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ornament, and of luxury, has been allowed its due notice. HOTTONIA, in botany, water-violet, so named in honour of Peter Hotton, professor of botany at Leyden, a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and "order. Natural order of Palmae. Lysimachiae, Jussieu. Essential character: corolla salver shaped; stamina piaced on the tube of the corolla; capsule one-celled. There are four species. HOVENIA, in botany, so named in hohour of M. Hoven, a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Dumosae. Rhamni, Jussieu. Essential character: petals five, convoluted; stigma trifid; capsule three-celled, three-valved. There is but one species, tnz. H. dulcis, a native of Japan, near Naasaki. HOVERING, in law : ships of fifty tons, laden with customable or prohibited goods, hovering on the coasts of this kingdom, within the limits of any port (and not proceeding from foreign parts) may be entered by officers of the customs, who are to take an account of the lading, and to demand and take a security from the master, by his bond to his majesty, in such sums of money as shall be treble the value of such foreign goods then on board, that such ship shall proceed, as soon as wind and weather, and the condition of the ship, will permit, on her voyage to foreign parts, and shall land the goods in some foreign port; the master refusing to enter into such bond or demand, or who, having given bond, shall not proceed on such voyage (unless otherwise suffered to make a longer stay, by the collector or other principal officer of such port where the vessel shall be, not exceeding twenty days ;) in either of the said cases, all the foreign goods on 15oard may be taken out by the customhouse officers, by direction of the collector, and properly secured; and if they are customable, the duties shall be paid, and if prohibited, they shall be forfeited. The officers of the customs may prosecute the same, as also the ship, if liable to condemnation, 3 Geo. III. c. 21. Commanders of men of war, and custom-house officers, may compel ships of fifty tons, or under, hovering within two leagues of shore, to come into port. 6 Geo. I. c. 21. If any ship or vessel shall be found at anchor, or hovering within eight leagues of the coast, (except between the North Foreland and Beachy Head) unless by distress of weather, having on board for reign spirits, in any vessel or cask which shall not contain sixty gallons at least, or

any wine in casks (provided such vessel have wine on board) shall not exceed sixty tons burthen, or six pounds weight of tea, or twenty pounds weight of coffee, or any goods whatever liable to forfeiture upon importation, that such goods, with the ship and furniture, shall be forfeited; spirits for the use of seamen, not exceeding two gallons per man, excepted. 42 Geo. III. c. 82. HOUND, a humting dog, of which there are several sorts, as the grey-hound, gaze-hound, &c. See CANIs. Houx ns, in naval language, a name given to those parts of a mast-head, which gradually project on the right and left side beyond the cylindrical or conical surface, which it preserves from the partners upwards. HOUR, hora, in chronology, an aliquot part of a natural day, usually a twentyfourth, sometimes a twelfth. But the word hour has not always been of the same signification; for in ancient times an hour did indefinitely express a short space of time. It is thought too, that anciently the four seasons of the year, wherein the sun finishes its annual course, had the name of hours, because Horus instituted a certain year, consisting of three months; and for this reason the ancients called spring, summer, autumn, and winter, hours, and the year itself hours: of which some footsteps appear in this, that the Greeks called their annals Hori ; and the writers of them horographi. However it be, the division of the day into hours is very ancient, though the most ancient hour is that of the twelfth part of the day. An hour, with us, is a measure or quantity of time, equal to a twenty-fourth part of the natur il day, or nychthemeron; or it is the duration of the twenty-fourth part of the earth's diurnal rotation. Fif. teen degrees of the equator answer to an hour; though not precisely, yet near enough for common use. The hour is divided into sixty minutes; the minute into sixty seconds; the seconds into sixty thirds, &c. There are divers kinds of hours, used by chronologers, astronomers, dialists, &c. Sometimes hours are divided into equal and unequal. Equal hours are the twenty-fourth part of a day and night precisely; that is, the time wherein fifteen degrees of the equator mount above the horizon. These are also called equinoctial hours, because they are measured on the equinoctial : and astronomical, because used by astronomers. They are also differently denominated, according to the manner of accounting them in dif. ferent countries. Astronomical hours are equal hours, reckoned from noon, or mid-day, in a continued series of twentyfour. Babylonish hours are equal hours, reckoned in the same manner from sunrise. The Italian hours are also equal hours, reckoned in the same manner too, from sun-setting. European hours are also equal hours, reckoned from midnight; twelve from thence too noon, and twelve more from noon to mid-night. Jewish, or planetary or ancient hours are the to part of the artificial day and night, each being divided into twelve equal parts. Hence, as it is only in the time of the equinoxes that the artificial day is equal to the night, it is then only that the hours of the day are equal to those of the night: at other times they will be always either increasing or decreasing. And they will be the more or less unequal according to the obliquity of the sphere. Hour glass, a popular kind of chronometer, which serves to measure the flux of time by the running of sand from one vessel into another. Glasses of this kind for half and quarter hours, and for less divisions of time, are much used at sea. HOUSE, in astrology, denotes the twelfth part of the heavens. The division of the heavens into houses is founded upon the pretended influence of the stars, when meeting in them, on all sublunary bodies. These influences are supposed to be good or bad, and to each P these houses particular virtues are assigned, on which astrologers prepare and form a judgment of their horoscopes. The horizon and meridian are two circles of the celestial houses, which divide the heavens into four equal parts, each containing three houses; six of which are above the horizon, and six below it: and six of these are called eastern, and six western houses. A scheme or figure of the heavens is composed of twelve triangles, also called houses, in which is marked the stars, signs and planets, so included in each of these circles. Every planet has likewise two particular houses, in which it is pretended that they exert their influence in the strongest manner; but the sun and moon have each of them only one, the house of the former being Leo, and that of the latter Cancer. The houses in astrology have also names given them acSording to their qualities; the first is the house of life; this is the ascendant, which extends five degrees above the horizon, and the rest below it: the second is th: house of riches; the third the house of

brothers: the fourth, in the lowest part of the heavens, is the house of relations, and the angle of the earth: the fifth, the house of children: the sixth, the house of health; the seventh, the house of mar. riage, and the angle of the west: the eighth, the house of death : the ninth, the house of piety: the tenth, the house of offices: the eleventh, the house of friends: and the twelfth, the house of enemies. We have given this and other brief accounts of the most absurd of all pretended sciences, in order to shew the folly of those, who were, in former times, weak enough to give any degree of credit to it. HOUSED, in sea language, the situation of the guns, upon the middle and lower gun-decks, when they are run in, and the breech being let down, the muzzle gets against the side above port. They are there secured. HOUSTONIA, in botany, so named, from William Houston, M. D. a genus of the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Stellatae. Rubiaceae, Jussieu. Essential character: corolla onepetalled, funnel form; capsule superior, two-celled, two-seeded. There are two species, viz. H. coerulea, blue-flowered Houstonia, and H. purpurea, purple-flowered Houstonia, natives of Virginia and Maryland. HOUTTUYNIA, in botany, so called in honour of Mart. Houttuyn, M.D. a genus of the Monoecia Monandria class and order. Natural order of Peperitae. Aroideae, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx four-leaved; corolla none; stamens mixed with the pistils. There is only one species, viz. H. cordata; it was discovered in Japan, between Miaco and Jeddo. HOY, in naval architecture, a small vessel fitted only with one mast. HUDSON'S bay company. PAN.Y. HUDSONIA, in botany, from William Hudson, a genus of the Dodecandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Bicornes. Erica, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx five leaved, tubular; corolla none ; stamens fifteen; capsule one celled, three valved, three seeded. There is only one species, viz. H. ericoides, a native of different parts of the United States. HUE and CRY, is the ancient common law process after felons, and such as have dangerously wounded any person, or assaulted any one with intent to rob him. And it has received great countenance and authority by several acts of parliament. In any of these cases, the party

See Cox

grieved, or any other, may resort to the constable of the vill; and, 1st, give him such reasonable assurance of the fact as the nature of the case will bear: 2. If he know the name of him that did it, he must tell the constable; 3. If he know it not, but can describe him, he must describe him, his person, or his habit, or his house, or such circumstances as he knows, which may conduce to the discovery; 4. If the thing be done in the night, so that he knows none of these circumstances, he must mention the number of persons, or the way they took : 5. If none of all these can be discovered, as where a robbery, or burglary, or other felony, is committed in the night, yet they are to acquaint the constable with the fact, and desire him to search his town for suspected persons,

and to make hue and cry after such as

may probably be suspected, as being persons vagrant in the same night; for many circumstances may happen to be useful for discoverin o, which cannot at first be found out. For the levying of hue and cry, although it is a good course to have a justice’s warrant, where time will permit, in order to prevent causeless hue and cry, yet it is not necessary, nor always convenient; for the felon may escape before the warrant be obtained. And upon hue and cry, levied against any person, or where any hue and cry comes to a constable, whether the person be certain or uncertain, the constable may search suspected places within his vill, for the apprehending of the felon. And if the person, against whom the hue and cry is raised, be not found in the constablewick, then the constable, and also every officer to whom the hue and cry shall afterwards come, ought to give notice to every town round about him, and not to one next town only; and so from one constable to another, until the offender be found, or till they come to the seaside: and this was the law before the conquest. Hue and cry also is good, and must be pursued, though no person certain can be named or described. HUER, or Hveh, the Icelandic name for streams of heated water, which are forced with great violence through apertures in the earth by internal causes, to a great height, in that wretched Island. Numerous as are the phenomena of nature, there is none more capable of exciting astonishment and admiration than the huer. These grand fountains far exceed the most celebrated attempts to rival them by many, very many fathoms, exclusive of possessing the property of in

creasing their beautiful effect by the discharge of steam in vast volumes, almost resembling fleecy clouds. The heat of the water of the different fountains varies considerably, the fluid flowing gently from some, and spouting upwards from others in an actual state of boiling. Those which have the properties of common springs, except in their heat, are called laug, or a bath; the heat, though unequal, was never known to be less than 188 of Fahrenheit's thermometer, and Dr. Von Troil found the water at Laugarnas 188, 191, and 193. At Geyser, Reykum, and Laugarvatn, 212. It is not unusual to find the springs closed in some places, with others opened near them; and there are traces of huers without a drop of water in their vicinity. Olafsen asserts, that a huer burst forth at Reikakio, in 1753, forty-two feet in breadth, eighteen in depth, and at three hundred in distance from a o which had been overwhelmed by a fall of the adjoining soil. The water, thus impeded in its progress, occasioned convulsive motions in the earth, and loud explosions were heard by the inhabitants before the imprisoned stream obtained a vent. The apertures, through which the water passés, are lined with an incrustation, which is most pure in those that emit it perpendicularly. This substance is said to resemble chased work, is of a very fine grain, and will not effervesce with acids; unfortunately, the circumstances that excite curiosity to examine these springs prevent its gratification, as it is impossible to explore their depths, or dig round them, without danger; an opportunity occurred, however, at Laugarnas, where Dr. Von Troil had the satisfaction of observing the course of a spring through a bright gray clay, “the surface of which was covered with a white rind; but was on the side nearest the clay quite smooth, and crisped on the upper side. The vein flowed a good way under this crust, through a canal, formed of a similar matter, and the whole canal was filled with crystals, which had a very o effect.” He was interrupted in his attempts to trace the further progress of the water by its retirement to subterraneous passages, where, compressed by exhalations, and acquiring greater heat, it has forced a new course, and gushes out at an opening some distance from the first mentioned. The water has a sulphurous taste, in some instances, when hot, but is exactly similar to common boiled water when cold. It is used by the inhabitants for dying, and might be applied to many purposes with great advantage, as victuals may be dressed by its heat, merely by placing the meat in a covered vessel, immersed in common water, and that in the boiling fluid; they have indeed evaporated sea water over it, and made excellent fine salt; and the cows which drink from the stream after it has cooled are said to give great quantities of good milk. Olafsen says, that syrup of violets will not change its colour, and that alkali has no effect when thrown into it. There cannot be a doubt, that the heat of these springs and fountains is derived from the volcaRoes of the island, but for obvious reasons they are seldom found very near them : they are common throughout the country, in the vallies between mountains, and even the summits of the ice mountains have their huers, particularly Torfa Jockul, which abounds with hot springs, and two send their water to a great height; besides those, there is a lukewarm spring near Haadegis Hunk, on Gueland's Jockul, at the base of the mountain, with numerous marks of closed huers. The influence which urges this heated water upwards is so considerable, as to force it in that state through the cold medium of the sea, the steam accompanying it floating from the place, and pointing out the situation of the spring. Dr. Von Troil enumerates many separate huers and fountains, which he visited in different parts of the island; amongst those the valley of Reykholts contains the greatest number. This vale is two miles and a half in breadth, and the steam arising from it is conspicuous for several miles, producing an appearance exactly similar to the smoke ascending from a vokano. The huers at Oelves are supposed to be the largest in Iceland; and the most remarkable are Geyser and Badstofm; there is one at this place which emits vapour only, but so very hot, that water may be boiled by holding it above the steam a few minutes. Geyser is situated about two days journey from Mount Hecla, near a farm called Haukadal. Here, says Dr. Von Troil, a poet would have an opportunity of painting a picture of whatever nature has of beautiful and terrible united, by delineating one of its most uncommon phenomena; it would be a subject worthy the pen of a Thomson, to transport the reader, by p. imagery, to the spot which is ere presented to the eye. A spacious plain, bounded on one side by very distant mountains, covered with ice, and their summits enveloped in clouds, which

frequently changing their position, descend to their bases, leaving the pointed crags as if resting upon them, are the least intoresting part of the wild and chilling wonders surrounding Geyser. Hecla, frowning with volcanic majesty, and exhibiting three vast pyramids encrusted with ice, towering far above the clouds, sends forth enormous volumes of smoke, which, floating away in the direction of the wind, and uniting with them, forms another portion of this horrid circle, which is completed by a ridge of high rocks, wetted by the steams exhaling from o gushing in a state of ebullition at their feet, and a marsh half a mile in circumference, whence the vapours of fifty others ascend to an amazing height. In the centre is Geyser, the approach to which is perceived at a considerable distance by the rushing noise it occasions, resembling the fall of a cataract over precipices. The aperture whence the water proceeds is nineteen feet in diameter; but the basin or excavation made by the descent of the fluid is fifty-nine feet in breadth, each is covered with a rough stalactic crust, and the latter is nine feet higher than the aperture. The water has not been known to ascend regularly in a continued stream, but in sudden impulses, after rather long intervals of quiet. The inhabitants of the neighbourhood assert, that the ascent is higher in cold bad weather than at other times, and they, and other observers, affirm that it is elevated sixty fathoms, though without any means of deciding beyond mere conjecture; indeed, the method adopted by Dr. Von Troil and his friends, to ascertain the height to which the water ascended on the 21st of September, 1772, was equally fallible; they supposed the greatest elevation to be only sixty feet. The gentleman alluded to mentions, at thirty-five minutes after twelve they heard three distinct noises, like the discharge of cannons, in the subterraneous caverns whence the spring issues, which were followed by a trembling of the earth and an immediate rise and fall of the water in the basin. At eight minutes after two the water flowed over the border of the basin; at fifteen minutes after three several subterraneous noises were heard, but not so loud as the first; at forty-three minutes after four the water rushed violently over the edge of thc basin for about a minute: at forty-nine minutes after the last named hour, many loud explosions were heard, as if near the source of the spring, and

the ridges of rocks in the vicinity; after this great effort the water became comparatively quiet. The impelling power within the earth is very great at Geyser, and is sufficiently so to prevent stones from sinking that are thrown into the aperture; on the contrary, the force of the water carries them up with it to a considerable height. We shail conclude our account of these Icelandic springs in the words of the Doctor. “When the basin was full of water, we placed ourselves before the sun in such a manner, that we could see our shadows in the water; every one observed round the shadow of his own head, though not round the heads of others, a circle of almost the same colours which compose the rainbow, and round this another bright circle: this most probably proceeded from the vapours exhaling from the water. I remember to have seen something similar to it when travelling in the summer, particularly in the meadows. Not far from this place, another spring, at the foot of the neighbouring ridge of rocks, spouted water to the height of one or two yards each time.” The gentlemen present thought it possible to close the mouth of this huer with stones, and made the experiment, but the water removed the whole from the aperture, and threw them in a circle round it, afterwards gushing forth with its original freedom. The waters of these large springs were violently heated, and seemed slightly impregnated with sulphur, though perfectly clear and pure in other respects; some others, less considerable, near them, were thick and turgid, as if mixed with clay. A third class presented the fluid as white as milk, and a few force their way through the earth, heated to a red glow. Near most of the springs are baths, frequented by the natives, some of which are dry, and for sweating. The vapour is collected into those through fissures in the earth, and the thermometer rose from 57 to 93 on introducing it into the open hut used for this purpose. As it is not our present intention to notice those heated springs which are impregnated with mineral substances, we shall refer to MiNERAL watkits for an account of them. The Island of Ceylon furnishes an instance of hot springs, under the class of the huers of Iceland, except that no volcanic cause exists sufficiently near them to force the water out of the earth with violence. At Cannia, about six miles north-west of Trincomallee, are six wells, built of stone and mortar, in square

and circular forms, generally about four feet deep, and less than two in circumference, which are inclosed by a stone wall six feet high, and contain the superior springs, though there are others in the neighbourhood in their natural state. In each the water is refreshing and pleasant to the taste, and air is continually rising to the surface in bubbles, accompanied by steam. The natives of the island, and of the adjacent coast of India, delight to bathe in this water, and seating themselves by the sides of the wells, they lade the warm fluid in earthern or brazen vessels, and pourit over their heads for hours together. Either imagination, or the inherent qualities of the water, produce benefit to those who use it in cases of strains, bruises, or rheumatisms; or possibly the warm bath may accomplish the cure, as it appears from the following analysis, made by Thomas Christie, Esq. surgeon of the 80th regiment, that there are very few proofs of the incorporation of mineral substances with the water, which was inserted in the Madras Gazette, 1799, and subsequently in Mr. Cordiner's description of Ceylon, whence the above account of the springs was derived. “The hot-wells of Cannia are of different degrees of heat; they, however, evidently communicate, for the water in all of them is at an equal distance from the surface of the ground, and a body immersed in one raises the height of the water in the others. As the water also from the six wells exhibit the same chemical phenomena, there can be little doubt that they all proceed from the same spring. On examining the heat of the different wells with great attention, it was found that they varied from 98° to 106! of Fahrenheit's thermometer, nearly in proportion to their different depths. Bubbles of air are seen to rise from the bottom of the wells, and it was therefore conceived that the water might be acidt:lous, and impregnated with fixed air. It was found, however, that the water did not sparkle in a glass more than common water, nor did it turn a vegetable colour red; and on filling a large case bottle with the water, and tying an empty wet bladder to the mouth of it, it was found, af. ter shaking a long time, that no air was disengaged. It would therefore appear that the water is not impregnated with any uncommon quantity of air; but that the bubbles are merely common air disengaged from the water by the heat. As the air, however, might be collected with a proper apparatus, its quality may be easily ascertained. The water has no

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