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but any considerable proportion of spirit of wine, or brandy, obviously did harm, owing to the insolubility of the sulphate of iron (as of all the other sulphates) in alcohol, and therefore its diminished solubility in any liquor is in proportion to the alcohol it contains. A decoction of logwood used instead of water sensibly improved the beauty of the colour. Instead of galls other astringents were employed, such as sloes, oak-bark, tormentil root, &c.; but though they all gave a good blue black, with the salt of iron, none of them was equal to the gallnut in this respect. Other salts of iron were also substituted to the sulphate. The muriate and nitrate of iron nearly equalled the sulphate in colour, but proved too corrosive to the paper, and as they were in no respect preferable to the sulphate, there is no reason for abandoning it. Imagining that there must be some excess of sulphuric acid in common ink, to which the fading might be imputed, Dr. Lewis tried to neutralize it by lime and alkalies, but with manifest injury, the colour being rendered thereby extremely fugitive. Another ingenious idea for avoiding the supposed excess of acid was, to separate the black atramentous precipitate, wash it, and again diffuse it with water thickened with gum. This, indeed, makes a very good ink, but with the capital defect of not remaining so long suspended in the liquor, and especially of not fixing itself to the paper like common ink, but rather only slightly adhering like a weak gum varnish, and was readily washed off by water. Hence it appears that the acid of the salt of iron acts as a kind of mordant, or intermede, between the atramentous precipitate and the paper, and causes a degree of chemical union between them; a real advantage which this species of ink possesses over all the lamp-black, or China inks, which, indeed, are rather black varnishes. With regard to the gummy ingredient, the effect of which is rather mechanical, it was found that any other gum-mucilage would answer as well; but not glue, isin. glass, nor animal jelly of any kind. Besides, as these latter putrify by keeping, this alone would be a strong objection Sugar is sometimes added to ink. It makes it flow somewhat easier from the pen, and gives it when dry a gloss which is admired by some. It has this quality, however, of making it very slow in drying, which in most cases is an inconvenience. On account of the great improvements
to the black atramentous dye produced by adding sulphate of copper, some have recommended this addition to common ink, which is composed of the same materials; but it does not appear that the same advantage is here obtained, and Dr. Lewis thinks it an useless addition. From the above observations, Dr. Lewis gives the following receipt for the composition of ink: put into a stone or glass bottle, or any other vessel, three ounces of finely powdered galls, one ounce of green vitriol, one ounce of logwood finely rasped or bruised, one ounce of gum-arabic, and a quart of soft water; shake the bottle well, and let the ingredients stand in a moderately warm place for a week or ten days, shaking it frequently in the day. It is then fit for use; but a little before it is put into the inkstand, it is better to shake the bottle, thrat the colour may be more uniformly diffused. To prevent the ink from moulding, Hoffman recommends half a dozen cloves to be bruised with the gum-arabic, and put into the bottle. This appears a useful addition. Instead of water alone, where a very fine ink is wanted, white wine, or vinegar and water, may be used. If the ink be wanted for use in a very short time, the galls and logwood may be boiled for half an hour in the water, adding a little more to supply the waste, and the decoction while hot strained off through a cloth, and the gum arabic and cloves, and the sulphate of iron, both in fine powder, added to the decoction when in the bottle and shaken. The ink will then be fit for use almost immediately after the latter ingredients are dissolved. It will be improved by adding to the bottle some pieces of gall-nut coarsely bruised. Ink kept in a close bottle is always rather pale; but it blackens by exposure to air in a few hours; and probably in this way the colour is somewhat more durable than if it were brought by previous exposure to its full colour at once. It has been mentioned that sugar renders ink slow in drying. Advantage is ingeniously taken of this property in enabling it to give one, and sometimes two impressions on soft paper, when strongly pressed. In this simple way letters are copied in merchant’s counting houses, and offices of business. A little sugar is mixed with the ink, the writing-sheet is laid on the copying P. a blank sheet of porous and damped paper is put over it, and by the pressure of the machine a perfect fac-simile of the writing is struck off, sufficiently legible for all purposes.
This ingenious method saves a vast quantity of labour usually bestowed in copying letters, and besides prevents all possibility of mistakes. .. Sometimes the ink of very old writings is so much faded by time as to be illegible. Dr. o (Philosophical Transactions, vol. lxxvii.) in his exper. Aents on this subject, found that in most of these the colour might be restored, or rather a new body of colour given, by pencilling them over with a solution of prussiate of potash, and then with a dilute acid, either sulphuric or muriatic: or else, vice versa, first with the acid, and then with the prussiate. The acid dissolves the oxide of iron of the faded ink, and the prussiate precipitates it again of a blue, which restores the legibility of the writing. If this be done neatly, and blotting paper laid over the letters as fast as they become visible, their form will be retained very distinctly. Pencilling over the letters with an infusion of galls also restores the blackness to a certain degree, but not so speedily nor so completely. The blackness of common ink is almost instantly and irrevocably destroyed by the oxymuriatic acid, and hence any writing may be effaced by this method completely. To prevent this mischief, which might often be a serious one, several additions have been proposed to common ink, of which by far the best is Jamp-black or charcoal, in impalpable powder, on which the acid has no effect. The lamp-black should be of the least oily kind, as it does not readily mix with the ink, and some pains must be taken to incorporate them. On this account, perhaps, common charcoal is preferable. About a quarter of the weight of the vitriol used will be amply sufficient. This will not fade by age. INK, China or Indian. The well known and much admired Indian or China ink is brought over in small oblong cakes, which readily become diffused in water by rubbing, and the blackness remains suspended in it for a considerable time, owing to the extreme subtlety of division of the substance that gives the colour, and the intimacy with which it is united to the mucilaginous matter that keeps it suspended. Indian ink does, however, deposit the whole of its colour by standing, when it is diffused in a considerable quantity of water. Dr. Lewis, on examining this substance, found that the ink consisted of a black sediment, totally insoluble in water, which appeared to be of the nature of the finest lamp-black, and of another
substance soluble in water, and which putrified by keeping, and when evaporated left a tenacious jelly exactly like glue or isinglass. It appears probable, therefore, that it consists of nothing more than these two ingredients, and probably may be imitated with perfect accuracy by using a very fine jelly, like isinglass or size, and the finest lamp-black, and incorporating them thoroughly. The finest lamp-black known is made from ivory shavings, and thence called ivory-black. INk, Printers’. This is a very singular composition, partaking much of the nature of an oil varnish, but differing from it in the quality of adhering firmly to moistened paper, and in being, to a considerable degree, soluble in soap-water. It is, when used by the printers, of the consistence of rather thin jelly, so that it may be smeared over the types readily and thinly, when applied by leather cushions, and it dries very speedily on the paper without running through to the other side, or passing the limits of the letter. The method of making printers’ ink is thus described by Dr. Lewis. Ten or twelve gallons of nut-oil are set over the fire in a large iron pot, and brought to boil. It is then stirred with an iron ladle, and, whilst boiling, the inflammable vapour rising from it either takes fire of itself, or is kindled, and suffered to burn in this way for about half an hour, the pot being partially covered so as to regulate the body of the flame, and consequently the heat communicated to the oil. It is frequently stirred during this time, that the whole may be heated equally, otherwise a part would be charred and the rest left imperfect. The flame is then extinguished by entirely covering the pot. The oil by this process has much of its unctuous quality destroyed, and when cold is of the consistence of soft turpentine, and is then called varnish. After this it is made into ink by mixture with the requisite quantity of lamp-black, of which about two ounces and a half are sufficient for sixteen ounces of the prepared oil. The oil loses by the boiling about an eighth of its weight, and emits very offensive fumes. Several other additions are made to the oil during the boiling, such as crusts of bread, onions, and sometimes turpentine. These are kept secret by the preparers. The intention of them is more effectually to destroy part of the unctuous quality of the oil, to give it more body, to enable it to adhere better to the wetted paper, and to spread on the types neatly and uniformly.
Besides these additions others are made by the printers, of which the most important is generally understood to be a little fine indigo in powder, to improve the beauty of the colour. Red printers' ink is made, by adding to the varnish about half its weight of vermilion. A little carmine also improves the colour. (Encycl. Arts & Metiers, vol. iii. p. 518. INks, coloured. Few of these are used except red ink. The preparation of these is very simple, consisting either of decoctions of the different colouring or dyeing materials in water, and thickened with gum-arabic, or of coloured metallic oxides, or insoluble powders, merely diffused in gum-water. The proportion of gum-arabic to be used may be the same as for black writing ink. All that applies to the fixed or fugitive nature of the several articles used in dyeing may be applied, in general, to the use of the same substance as inks. INk, red, is usually made by boiling about two ounces of Brazil wood in a pint of water for a quarter of an hour, and adding to the decoction the requisite quantity of gum, and about half as much alum. The alum both heightens the colour and makes it less fugitive. Probably a little madder would make it more durable. INK, blue, may be made by diffusing Prussian blue or indigo through strong m-water. IN k, yellow, may be made by a solution of gamboge in gum-water. Most of the common water-colour cakes, diffused in water, will make sufficiently good coloured inks for most purOSes. Inks of other colours may be made from a strong decoction of the ingredients used in dyeing, mixed with a little alum and gum-arabic. For example, a strong decoction of Brazil wood, with as much alum as it can dissolve, and a little gum, forms a good red ink. These processes consist in forming a lake, and retarding its precipitation by the gum. See LAKE. On many occasions it is of importance to employ an ink indestructible by any process, that will not equally destroy the material on which it is applied. Mr. Close has recommended for this purpose, 25 grains of copal in powder dissolved in 200 grains of oil of lavender, by the assistance of gentle heat, and then mixed with 23 grains of lamp-black, and half a f. of indigo : or 120 grains of oil of avender, 17 grains of copal, and 60 grains
of vermilion. A little oil of lavender, or of turpentine, may be added, if the ink be found two thick. Mr Sheldrake suggests, that a mixture of genuine asphaltum, dissolved in oil of turpentine, amber varnish, and lamp-black, would be still superior. W. writing with common ink has been effaced by means of oxygenated muriatic acid, the vapour of sulphuret of ammonia, or immersion in water impregnated with this sulphuret, will render it again legible. Or if the paper that contained the writing be put into a weak solution of prussiate of potash, and when it is thoroughly wet, a sulphuric acid be added to the liquor, so as to render it slightly acidulous, the same purpose will be answered. Mr. Haussman has given some compositions for marking pieces of cotton or linen, previous to their being bleached, which are capable of resisting every operation in the processes both of bleaching and dyeing, and consequently might be employed in marking linen for domestic purposes. One of these consists of asphaltum dissolved in about four parts of oil of turpentine, and with this is to be mixed lamp-black, or black lead in fine powder, so as to make an ink of a proper consistence for printing with types. Another, the blackish sulphate left after expelling oxygen gas from oxide of manganese with a moderate heat, being dissolved and filtered, the dark grey pasty oxide left on the filter is to be mixed with a very little solution of gum tragacanth, and the cloth marked with this is to be dipped in a solution of potash or soda, mild or caustic, in about ten parts of water. Among the amusing experiments of the art of chemistry, the exhibition of sympathetic inks holds a distinguished place. With these the writing is invisible, until some reagent gives it opacity. We shall here mention a few out of the great number, that a slight acquaintance with chemistry may suggest to the student. 1. If a weak infusion of galls be used, the writing will be invisible till the paper be moistened with a weak solution of sulphate of iron. . It then becomes black, because these ingredients form ink. 2. If paper be soaked in a weak infusion of alls, and dried, a pen dipped in the soń. of sulphate of iron will write black on that paper, but colourless on any other paper. 3. The diluted solutions of gold, silver, or mercury, remain colourless upon the paper, till exposed to the sun's light, which gives a dark colour to the oxides, and renders them visible. 4. . Most of the acids or saline solutions, being diluted, and used to write with, become visible by heating before the fire, which concentrates them, and assists their action on the paper. 5. Diluted prussiate of potash affords blue letters, when wetted with the solution of sulphate of iron. 6. The solution of cobalt in aqua-regia, when diluted, affords an ink which becomes green when held to the fire, but disappears again when suffered to cool. This has been used in fanciful drawings of trees, the green leaves of which appear when warm, and vanish again by cold. This effect has not been explained. If the heat be continued too long af. ter the letters appear, it renders them permanent. 7. If oxide of cobalt be dissolved in acetous acid, and a little nitre added, the solution will exhibit a pale rose colour when heated, which disappears on cooling. 8. A solution of equal parts of sulphate of copper and muriate of ammonia gives a yellow colour when heated, that disappears when cold. Sympathetic inks have been proposed as the instruments of secret correspondence. But they are of little use in this respect, because the properties change by a few days remaining on the paper; most of them have more or less of a tinge when thoroughly dry; and none of them resist the test of heating the paper till it begins to be scorched. 1NNS and innkeepers. If one who keeps a common inn refuse either to receive a traveller as a guest into his house, or to find him victuals or lodging, upon his tendering a reasonable price for them, he is not only liable to render the damages for the injury in an action on the case, at the suit of the party grieved, but also may be indicted and fined at the suit of the king. In return for such responsibitity, the law allows him to retain the horse of his guest until paid for his keep ; but he cannot retain such horse for the bill of the owner, although he may retain his goods for such bill; neither can he detain one horse for the food of another. An innkeeper, however, is not bound to receive the horse, unless the master lodge there also. Neither is a landlord bound to furnish provisions, unless paid beforehand. If an innkeeper make out unreasonable bills, he may be indicted for extortion ; and if either he or any of his servants knowingly sell bad wine, or bad provisions, they will be responsible in an action of deceit. Keeping an inn is not a trading to make a man a bankrupt; but where an innkeeper is a chapman also, and buys and sells, he may
on that account be a bankrupt. Innkeepers are clearly chargeable for the goods of guests stolen or lost out of their inns, and this without any contract or agreement for that purpose. But if a person come to an innkeeper, and desire to be entertained by him, which the innkeeper refuses, because, in fact, his house is already full ; whereupon the party says he will shift among the rest of his guests, and there he is robbed, the host shall not be charged. If a man come to a common inn to harbour, and desire that his horse may be put to grass, and the host put him to grass accordingly, and the horse is stolen, the host shall not be charged; because by law the host is not bound to an'swer for any thing out of his inn, but only for those things that are infra hospitium. Innkeepers may detain the person of the guest who eats till payment. By the custom of London and Exeter, if a man commit an horse to an hostler, and he eat out the price of his head, the hostler may take him as his own, upon the reasonable appraisement of four of his neighbours; i. he cannot justify the taking him to imself at the price it was appraised at. INNATE ideas, those supposed to be stamped on the mind from the first moment of its existence, and which it constantly brings into the world with it: a doctrine which Mr. Locke has abundantly refuted. See IDEA. INNOMINATA ossa, in anatomy, three bones, which compose the extreme part of the trunk of a human body. INNUENDO, is a word used in declarations and law pleadings, to ascertain a person or thing which was named before ; as to say he (innuendo the plaintiff) did so and so, when there was mention before of another person. Innuendo may serve for an explanation, where there is precedent matter, but never for a new charge; it may apply what is already expressed, but cannot add or enlarge the importance of it. The doctrine of innuendoes is strangely misunderstood, in the opinion of the writer of this article, and has been confounded by too much learning and technical distinction being applied to it. The meaning of the word is “limiting, suggesting, or meaning.” All words have different meanings, according to the manmer, time, and other circumstances, under which they are used. If the words are used in their plain sense, they need no explanation ; if in any other sense, then all the circumstances by which that sense is to be made out to be the meaning of the party must be stated, and then the pleader may suggest the true meaning in the indictment under an innuendo ; but before the innuendo is used, the circumstances must be stated to which it applies. This is the plain and simple clue to solve all the difficulties that have occurred upon the subject. INOCARPUS, in botany, a genus of the Decandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Dumosae. Sapotae, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx bifid ; corolla funnel-form ; stamens in a double row ; drupe one-seeded. There is but one species, viz. I.edulis, a native of the Society, Friendly, New Hebrides Isles, &c. in the South Seas; also in Amboyna. INOCULATION, in medicine, the art of transplanting a distemper from one subject to another, by incision, particularly used for ingrafting the small-pox. See WAcci N.Ation. INocul Atrox. See Bunni NG. INORDINATE proportion, is where there are three magnitudes in one rank, and three others proportional to them in another, and you compare them in a dif. ferent order. Thus suppose the numbers in one rank to be 2, 3, 9; and those of the other rank, 8, 24, 36; which are compared in a different order, viz. 2: 3:24: 36; and 3: 9:: 8: 24. Then rejecting the mean terms of each rank, you conclude 2 : 9 :: 8: 36. INQUEST, in law, an inquisition by jurors, or jury, which is the most usual trial of all causes, both civil and criminal, within this realm. INQUISITION, in law, a manner of .."; by way of search and examination, and used in the king's behalf on temporal causes and process, in which sense it is confounded with office. This inquisition is upon an outlawry found, in case of treason and felony committed; upon a felo de se, &c. to entitle the king to a forfeiture of lands and goods; and there is no such nicety required in an inquisition as in pleading: because an inquisition is only to inform the court how process shall issue for the king, whose title accrues by the attainder, and not by the inquisition; and yet, in cases of the king and a common person, inquisitions have been held void for uncertainty. Some of the inquisitions are in themselves convictions, and cannot afterwards be traversed or denied, and there. fore the inquest ought to hear all that can be alleged on both sides. Of this nature are all inquisitions of felo de se, of flight, in persons accused of felony; of deodands, and the like ; and presentment of petty offences in the sheriff’s term,
or court leet, whereupon the presiding officer may set a fine. Other inquisitions may be afterwards traversed and examined ; as particularly the coroner's inquisition of the death of a man; for in such cases the offender may be arraigned upon the inquisition, and dispute the truth of it. INROLLMENT, in law, is the registering, recording, or entering in the rolls of the Chancery, King's Bench, Common Pleas, or Exchequer, or by the clerk of the peace in the records of the quarter
sessions, of any lawful act; a statute or
recognizance acknowledged, a deed of bargain and sale of lands, and the like. But the inrolling a deed does not make it a record, though it thereby becomes a deed recorded; for there is a difference between a matter of record and a thing recorded to be kept in memory; a record being the entry in parchment of judicial matters controverted in a court of record, and whereof the court takes notice, whereas an inrollment of a deed is a private act of the parties concerned, of which the court takes no cognizance at the time of doing it, although the court permits it. . By statute 27 Henry VIII. c. 16, no lands shall pass, whereby any estate of inheritance or freehold shall take effect, or any use thereof be made, by reason only of any bargain and sale thereof, except the bargain and sale be made by writing indented, sealed, and within six months enrolled in one of the king's courts of record at Westminster; or else within the county where the lands lie, before the clerk of the peace, and one or more justices. But by fifth Elizabeth, c. 26, in the counties palatine, they may be enrolled at the respective courts there, or at the assizes. Every deed before it is enrolled is to be acknowledged to be the deed of the par. ty, before a master of chancery, or a judge of the court wherein it is inrolled, which is the officer's warrant for inrolling it; and the inrollment of a deed, if it be acknowledged by the grantor, it will be a good proof of the deed itself upon trial. But a deed may be inrolled without the examination of the party himself; for it is sufficient if oath be made of the execu. tion. If two are parties, and the deed be acknowledged by one, the other is bound by it. And if a man live abroad, and would have lands here in England, a nominal person may be joined with him in the deed, who may acknowledge it here, and it will be binding. There have been plans proposed for the inrolling all con