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the teeth are in many first cut in the upper jaw, nor do the contiguous ones apfear always at the same time. Wherever there is much pain and irritation at first, the same may be expected to recur, or continue, during the whole period of toothing. The morbid symptoms that attend dentition are very numerous; they may be arranged as simply affecting the part, or as connected with the system in general. Of the former, the usual appearances are, an increase of saliva discharged in the form of slaver. The gums are swelled, tense, and hot, while the cheeks display a circumscribed redness. Of the latter, or general symptoms, the most common are, cutaneous eruptions, particularly on the face and scalp; the state of the belly is irregular, though most commonly a looseness attends it, with stools of various colour and consistence. Considerable watchfulness prevails, and when the child procures sleep, it is interrupted by startings and spasms. The secretion of the urine is attended with the same irregularity; sometimes it is unduly in: creased, at other times diminished, and the appearance is equally varied, being either of a milky colour, or depositing a brownish sediment. Sometimes mucous matter is mixed with the urine, and where there is pain in making water, the irritation of the bladder is taken off by it as well as the general fever. In all cases the child is subject to shrieking-fits, and its fingers are often thrust into its mouth. The feet and hands are also occasionally known to swell, though it be by no means a frequent occurrence, and only takes place where the bowels are in a costive state. Transient numbness of the legs and arms is also an occasional, but not a frequent, affection at this time. When these general symptoms are long continued, and prove severe on the constitution, they are often succeeded by an affection of the lungs, with cough and difficult breathing, and the attack of convulsions, general fever, scrophula, and atrophy, or consumption. A more rare effect of them is the formation of water in the head. Difficult toothing, as a species of inflammatory disease, is to be treated as such. Besides keeping the body open by gentle purgatives, as well as by clysters, especially where there is a retention of urine, the skin should be relaxed, and gentle sweats produced by diluting drinks, and also by administering small quantities of
tartarised antimonial wine, or James's powders. A discharge should likewise be encouraged by a blistering-plaster behind the ears, or on the back; and on the first appearance of inflammation, a leech should be applied under each ear. A moderate looseness, being beneficial in toothing, should rather be encouraged than checked. In fevers, from this cause, from fifteen to twenty drops of spirits of hartshorn, in a spoonful of water, may be given to advantage every four hours, in five or six doses; and where costiveness does not prevent, three or four drops of laudanum may be added to each dose. Rubbing the gums with a little fine honey three or four times a day, and giving the child a crust of bread, roll of liquoriceroot, wax-candle, or coral, to indulge the disposition for chewing which then presents itself, will afford ease; but the only means to be depended on is, scarification with a lancet; which takes off the tension of the gums, with scarcely any pain, and gives almost instantaneous relief to the child. The finger nail, or a sharp-edged sixpence, are sometimes used for this little operation, but are clumsy substitutes; the lancet, in a proper hand, is infinitely referable. Here, as in many other cases, rom the nerve being braced by exercise in the open air, and the use of the cold bath, the dangers attendant on toothing will be much removed, and the child better able to support this painful and dangerous process, to which, and its concomitant disorders, so many children fall victims. A frequent attendant upon dentition is convulsions. As this alarming symptom usually proceeds from the teeth cutting through the nervous membrane covering the jaw immediately under the gums, the scarification already recommended is not only useful to prevent this occurrence, but has, in many cases, saved the infant’s life, after the most dangerous symptoms have taken place. It can never do harm, and may even be of service, though the fits should not proceed from toothing. Sometimes it will be necessary to repeat the lancing two or three times, which may always be done with perfect safety, and with almost certain success. Lancing will also, in a great measure, prevent what is frequent in toothing, namely, ulcerated gums. When these take place, they should be touched with honey, rendered astringent and moderately rough by roch-allum and white witriol, while the body is kept open. We proceed to the very common complaint of convulsions; these are either symptomatic, produced by worms or dentition, or precursive of the measles, smallpox, or other eruptive fever; in which case, they are not necessarily to be regarded in an unfavourable view ; or they are an original complaint, arising from a morbid affection of the brain, or nervous fluid. Whatever stimulates the nerves in an immoderate degree may induce convulsions, as may also an irritation of the stomach or bowels, which is certainly either the predisposing or immediate cause of most of the convulsions of children. We have already mentioned, that, for some months after birth, children should be confined to breast milk. Where this is not the case, and the food is made too thick and pasty, convulsions are very frequent, from the indigestion which naturally ensues. The bowels are thus disordered by occasioning their contents to turn pasty, and cleave to their coats, so as to prevent the due adoption of the nutritious part of the aliment. Any offensive load, whether from the quality or uantity of food, excites a morbid secretion, and that this is a cause of convulsions may be known, from their being preced. ed by nausea, costiveness, or purging, pale countenance, swollen belly, and perturbed sleep. Repeated purges, particularly of castor-oil, or calomel, with some light cordial, will be necessary, and useful. Veal tea, mixed with milk, is the best nutriment; and if all farinaceous food be avoided, the convulsions may of. ten hereby, alone, be prevented from apearing. The children of the poor are not unfrequently afflicted with convulsions from fous air, and want of cleanliness in their skin and dress, a most extensive source of disease. In convulsions arising from the irritation or foulness of the stomach and bowels, these must be cleansed as already mentioned; after which, if they appear to continue, spasmodic remedies must be administered, such as spirit of hartshorn, tincture of castor, rectified oil of amber, or two or three drops of laudanum. Bathing the feet in warm, water, and friction ali over the body, with camphor liniment, are likewise very useful. When convulsion is a primary disease, roceeding immediately from the brain, £j blistering, and purging, are requisite ; and also bathing the feet in warm water, friction of the legs, and rubbin the soles of the feet with the oã
spirit of ammonia. In delicate children, chalybeate water may be useful; and where those of two or three years old are subject to slight and frequent fits, issues, or setons in the neck or between the shoulders, should be made, and kept open for a length of time. Another, and the most serious, species of original convulsion, is attended with an unmeaning countenance, and constant stare and motion of the eyes, followed by a temporary deafness or blindness, and sometimes a loss of intellect. If water in the head be not suspected, and the common nervous medicines, with purges and blisters, have no effect, recourse must be had to repeated vomits, and bleeding with leeches; where the body continues in a good, state, the water of prepared kali may be beneficial as a diuretic. Much benefit has also been derived from a free use of musk, whether by the mouth or in the form of injections. When this sort of convulsion attacks young children, it terminates very soon, and too often fatally, especially if connected with water in the head. After all, alarming as convulsions are, they are by no means either so generally fatal or injurious to the system as is commonly believed. Their number is far over-stated in the bills of mortality; many children, in particular, being said to die under them, who are really the victims of other disorders. An immediate and proper application will seldom fail to relieve the child, and as this may be necessary before professional assistance can be obtained, mothers, and those who have the care of children, in such situations, should so far understand the subject, as to enable them to give the immediate aid required. With this view, in addition to what has already been said, we may observe, that where the irritation proceeds from the bowels, the readiest remedy will be a soap clyster, with two or more tea-spoonfuis of salt, and afterwards the purgatives, as before directed. But when the child falls suddenly into a convulsion, after sucking or feeding, and the bowels have been be. fore regular, the irritation may be supposed to exist in the stomach; especially when there is an unusual paleness indicating sickness, or a considerable blackness, with an appearance of suffocation, symp. toms which may arise either from an overloaded stomach, or a small piece of indigested food irritating, and perhaps plugging up the inferior aperture of the sto. mach. Here, without waiting for a regular emetic, some immediate means may be tried to produce vomiting, as irritating the gullet with the finger or a feather, or throwing in a little smoke of tobacco, if it be at hand; any of which will provoke instant vomiting, and, by relieving the stomach of the cause of oppression, put an end to the fit. This will be the better and more easily accomplished, if the child be in the mean time supported by a hand placed under its stomach and belly. In every case it is necessary to clear the bowels; and in most cases this is best accomplished by pretty brisk doses of calomel. The next infantile disease we shall notice is hydrocephalus, or watery head— This is divided into external and internal. In the former, which is a very rare occurrence, the fluid lies on the surface of the brain; in the latter, much deeper, and within the ventricles, which, from the mass of water they contain, are much distended, and often distend to a monstrous size the entire cranium. External hydrocephalus, which sometimes appears immediately after birth, is a very distressing, and generally a very fatal disorder. A succession of blisters to different parts of the cranium offers the best chance of cure. Internal hydrocephalus seldom takes place before two, or after ten or twelve years of age. It may proceed from external injuries, from schirrous tumours, and excrescences within the scull, from a watery state of the blood, a diminished secretion of urine, a suddenly checked perspiration, or some lingering disease ; and there are not wanting instances of its being hereditary ; or, perhaps, it may be oftener referred to scrophula than to any other cause. In young children it frequently begins with cough, a quick pulse, difficult respiration, flushed cheeks, a discharge from the nose and eyes, with continual heat and costiveness. The child often puts its hand to its head; and, during sleep, picks its nose, and grinds its teeth; the eyes are impatient of light, the vision imperfect, ". countenance unmeaning, the hands tumid, and the fingers clinched. The most decided symptoms, however, are an inclination to lie on the back, a dislike to be moved, an increase of pain on the head being raised, and an almost continual drowsiness. Though #. fatal, there are many instances of cures being effected by medicines; of which, those most worthy trying are, stimulant embrocations, blisters applied to the head and neck, active pur
gatives and diuretics, with the external use of mercurial ointment. Strong sneezing powders, as white hellebore, or the compound powder of asarum, have often been recommended, as well as electricity; fox-glove, too, has been known to succed, in conjunction, as it should, in this disease, always be given, with small doses of calomel. By the use of this conjoint plan, persevered in for a long time, and accompanied with frictions upon the scalp and spine of strong camphorated liniment, the writer of this article has seen many cases yield, which were pronounced by several practitioners altogether intractable.
The last infantile disorder we shall no
tice is that of rickets. These generally show themselves, whenever they occur, between six months and two years of age. Rickets are evidently a disease of debility, and hence, whatever tends to debilitate, predisposes the constitution to their attack. On this account they are often apt to arise from unhealthy parents, and especially mothers who pass a sedentary life, in unwholescne air, and feed on a weak and watery diet; or from an improper nursing of children themselves, especially from their being kept wet, dirty, in a close damp air, and without due exercise. Hence they are most common among the children of poor people in manufacturing towns, the disease having, in fact, never appeared in this country till manufactures began to flourish. Children begotten by men at a late period of life, or by those afflicted with the gout, gravel, or other chronic diseases, or who have suffered much from venereal complaints, are also very subject to rickets.
The disease first shows itself in a softness and flabbiness of the flesh; the child's countenance becomes bloated or very florid, the belly and head enlarged, and the body debilitated; the pulse is uick and feeble, and the appetite and -ji. bad. The teeth frequently rot early and fall out; the wrists and ankles become unusually thick; the spine or back-bone assumes an unnatural shape; the breast is often deformed; and the bones of the arms and legs grow crooked. Weakness and relaxation being the cause of this disorder, its remedy must, of course, consist in P. digestion, and in bracing and strengthening the solids. Hence nourishing, and especially animal food, with a little port wine, is the proper diet. Air and exercise are indispensably necessary; the cold bath, and, if possible, of salt-water, will be of essential service, especially in summer ; but it should not be entered on without previous purging. Frictions afterwards, with flannel and aromatic powders, or liniments, or the fumes of frankincense, mastic, or amber, especially on the back and belly, will contribute to strengthen the habit. Bark, columbo, steel, and tincture of myrrh, are also to be recommended, where they can be employed. If the child be of a habit, gentle emetics, with warm and active aperients, will be of use; it being necessary to reduce the tympanum of the belly, and to strengthen the action of the intestinal canal. Though this complaint be seldom suddenly vanquished, yet, by attention to regimen, and particularly to air and exercise, in conjunction with the medical plan now prescribed, it will generally be overpowered by degrees. INFANT. From the observations daily made on the actions of infants, as to their arriving at discretion, the law and customs of every country have fixed upon particular periods, on which they are presumed capable of acting with reason and discretion; in our law the full age of man or woman is twenty-one years. The ages of male and female are different for different purposes: a male at twelve years of age may take the oath of allegiance; at fourteen, is of years of discretion, and therefore may consent or disagree to marriage, may choose his guardian, and if his discretion be actually proved, may make his testament of his personal estate; at seventeen may be a procurator, or an executor; and at twenty-one is at his own disposal, and may alien his lands, goods, and chattels. A female at seven years of age may be betrothed or given in marriage; at nine, is entitled to dower: and at twelve, is of years of maturity, and therefore may consent or disagree to marriage, and, if proved to have sufficient discretion, may bequeath her personal estate ; at fourteen is at years of legal discretion, and may choose a guardian; at seventeen may be executrix; and at twenty-one, may dispose of herself and her lands. An infant is capable of inheriting, for the law presumes him capable of property; also an infant may purchase, because it is intended for his benefit, and the freehold is in him till he disagree thereto, because an agreement is presumed, it being for his benefit: and because the freehold cannot be in the grantor contrary to his own act, nor can he in abeyance, for then a stranger would
not know against whom to demand his right; and if at his full age the infant agree to the purchase, he cannot afterwards avoid it; but if he die during his minority, his heirs may avoid it; for they shall not be bound by the contracts of a person, who wanted capacity to contract. As to infants being witnesses, there seems to be no fixed time at which children are excluded from giving evidence; but it . will depend in a great measure, on the sense and understanding of the children, as it shall appear on examination in court.
An infant is not bound by his contract to deliver a thing; so if one deliver goods to an infant upon a contract, &c., knowing him to be an infant, he shall not be chargeable in trover and conversion, or any other action, for them; for the infant is not capable of any contract but for necessaries; therefore such delivery is a gift to the infant; but if an infant, without any contract, wilfully take away the goods of another, trover lies against him. Also, it is said, that if he take the goods under pretence that he is of full age, trover lies, because it is a wilful and fraudulent trespass. Infants are disabled from contracting for any thing but necessaries for their person, suitable to their degree and quality, and what is necessary must be left to the
s % infant, * of a fraud, shall be
as much bound as if of age. But it is held, that this rule is confined to such acts only as are voidable, and that a warrant of attorney, given by an infant, being absolutely void, the court will not confirm it, though the infant appeared to have given it, knowing it was not good, and for the purpose of collusion. As to acts of infants being void, or only voidable, there is a difference between an actual delivery of the thing contracted for, and a bare agreement to deliver it i the first is voidable, but the last absolutely void. As necessaries for an infant’s wife are necessaries for him, he is chargeable for them, unless provided before marriage; in which case he is not answerable, though she wore them afterward. An infant is also liable for the nursing of his lawful child. Where goods are furnished to the son, he is himself liable, if they be necessaries. If tradesmen deal with him, and he undertakes to pay them, they must resort to him for payment; but if they furnished the infant on the credit of his father, the father only is liable. With respect to education, &c. infants may be charged, where the credit was given, bona fide, to them. But where the
infant is under the parents' power, and living in the house with them, he shall not be liable even for necessaries. If a tailor trust a young man under age for clothes, to an extravagant degree, he cannot recover; and he is bound to know whether he deals at the same time with any other tailor. A promissory note given by an infant for board and lodging, and for teaching him a trade, is valid, and an action will lie for the money. And debts contracted during infancy are good considerations to support a promise made, when a person is of full age to pay them; but the promise must be express. A bond, without a penalty, for necessaries, will bind an infant; but not a bond with a penalty. Legacies to infants cannot be paid either to them or their parents. An infant cannot be a juror, neither can he be an attorney, bailiff, factor, or receiver. By the custom of London, an infant unmarried and above the age of fourteen, if under twenty-one, may bind himself apprentice to a freeman of London, by indenture, with proper covenants, which covenants, by the custom of London, will be as binding as if of age. If an infant draw a bill of exchange, yet he shall not be liable on the custom of merchants, but he may plead infancy, in the same manner as he may to any other contract. An action on an account stated will not lie against an infant, though it be for necessaries. INFANTRY, in military affairs, denotes the whole body of foot soldiers. INFINITE, that which has neither beginning nor end in which sense God alone is infinite. See GoD. INFINITE, or INFINITEly, great line, in geometry, denotes only an indefinite or indeterminate line, to which no certain bounds, or limits, are prescribed. INFINITE quantities. The very idea of magnitudes infinitely great, or such as exceed any assignable quantities, does include a negation of limits: yet, if we nearly examine this notion, we shall find that such magnitudes are not equal among themselves, but that there are really, besides infinite length and infinite area, three several sorts of infinite solidity; all of which are quantitates sui generis, and that those of each species are in given proportions. Infinite length, or a line infinitely long, is to be considered either as beginning at a point, and so infinitely extended one way, or else both ways from the same
F. in which case the one, which is a eginning infinity, is the one half of the whole, which is the sum of the beginning and ceasing infinity; or, as may be said of infinity, a parte ante and a parte post, which is analogous to eternity in time and duration, in which there is always as much to follow as is past, from any point ormoment of time : nor doth the addition or subduction of finite length, or space of time, alter the case either in infinity or eternity, since both the one or the other cannot be any part of the whole. As to infinite surface, or area, any right line, infinitely extended both ways on an infinite plane, does divide that infinite plane into equal parts, the one to the right, and the other to the left of the said line; but if from any point, in such a plane, two right lines be infinitely extended, so as to make an angle, the infinite area, intercepted between those infinite right lines, is to the whole infinite plane as the arch of a circle, on the point of concourse of those lines as a centre, intercepted between the said lines, is to the circumference of the circle; or, as the degrees of the angle to the three hundred and sixty degrees of a circle : for example, right lines meeting at a right angle do include, on an infinite plane, a quarter part of the whole infinite area of such a plane. But if two parallel infinite lines be supposed drawn on such an infinite plane, the area intercepted between them will be likewise infinite; but at the same time will be infinitely less than that space, which is intercepted between two infinite lines that are inclined, though with never so small an angle ; for that, in the one case, the given finite distance of the pa. rallel lines diminishes the infinity in one degree of dimension; whereas in a sector, there is infinity in both dimensions: and consequently the quantities are the one infinitely greater than the other, and there is no proportion between them. From the same consideration arise the three several species of infinite space or solidity; for a parallelopiped, or a cylinder, infinitely long, is greater than any finite magnitude, how great soever; and all such solids, supposed to be formed on iven bases, are as those bases in proportion to one another. But if two of these three dimensions are wanting, as in the space intercepted between two parallel planes infinitely extended, and at a finite distance, or, with infinite length and breadth, with a finite thickness, all such solids shall be as the given finite distances one to another ; but these quantities,