; as where a labourer being at work with an hatchet, the head thereof flies off, and kills one who stands by. It seems clear, that neither homicide by misadventure, nor homicide se defendendo, are felonious, because they are not accompanied with a felonious intent, which is necessary in every felony. HomicIDE, justifiable. To make homicide justifiable, it must be owing to some unavoidable necessity, to which a person who kills another must be reduced, without any manner of fault in himself. And there must be no malice coloured under pretence of necessity; for wherever a person who kills another acts in truth upon malice, and takes occasion upon the appearance of necessity to execute his own private revenge, he is guilty of murder. But if a woman kill him who assaulteth to ravish her, it is no felony: or if a man come to burn my house, and I go out and kill him, it is no felony. So “if any evil disposed person shall attempt feloniously to rob or murder any person in any dwelling house, or highway, or feloniously attempt to break any dwellinghouse in the night-time, and shall happen to be slain in such felonious attempt, the slayer shall be discharged, and shall forfeit no lands nor goods.” 24 Hen. VIII. c. 5. Justifiable homicide of a public nature is such as is occasioned by the due execution or advancement of public justice; with regard to which it must be observed, 1. That the judgment, by virtue whereof any person is put to death, must be given by one who has jurisdiction in the cause; for otherwise both judge and officer may be guilty of felony. 2. The execution must be pursuant to, and warranted by, the judgment, otherwise it is without authority; and consequently, if a sheriff shall behead a man, when it is no part of the sentence to cut off the head, he is guilty of felony. HoMicine, manslaughter, against the life of another, is either with or without malice; that which is without malice is called manslaughter, or sometimes chancemedley, or chaud-medly, by which is understood such killing as happens eitheron a sudden quarrel, or in the commission of

an unlawful act, without any deliberate intention of doing any mischief at all. Hence it follows, that there can be no accessaries to this of ence before the fact, because it must be done without premeditation; but there may be accessaries af. ter the fact. The only difference between murder and manslaughter is, that murder is upon malice aforethought, and man. slaughter upon a sudden occasion, as if two meet together, and striving for the wall, the one kills the other, this is man. slaughter and felony. And if they had, on that sudden occasion, gone into the field and fought, and the one had killed the other, this had been but manslaughter, and no murder; because all that followed was but a continuance of the first sudden occasion, and the blood was never cooled till the blow was given. Chance, or chaud-medley. Authors of the first authority disagree about the application of this word. By some it is applied to homicide by misadventure, by others to manslaughter. The original meaning of the word seems to favour the former opinion, as it signifies a sudden or casual meddling or contention; but homicide by misadventure supposes no previous meddling or falling out. Murder is the highest crime against the law of nature that a man is capable of committing. It is when a man of sound memory, and at the age of discretion, unlawfully kills another person under the king's peace with malice aforethought, either expressed by the party, or implied by the law, so as the party wounded or hurt die of the wound or hurt within a year and a day, the whole day on which . hurt was done being reckoned the rst. By malice express, is meant a deliberate intention of doing any bodily harm to another, to do which, by law, a person is not authorized. And the evidences of such malice must arise from external circumstances discovering that inward intention; as lying in wait, menacings antecedent, former grudges, deliberate compassings, and the like, which are various, according to the variety of circumstances. Malice implied, is where a person voluntarily kills another without any provocation. For in this case the law presumes the act to be malicious. If a man kill another, it should be intended, prima facie, that he did it maliciously, unless he can make the contrary appear, by shewing that he did it on a sudden provocation, or the like. And when the law makes use of the term man

lice aforethought, as descriptive of the crime of murder, it must not be understood in that narrow restrained sense, to which the modern use of the word malice is apt to lead one, a principle of malevolence to particulars; for the law, by the term malice, in this instance, means, that the fact has been attended with such circumstances, as are the ordinary symptoms of a wicked heart, regardless of social duty, and fatally bent upon mischief.

The law so far abhors all duelling in cold blood, that not only the principal who actually kills the other, but also his seconds are guilty of murder, whether they fought or not; and it is holden that the seconds of the person killed are also equally guilty, in respect to the countenance which they give to their principals in the execution of their purpose, by accompanying them therein, and being rea. dy to bear a part with them. Also it seems agreed, that no breach of a man's word or promise, no trespass either to land or goods, no affront by bare words or gestures, however false or malicious it may be, and aggravated with the most provoking circumstances, will excuse him from being guilty of murder, who is so far transported thereby, as immediately to attack the person who offend, in such a manner as manifestly endangers his life, without giving him time to put himself upon his guard, if he kill him in pursuance of such assault, whether the person slain did at all fight in his defence or not.

HOMINE, replegiando, a writ to bail a man out of prison, now disused on account of the superior advantage of the habeas corpus.

HOMO, man, in natural history, is reck-e

oned by Linnaeus under the order Primates, which is characterised by having four cutting teeth in the upper and lower jaw, and two mammae in the breast. There are two species, 1. H., sapiens, including six varieties, viz. the wildman, four-footed, mute, hairy. 2. American, copper-coloured, choleric, erect. 3. European, fair, sanguine, brawny. 4. Asiatic, sooty, melancholy, rigid. 5. African, black, phlegmatic, relaxed. II. H. monstrosus, including 1. The mountaineer, small, active, timid, 2. Patagonian, large, indolent. 3. Hottentot, less fertile. 4. American, beardless. 5. Chinese, head conic. 6. Canadian, head flattened. See MAN. HOMOGENEOUS, or Homogen EAL, an appellation given to things, the parts of which are similar, or of the same nature and properties. Homoges Eous light, that whose rays WOL. VI.

are all of one colour and degree of re-
frangibility,without any mixture of others.
See the article Colour.
Homogex rous surds, those which have
the same radical character, or signs, as
:/a, and 3/ b. See the article SURD.

HOMOiOGOUS, in geometry, an appellation given to the correspondingsides and angles of similar figures, as being proportional to each other.

All similar figures have their like sides homologous, or proportional to one another: their areas also are homologous, or proportional to the squares of the like sides, and their solid contents are homologous, or proportional to the cubes of the same.

HONE, a fine kind of whetstone, used for setting razors, pen-knives,and the like.

HONEY, a vegetable product, very similar in its properties to sugar... It is found in large quantities in a number of vegetables, is collected by the bee, and is fed upou by many insects. It is always formed in the flower, chiefly at the base of the pistil, and it seems designed to receive and retain the fecundating pollen. Honey differs much in colour and in consistence ; it contains much saccharine matter, and probably some mucilage, from which it derives its softness and viscosity. Honey very readily enters into the vinous fermentation, and yields a strong liquor called mead. There are two species of honey, the one is yellow, transparent, and of the consistence of turpentime.: the other white, and capable of assuming a solid form, and of concreting into regular spheres. These two species are often united; they may be separated by means of alcohol, which dissolves the liquid honey much more readily than the solid. Honey has never been accurately analyzed, but some late experiments go to prove it is composed of sugar, mucilage, and an acid.

In France, a good swarm of bees, in two years, will yield near thirty pounds of homey; and they are still more profitable in countries that are covered with flowers the greatest part oftheyear. There are two sorts of honey, the white and the yellow. The white or virgin honey trickles outspontaneously from the combs. These they break, soon after they are made, and lay them upon hurdles of mats of osier or on linen cloth, fastened at the four corners to as many posts, and then an excellent white honey will fall from the combs, and grow hard in a short time. Afterwards they put it into glazed earthen pots. some pres; this honey out, but then it is

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