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JETTY head, a name given to that part of a wharf which projects beyond the rest, but more particularly the front of the wharf, whose side forms one of the cheeks of a wet or dry dock.
JEw EL blocks, two small blocks which are suspended at the extremity of the main and fore-top-sail yards, by means of an eye-bolt driven from without into the middle of the yard-arm, parallel to the axis. The use of these blocks is, to retain the upper part of the top-mast studding sails beyond the sheets of the topsails, so that each of these sails may have its full force of action, which would be diminished by the encroachment of the other over its surface.
JEWS, in church history, the descendants of Judah, the son of Jacob, and of the Israelites, commonly denominated the Twelve Tribes of Israel. This name was first given to those Jews who returned from the captivity of Babylon, because the
tribe of Judah made the most conspicuous figure among them. Our account of this people must be confined to their modern history, and to a brief statement of their present improved condition on the continent, chiefly under the auspices of Bonaparte, one of the most extraordinary characters that ever appeared in the world. From the reign of Adrian, emperor of Rome, to the present day, the people of the Jewish nation have often been the dupe of some pretender to Messiahship, who has risen up to promise them that restoration to their former dignity and importance, from which they have been driven by the imperious decrees of a righteous Providence. It appears that about twenty-four false Christs have, at various times, excited the hopes and disappointed the expectations of this credulous and superstitious people. The most important of these Messiahs was one Zabathai Tzevi, who in the year 1666, a year of great expectation by many, made a considerable noise at Smyrna, and other places. He was a man of much learning, and promised fairly to realize their expectations of being restored to their ancient inheritances, and of becoming once more a great and prosperous nation. Thousands of the Jews listened to his pretensions; but all his schemes were rendered abortive by an unfortunate difference that arose between him and one Nehemiah, who, pretending to be the son of Ephraim, and whom he said was to be a kind of secondary Messiah, reproved his superior in the office of Messiahship, Zabathai, for his too great forwardness in appearing as the son of David, before the son of Ephraim had led him the way. Zabathai could not brook this doctrine, and therefore excluded his officious forerunner from any part or share in the matter. Nehemiah, mortified at his degradation, reported Zabathai to the Grand Seignior, at Adrianople, as a person dangerous to the government. Zabathai, dejected and fearful, appeared, according to a summons for that purpose, before the Grand Seignior, who requiring a miracle, which was that the pretended Messiah should be stripped naked, and set as a mark for the archers to shoot at, and if the arrows did not pierce his flesh, he would own him to be the true Messiah. Zabathai's faith failed him; he sacrificed his pretensions to his life; and, preferring the faith of the Musslemen to the arrows of the executioners, he furnished his disappointed followers with another proof of their foolish credulity, and the christian prophecies with additional confirmation. The last of the pretended Christs, that made any considerable number of converts, was one Rabbi Mordecai, a Jew of Germany. He made his appearance in the year 1682. It was not long before he was found out to be an impostor, and was obliged to fly from Italy to Poland to save his life. What became of him afterwards is not known. After this the most intelligent among the Jews seem to have turned their expectations rather towards a moral and political regeneration, than to their restoration, as a people, to the city of Jerusalem, and to the actual repossession of Palestine, as their inheritance, though there are doubtless multitudes among them who still expect even this local restoration, and live constantly looking for some person to be raised up as their king and deliverer. Whatever may be the ideas of the Israelites in this country, it is certain their brethren on the Continent look up to the French Emperor, as their great promised deliverer and saviour. “The time of our trial,” say they, “is expired, the period of our calamities is ended ! All the persecutions we have sustained have only tended to unite us the more closely together. We have at ail times remained faithful to the commandments of the Lord our God: for our recompense, he has determined in his wisdom that we shall be received into the bosom of other nations, to enjoy the happiness of our forefathers: but, to fulfil this object, it was necessary to find a man, whose virtues, whose valour and wisdom, should exceed every thing which had been before admired by mortals' Napoleon appeared and God Almighty immediately supported him with the arm of his power. He recalled him irom Egypt, while he subjected the tempestuous ocean te his divine laws : he sent his angels to guide his steps, and to watch over his precious life: his divine spirit inspired this hero in the field of battle as in the midst of his palace: from the summit of the hills and mountains he showed him his enemies, dispersed in the plains of Austerlitz and Jena.” Thus are the riches and fire of oriental genius, conjoined with the warmth of adulation, peculiar to the French people, made to express the hopes and enjoyments of the children of Israel! This is an epoch in the Jewish history deserving a more minute detail,
and worthy of being preserved from the perishing annals of newspapers and pamphlets. Posterity will see how far these flattering prospects have been built on a permanent or a sandy foundation. In May, 1806, was issued by the French Emperor, the following very extraordinary decree concerning the Jews.
“Palace of St Cloud, May, 30, 1806. “Napoleon, Emperor of the French and - King of Italy.
“Accounts having reached us, that in several of the Northern Departments of our empire, certain Jews, not exercising any other profession than that of usury, have, by extorting an enormous interest, reduced a number of farmers to a state of very great distress, we have conceived it our duty to succour such of our subjects, as have been reduced to these sorrowful extremes by an unjustifiable avarice. These circumstances have, at the same time, furnished us with an opportunity of knowing the urgent necessity of re-animating the sentiment of civil morality among those persons, who profess the Jewish religion in the countries under our jurisdiction; sentiments which unhappily have been extinguished among a great number of them, in consequence of the state of debasement under § they have long languished, which it has never entered into my views either to maintain or renew. For the accomplishment of this design, we have resolved to collect the principal persons among the Jews in an assembly; and then through the means of commissioners, whom we shall nominate for the purpose, to communicate our intentions; and who will at the same time learn their wishes, in respect to such manner as they may deem most expedient to awaken among their brethren the exercise of the arts and useful professions of life, in order that an honest industry may take the place of those scandalous resources, to which many persons among the Jews have given themselves up, trom the father to the son, for several years past. To this end, and upon the report of our Grand Judge, Minister of Justice, our Minister of the Interior, our Council of State, &c. we declare as follows:
“1. The execution of all contracts or actions against farmers, not merchants, shall be suspended for one year, reckoning from the date of the present decree, simple conservatory acts excepted, such farmers belonging to the departments of Le Sarre, Roer, Mont Tonnere, Haut and Bas Rhin, Rhin and Moselle, Moselle and
Vosges, in cases where they have been granted in favour of the Jews. 2. On the 13th of July next, an assembly of indivi. sluals professing the Jewish religion shall be held in our good city of Paris. This assembly is to be formed of those Jews only who inhabit the French territory.— 3. The members shall be regulated according to the table hereunto annexed, taken from the various departments, and selected by the prefects from among the Rabbins, proprietors of land, and other Jews, the most distinguished by their probity and intelligence. 4. In the other departments of our empire, not named in the annexed table, should any individuals be found professing the Jewish religion, to the number of one hundred and less than five hundred, the Prefect shall select a deputy for five hundred ; and above that number to one thousand,two deputies;and so on in proportion. 5. The deputies chosen shall be at Paris before the 10th of July, and shall announce their arrival, and their place of residence, to the Secreta of our Minister of the Interior, who †† inform them of the place, the day, and the hour, when the assembly shall meet. Our Minister of the Interior is charged with the execution of the present decree.” Here follows a list of the deputies, being seventy-four in number. These deputies accordingly assembled at Paris on July the 15th, 1806, and were met by the Emperor's commissioners. At their second sitting, the commissioners put several questions to them, relative to the internal economy of the Jewish nation, and their ideas of the allegiance due from the Jews to the French government. The questions were generally answered in favour of the French. At this meeting a letter was read from M. Jacobsohn, Agent of the Finances at the court of Brunswick, addressed to Bonaparte. This Hetter was expressive of the gratification he felt in the interest which the Emperor of the French had shown towards the eople of the Jews in France, and praying his Imperial Majesty to extend the Iike favour and indulgence to the Israelites inhabiting the countries ...; the French empire, and in particular to those of Germany. On the 18th of September, the commissioners again proceeded to the Jewish assembly. At this assembly the deputies wereassuredof the satisfaction which their answer had given his Imperial Majesty; and at the same time declared, that it was the wish of the Emperor to insure to them the free exercise of their religion, VOL. VI.
and the full enjoyment of their political rights. In return for this protection, the Emperor declared it his intention to exact from the Jews a religious guarantee for the entire observance of the principles announced in their answers. For this purpose, it was deemed requisste to constitute a Grand Sanhedrin, that their engagements of loyalty, attachment, &c. might have the most permanent sanction that could possibly be given to them.— This was a most august design, and promised a high day for the poor scattered and despised children of Israel The restoration of an assembly, which had but seldom been convoked since it pronounced sentence of condemnation, at Jerusalem, upon the Saviour of the world, excited the astonishment, and rouzed the jealousy of the prejudiced and the vindictive, while it called forth the energies, and demanded the admiration of not onl the Jews, but of the greater part of all enlightened and reflecting Christians.— Now it was that the scattered sheep of the House of Isreal should again have a voice among their fellow-men; their declarations, as citizens, should henceforth be placed by the side of the Talmud; and they should at length be constrained to acknowledge the authority of the laws of their country, under the awful and imposing obligations of morality and religion. This was . as the prelude to consequences still more important and flattering : perhaps, indeed, to .# less than the speedy arrival of that period, when they should again worship under their own vine and their own fig-tree, and none dare to make them afraid. After assurances of liberty and protection on the one hand, and of gratitude and obedience on the other, it was agreed, that a Grand Sanhedrin should be opened at Paris, at which should be preserved, as much as possible, the ancient Jewish forms and usages. This momentous event was announced to the dispersed remnant of the descendants of Abraham, in a most grateful and pathetic address to the Jewish nation throughout France and Italy; which contained suitable advice, that the brethren would choose men known for their wisdom, the friends of truth and of justice, and capable of concurring in the great work there before them, and of iving the Grand Sanhedrin a sufficient #. of weight and consideration. The address concludes thus : “The sovereign Arbiter of nations and of kings has permitted this empire to cicatrize its wounds, to restore that tranquillity which continuH h
ed storms had interrupted, to aggrandize its destiny, to fix ours, and to give happines, to two nations, who must ever applaud him, to whom has been confided the care of their happiness, after that of their defence. Paris 24th, Tishri, 5567.” (6th Oct. 1806) This address was shortly after answered by one of concurrence and congratulation from the people of the Jewish nation at Frankfort on the Maine ; and the Prince Primate of Francfort, following the French Emperor's example, put an end to every humiliating distinction between the Jews of that city and the Christian inhabitants. The Israelites soon began to manifest the happy consequences of their emancipation, by considerable improvements in education and the useful arts. The Grand Sanhedrin assembled on Monday the 9th of February, 1807, while the number and distinction of the spectators added much to its solemnity. Reciprocal assurances of encouragement, congratulation, and thankfulness, were exchanged, and this august assembly proceeded to make several important regulations relative to the Jewish worship and economy. Numerous addresses were read, and the most encouraging orations were delivered, while the great synagogue in the street St. Avoie resounded the praises of the God of Israel, amid repeated cries of L'Empereur, L’Imperatrice! La Famille Imperiale / and La Brave. Armée Francaise / It might be said of these Is.
raelites, as it was once observed of their
ancestors, that “all the people worshipped God, and the King.” Twenty-seven articles were drawn up and agreed to for the re-organization of the Mosaic worship. Sundry regulations were also made concerning polygamy, divorce, marriage, moral relations, civil and political relations, useful professions, loans among Israelites, and loans between Israelites and those who are not Israelites. On the 2d of March the Grand Sanhedrin again sat, and passed a law for the condemnation of usury among the Jews. A most animated discourse was delivered in the Hebrew tongue by M. David Sintzheim, President of the Grand Sanhedrin. Translations of the discourse, in French and Italian, were afterwards read to the members assembled. A copy of this discourse, and of the whole of the proceedings of the Sanhedrin, have been preserved in a publication of considerable interest, a small volume, lately published, en
titled “New Sanhedrin, and Causes and Consequences of the French Emperor's Conduct towards the Jews,” written, we believe, by William Hamilton Reid. To this work we refer our readers for all the information necessary on this interesting subject. Flattering, however, as these proceedings are to the Jews on the continent, it is certain that their brethren on this side the water look upon the conduct of the House of Israel in France, Italy, Holland, &c. with a jealous and suspicious eye. And it must be confessed, that, to secure the blessings and rights of citizens, they have made sacrifices and concessions, which
seem but ill to accord with the due ob
servance of that law, which subjoins, that if a man offend in one point, he is guilty of all. That the restoration promised to this people is to be considered of a moral and political nature, we think cannot be doubted. Such, indeed, was the opinion of the learned Bishop Warburton. Whether the regulations and decrees that have been passed in their favour in France are to be considered as the commencement of this restoration, time alone can determine. This much is evident, that in the restoration of Israel it is said, that every man should possess his own vine and his own fig-tree ; but if the Jews are either prohibited the occupation, or excused the cultivation of land, this can never be the case; and this consideration, among others, seems to have suggested an idea to Bonaparte, that his Jewish subjects ought to be constrained to assist in the cultivation of the land, and in furnishing their quota of active conscripts for the defence of his dominions and of their own property. Their improved state, on the continent, in a political point of view, seems not to have been attended with a correspondent degree of moral regeneration; and the French Emperor appears still to be dissatisfied with their way of life. The last decree issued, concerning them, was the 17th of March, 1808, which forbids them, indiscriminately, to pursue their speculations, and excuse themselves from honest labour. To partake of the fruits of the earth, in his large dominions, they must also till the ground. The rich are called upon to purchase rural property, and to abandon the low pursuits of sordid avarice. This decree also annuls all obligations for loans made by Jews to minors, without the sanction of their guardians; to married women, without the consent of their husbands ; or to military men, without the authority of their superior officers. Bills granted by French subjects to Jews cannot be demanded, unless their holders prove that the full value was given without any fraud. All debts accumulated by interest above five per cent, are to be reduced by the courts of law; if the interest growing on the capital exceed twenty-three per cent, the contract is to be declared usurious. No Jew is to be allowed to trade without a patent, which patent is to be granted to such individuals only who produce a certificate to the Prefects that they are no usurers. These regulations are to be continued during ten years only, “in the hope, that, after that period, there will be no difference between the moral character of the Jews and the other citizens of the empire.” If the contrary shall appear, the law will be continued in force. It is doubtful, whether the faith of the children of Israel in Bonaparte, as their reigning Messiah, will not be a little stag§ered by these regulations. Bonaparte has had the following return made to him of the number of Jews in all the different parts of the habitable globe, viz. in the Turkish empire one million; in Persia, China, and India, on the east and west of the Ganges, three hundred thousand; and in the west of Europe, Africa, and America, one million seven hundred thousand; making an aggregate population of three millions. One-third of this number are already under the dominion of the French empire. For an account of the Jewish ceremonies, &c. see the late Mr. David Levi’s work on that subject. The following is a summary of their religious creed:–1. That God is the creator and active supporter of all things. 2. That God is on E, and eternally unchangeable. 3. That God is incorporeal, and cannot have any material properties. 4. That God shall eternally subsist, 5. That God is alone to be worshipped. 6. That whatever has been taught by ...}. is true. 7. That Moses is the head and father of all contemporary doctors, and of all those who lived before, or shall live after him. 8. That the law was given by Moses. 9. That the law shall always exist, and never be altered. 10. That God knows all the thoughts and actions of men. 11. That God will reward the observance, and punish the breach of his laws. 13. The Messiah is to come, though he tarry a long time. 13. That there shall be a resurrection of the dead when God shall think fit. These doctrines, commonly received by the Jews to this day, were drawn up about the end
of the eleventh century, by the famous Jewish rabbi, Maimonides. In England, in former times, the Jews, and all their goods, belonged to the chief lord where they lived; and he had such an absolute property in them, that he might sell them ; for they had not liberty to remove to another lord without leave. They were distinguished from the Christians in their lives, and at their deaths; for they had proper judges and courts, where their causes were decided. By stat. Edward I. the Jews, to the number of 15,000, were banished out of England; and never returned, till Oliver Cromwell re-admitted them. Whenever any Jew shall present himself to take the oath of abjuration, in pursuance of the 10 George III. c. 10, the words—upon the true faith of a Christian—shall be omitted out of the oath, in administering it to such persons; and the taking the oath, by persons professing the Jewish religion, without these words, in like manner as Jews are admitted to give evidence in the courts of justice, shall be deemed a sufficient taking of the abjuration-oath. If Jewish parents refuse to allow their Protestant children a maintenance suitable to their fortune, the Lord Chancellor, upon complaint, may make such order therein as he may think proper. Jews harp, in music, an instrument well known among the lower classes in this country, but almost the only musical instrument made use of by the inhabitants of the island of St. Kilda. IGNATIA, in botany, a genus of the Pentandria Monogynia class and order— Natural order of Luridae. Apocine:e, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx fivetoothed; corolla funnel-form, very long; fruit one-celled, many seeded. There are two species, viz. I. amara, and I. longiflora. IGNITION, in chemistry, is that illumination, or emission of light, produced in bodies by exposing them to a high temperature, and which is not accompanied by any other chemical change in them. It may be distinguished from combustion, a process in which there is also the emission of light and heat. Combustion is the result, not of mere increase of temparature in the body which suffers it, but of the chemical action of the air, or of a principle which the air contains: hence combustible substances are alone suspectible of it, and when the process has ceased, the body is no longer combustible. Ignition is an effect of the operation of caloric alone; it is wholly independent of the