Imágenes de páginas
PDF

two being contradictory: these figs came Jrom Turkey; the lamp hangs from the ceiling; the lamp falls from the ceiling. Now came is a complex term for one species of motion ; falo for another; hangs for a species of attachment. Have we occasion to mention the beginning or commencement of these notions and this attachment, and the place where they be. gin or commence What more natural or more simple than to add the signs of these ideas, viz. the word beginning (which always remains the same.) and the name of the place (which will perpetually vary.)

Figs came beginning Turkey; lamp .* : * giving ceiling : i. e. Tur

key the place of beginning to come; ceiling the place of beginning to }} | { To

is the Gothic substantive taui, act, effect, end, or result, which is itself the past participle of tangan, to do. While is an Anglo-Saxon substantive, signifying time; till, is to-white, to the time; until, is on to the time. (if is probably a fragment of the Anglo-Saxon substantive afora, offsprins, &c, and always means consequence, or spring, succession, follower, &c. In all the instances produced in the dictionaries, cause may be substituted for jor, without injury to the sense, though sometimes awkwardly. It is probably the Gothic substantive fairina, cause. By is the imperative of be on, to be ; frequent: ly, but not always, used with an abbreviation of construction, instrument cause, action, &c. being understood. Among is the past participle of gamengan, to minle. . ifier is the comparative of aft. .ibout is from boda, the first outward boundary or extremity of any thing; hence onboda, onbuta, abuta, about 1, out, on, aff, and at, Mr. Tooke does not profess to trace to an origin; we feel little doubt that on is simply one of the several forms of the numerai one; and the same process of thought has occurred in the Greek, where eig and ev (and perhaps also avy) are almost indisputably the corresponding numeral. We should have thought it probable that the English in has the same origin as on, if Mr. H. Tooke had not produced the Gothic substantive inna, the interior part of the body (used also for cave or cell.) Out he thinks not improbably originally meant skin.

VIII. Of the Interjection.

42. We have very little to say in addition to what we have said respecting this

small and insignificant class of words. 6th, or 0, salmos 'he only word for which it is necessary A few other words may be mentioned as being usually classed with it. Farewell is the imperative of fran, to go, and the adverb well. Hal: is the imperative of healdun, to hold. Lo is the imperative of look. Fie is the imperative of fian, to hate. Welcome means, it is well that you are come ..?diet, used so often without a moment’s thought as to its serious import, is the French a frieu, to God, meaning, I commend you to God. GRAMME, in French weights. The unit weight, called a gramme, is the weight of the cube of the hundredth part of the metre of distilled water, taken at its maximum density. It answers to 15.4.4 grains. The kilogramme, or the weirht of a thousand grammes, is equal to 32 1.6 Troy ounces GRANARY, a buil ling to lay or store corn in, especially that designed to be kept a considerable time. GRANATITE, cross stone, a mineral found in Spain, and in some parts of France and Switzerland. It is crystallized in a very peculiar form ; two six-sided prisms intersect each other at right angles, or obliquely. Hence its name, cross stone. It is of a reddish brown colourt specific gravity 3.3, nearly. It is fusible before the blow-pipe. It consists of

Silica - - - - - - 33
Alumina - - - - - 44

Lime - - - - - - 3.84
Oxide of iron - - - 13
Oxide of manganese - 1

94.84

Loss - - - 5.15

100

E.

GRAND jury. The sheriff of every county is bound to return, to every com: mission of oyer and terminer, and to gaol delivery, and to every session of the peace, twenty-four good and lawful men of the county, some out of every hundred, to enquire, present, do, and exe: cute all those things which shall then and there be commanded them. They ought to be freeholders; but to what amount is not limited by law. Upon their appearance they are sworn upon the grand jury, to the amount of twelve at the least, and not more than twenty-three, that twelve may be a majority. They are only to hear evidence on the part of the prosecution; for the finding of an indictment is only in the nature of an inquiry on accusation, which is afterwards to be tried ;

and they are only to enquire, upon their oaths, whether there is sufficient cause to call upon the party to answer it If twelve agree to find the bill, it must be pronounced a true bill, but it cannot be found by a smaller number. The mode of finding a bill is by indorsing it a true bill; when it is rejected it is indorsed “ignoramus,” or not found; and no one can be tried by indictment without the finding by a grand Jury. GRAND larceny. See LancENY.

GRANITE, in mineralogy, is a particu

lar mountain rock, composed of felspar, quartz, and mica. In general the felspar is the predominating substance, and mica the least considerable. In some varieties the quartz is wanting, and in others the

inica. The constituent parts differ likewise considerably in their magnitude : they alternate from large to small, and even very fine granular. The large and

coarse usually belong to the oldest, and the small and fine granular to the newer granite formation. It differs also in colour, and this difference depends chiefly on the felspar, the quartz and mica being usually of a grey colour. The felspar passes from the white to the red. The felspar in granite has usually a vitreous lustre, and perfectly foliated fracture; in some varieties it passes into the earthy, with the loss of its lustre and hardness, even into porcelain earth. This is owing to decomposition, effected, according to Mr. Davy, by eletro-chemical agencies. Sometimes the constituent parts of granite are regularly chrystallized, but principally the felspar and quartz. The mica sometimes occurs in nests unmixed with

the other parts. Sometimes the constituent parts are so arranged, that when a specimen is cut, its surface has a kind of resemblance to written characters.

Hence it has been denominated GRAphic stone.

Besides felspar, quartz, and mica, the

essential constituent parts of granite, other fossils occur in it: of these, schorl

is the most frequent, and next is garnet and tin-stone. There are three forma

tions of granite ; the first, or oldest, serves as the basis for all the other clas

ses of rocks. The second occurs only in the first : and the third, or newest, appear to be among the newest of the primitive rocks. In the oldest granite formation, when it rises to a height above the surface of the earth, and is surround

ed by other primitive rocks, these are always wrapped around it, or the strata are mantle-shaped. This is one of the most widely-extended and abundant formations with which we are acquainted. The second granite formation occurs only in veins which traverse the oldest formation, but never reaches any of the newer rock. The newest granite formation always rests on some of the older primitive rocks, and usually in an overlying position. It never occurs in globular distinct concretions: its structure is very irregular, sometimes contains grains of precious garnet, and has a deep red colour. It often occurs in veins that shoot from the rock, or in veins that are not connected with any rock beyond the strata which they traverse. When granite is exposed, it frequently occurs in high and steep cliffs, which form vast mural precipices: often also in lofty summits, denominated peaks. It is found in almost every country, and in many places the stones are of an immense size. The largest, as an unconnected stone, has been described in the sixty-eighth volume of the Philosophical Transactions. It is found near the Cape of Good Hope. Granite rocks are frequently traversed by rents, which widen by the action of the elements: the mass separates into fragments of greater or lesser magnitude, and they remain long piled on each other, in the most fanciful manner, appearing like vast artificial tumuli, or masses brought together by an immense flood. The hard white granite, with black spots, is a very valuable kind ; it consists of congeries of variously constructed and differently coloured particles, not diffused among nor running into one another, but each pure and distinct, though firmly adhering to which ever of the others it comes in contact with, and forming a very firm mass. It is much used in London for the steps of public buildings, and in other situations where great strength and hardness are required. The hard red granite, variegated with black and white, is common in Egypt and Arabia. The stones used in paving the streets are another species of granite. Granite, though not abounding in metal, contains occasionally some of the most important. Iron and tin occur most frequently. GRANT, in law, a gift, in writing, of such a thing as cannot be passed or conveyed by a word only, as a grant is the regular method, by the common law, of transferring the property of incorporeal hereditaments, on such things where of no livery of seisin can be had. For which reason, all corporeal hereditaments, as lands and houses, are said to be in livery, and the others, as advowsons, commons, services, rents, reversions, and the like, lie in grant. He that granteth is termed the grantor: and he to whom the grant is made is termed the grantee. A grant differs from a gift in this, that gifts are always gratuitous ; grants are upon some consideration or equivalent. The operative words in grants are, dedi et concessi, “I have given and granted.” Grants may be void by uncertainty, impossibility, being against law, or a wrong title, to defraud creditors, &c. Grants of the King are by letters patent, and are void when obtained by mistake or deceit apparent, or for an estate which cannot be granted, such as an estate to a man and his heirs male, without saying of his body; because it is neither an estate in fee nor in tail. GRANULATION, in chemistry, the process by which a metal is reduced into grains, which is effected by melting the metal, and then pouring it in a very slender stream into cold water. As soon as the metal comes in contact with water, it divides into drops, which have a tendency to a spherical shape, and are more or less perfect, according to the thinness of the stream, the height from which it falls, and the temperature of the metal. Some of the more fusible metals may be reduced to much finer grains, by pouring it in its melted state into a wooden box, rubbed over with chalk, and shaking it violently before it has time to become solid. GRAPE. See Vitis. Grapes have been repeatedly examined by the best informed chemists and most accurate tests, but without that success which might have been expected. They are found to contain much sugar, a portion of mucilage and jelly, some albumen and colouring matter. Tartrate of potash, tartaric acid, the citric and malic acids, have likewise been discovered in them. GRAPHIC gold. See TELLURIUM. GRAphic stone. See GRANITE. GRAPHITES, a mineral, principally of carbon, with a small portion of iron and silica. When pure it burns with a reddish flame, emitting beautiful sparks, and a smell of sulphur. Its specific gravity is about 2: it feels somewhat greasy, stains the fingers, and marks strongly. It is a true carburet of iron, of which there are several species: one is plumbago, or black-lead, so useful in the form of pencils. It consists of

Carbon . . . 90 Iron 10 100

GRAPHOMETER, a mathematical instrument, otherwise called a semi-circle, the use of which is to observe any angle whose vertex is at the centre of the instrument in any plane (though it is most commonly horizontal, or nearly so) and to find how many degrees it contains. The graphometer is a graduated semicircle, ABC, (see plate VI. Miscel. fig. 5, 6, 7,) made of wood, brass, or the like, and so fixed on a fulcrum, GH, by means of a brass ball and socket, that it easily turns about, and retains any situation. It has two sights fixed on its diameter, AC, and at the centre there is commonly a magnetical needle and compass in a box. There is likely a moveable ruler or index, ED, with two sights, P, P, which turns round the centre, and retains any situation given it. To measure by this instrument an angle, ABC, in any plane, and comprehend. ed between the right limes, AC and BC, drawn from two points, A and B, to the place of station, C. Let the graphometer be placed at C, supported by its fulcrum; and let the immoveable sights on the diameter of the instrument, DE, be directed towards the point A ; and likewise, while the instrument remains immoveable, let the sights of the ruler FG, which is moveable about the centre, C, be directed to the point B. Now it is evident, that the moveable ruler cuts off an arch, DH, which is the measure of the angle, ABC, sought. Moreover, by the same method, the inclination of DE, or of FG, may be observed with the meridian line, which is pointed out by the magnetic needle inclosed in the box, and moveable about the centre of the instrument. GRAPNELS, a sort of anchors with four flukes, serving for boats to ride by. There is also a kind called fire and chain-grapnels, made with four barbed claws, instead of flukes, and used to catch hold of the enemy’s rigging, or any other part, in order for boarding them. A fire-grapnel, in some respects, resembles the former, but differing in the construction of its flukes, which are furnished with strong barbs on its points. Fire grapnels are usually fixed by a chain on the yard-arm of a ship, to grapple any adversary whom she intends to board, and are particularly requisite in fire ships. GRASS, in botany. The tribe of grasses in one of the seven natural families into which all vegetables are distributed by Linnaeus, in his “Philosophia Botanica.” They are defined to be plants which have very simple leaves, a jointed stem, a husky calyx, named a glume, and a single seed. This description includes corn as well as the grasses. Most of these plants are annual or perennial herbs ; some of them are erect, others creep upon the ground. The roots, in the greatest number creep, and emit fibres from each knot or joint; in others, they are simply branched and fibrous. The stems and branches are round: the leaves are simple, alternate, entire, very long; and commonly narrow ; they are generally placed immediately upon the stem, except in the bamboo, and a few others, which have a foot stalk at the origin of the leaves. The leaves form below a sort of sheath, which embraces the stem, and is generally cleft on one side through its whole length. The top of the sheath is sometimes crowned with a membrane, that is either cleft or entire, and is frequently accompanied with two appendages or ears, as in rice, pharus, darnel, wheat, rye, and barley. In others, the sheath is crowned with hairs, as in millet, panic-grass, and andropogon, and in some species of panicgrass it is naked,that is, has neither membrane nor hairs. There are three sections. The flowers are hermaphrodite in plants of the first section; male and female upon the same root in those of the second; hermaphrodite and male on the same root in those of the third. They proceed either singly from the sheath of the leaves, as in lygeum ; form a single spike, as in nardus and darnel ; or are formed into a panicle, that is, loose spike, as in poa, agrestis, and oats. The calyx and corolla in this order are not sufficiently ascertained. In some a single scale or husk, in others two, as in nardus, supply the place of both covers; some es, as canary-grass, and phleum, have four husky scales, two of which serve for the calyx, and the other two for the corolla ; some have five, as anthoxanthum ; others six, as rice, four of which are supposed to constitute the calyx, and the other two are termed, improperly enough, the husky petals. The corolla is sometimes composed of one petal with two divisions, as in fox-tail grass. The stamina are generally three in number, and placed irregularly with respect to the situation of the calyx and corolla. One stamen is commonly placed betwixt WOL. VI.

quick vibrations.

the seed bud and the two small scales or external husk of the corolla; and two betwixt the seed bud and the inner husk. Rice, zizania, and pharus, have six stamina. The anthers are long, furnished with two cells, and slightly attached to the filaments. The seed bud is placed upon the same receptacle as the calyx, corolla, and stamina. In bobartia it is said to be placed under the receptacle of the flower. The style is generally double, and crowned with a hairy stigma or summit. The seed vessel in this order is wanting. The seeds are single, oval, and attached below to the bottom of the flower. GRATIOLA, in botany, a genus of the Diandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Personatae. Scrophulariae, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx sevenleaved, the two outer leaves petalous; corolla irregular, reversed ; stamens two, barren ; capsule two celled. There are twelve species. GRAVE, in music, is applied to a sound which is of a low or deep tone. The thicker the cord or string, the more grave is the note or tone; and smaller, the more acute. The gravity of sounds depends on the slowness of the vibratory motions of the chord; and their acuteness on its Grave, in the Italian music, denotes a very grave and slow motion, somewhat faster than adagio, and slower than largo. Ghave accent, in grammar, shews that the voice is to be lowered ; its mark stands thus \ . See Accent. GRAve digging beetle. See SILPHA. GRAVEL, in natural history and gardening, a congeries of pebbles, which, mixed with a stio loam, makes lasting and elegant gravel walks, an ornament peculiar to our gardens, and which gives them the advantage over those of other nations. GRAVER, in the art of engraving, a tool by which all the lines, scratches, and shades, are cut in copper, &c., Gravers are of three sorts, round-pointed, squarepointed, and lozenge. The round are the best for scratching; the square-pointed are for cutting the largest strokes, and the lozenge-pointed-ones for the most fine and delicate strokes ; but a graver of a middle form, between the square and lozenge-pointed, will make the strokes or scratches appear with more life and vigour. See ENGRAVING. GRAVIMETER, the name given by M. Guyton to an instrument for measuring specific gravities: he adopts this name rather than either acrometer or hyt

drometer, because these latter terms are

ounded upon the supposition that a fluid is always the thing weighed; whereas with regard to solids, the liquid is the known term of comparison to which the unknown weight is referred. Guyton's gravimeter is executed in glass, and is of a cylindric form, being that which requires the smallest quantity of fluid, and is on that account preferable, except so far as it is necessary to deviate for the security of a vertical position. It carries two basins, one of them superior, at the extremity of a thin stem, towards the middle of which the fixed point of immersion is marked. The other or lower basin terminates in a point ; it contains the balls, and is attached to the cylinder by two branches. The movcable suspension by means of a hook has the inconvenience of shortening the lever which is to secure the vertical position. The cylinder is three fourths of an inch in diameter, and 6.85 inches in length. It carries in the upper basin an additional constant weight of five grammes, or one hundred and fifteen grains. These dimensions might be increased so as to render it capable of receiving a much more considerable weight; but this is unnecessary. M. Guyton has added a piece which he calls the plonguer, because, in fact, it is placed in the lower basin when used, and is consequently entirely immersed in the fluid. It is a bulb of glass loaded with a sufficient quantity of mercury, in order that its total weight may be equal to the constant additional weight added to the weight of the volume of water displaced by this piece. It will be readily understood that,the weight being determined at the same temperature at which the instrument was originally adjusted, it will sink to the same mark on the stem, whether it is loaded with a constant additional weight in the upper basin, or whether the effect of this weight be produced by the additional piece in the lower dish. From this explanation there will be no difficulty in seeing how this instrument may be adapted to every case in practice. It may be used, 1. For solids. The only condition will be, that the absolute weight of the body to be examined shall be rather less that the constant additional weight, which in this instrument is about 115 grains. 2. For liquids of less specific gravity than water, the instrument, without the additional weight above mentioned, weighs about four huntlred and fifty-nine-grains, in the dimensions before laid down. It would be easy

to limit its weight to the utmost accuracy. We have therefore the range of onefifth of buoyancy, and consequently the means of ascertaining all the intermediate densities from water to the most highly rectified spirit of wine, which is known to bear in this respect the ratio of eight to ten with regard to water. 3. When liquids of greater specific gravity than water are to be tried, the constant weight being applied below by means of the additional piece, which weighs about one hundred and thirty-eight grains, the instrument can receive in the upper basin more than four times the usual additional weight, without losing the equilibrium of its vertical position. In this state it is capable jo. the specific gravity of the most concentrated acids. 4. It pos. sesses another property, namely, that it may be used as a balance to determine the absolute weight of such bodies as do not exceed its additional load. 5. Lastly, the purity of the water being known, it will indicate the degrees of rarefaction and condensation in proportion to its own bulk. To find the specific gravity of any solid by the gravimeter, observe this rule: “From the weight in the upper dish,

when the instrument is properly immers

ed in the unknown fluid, take the weight which is placed with the body in the same scale at the like adjustment. The remainder is the absolute weight of the solid. Multiply this by the specific gravity of the fluid, and reserve the product. From the additional weight, when the body is placed in the lower basin, take the weight when it was placed in the upper. The remainder will be the loss of weight by immersion. Divide the reserved product by the loss by immersion, and the quotient will be the specific gravity of the solid with regard to distilled water at the standard temperature and pressure.” To find the specific #". of a fluid. proceed thus: “To the weight of the gravimeter add the weight required in the upper basin to sink it in the unknown fluid.” Again, “ To the weight of the gravimeter add the weight required in the same manner to sink it in distilled water. Divide the first sum by the latter, and the quotient will be the specific gravity of the fluid in question.” See SPEcific GRAvity, Hypnostatics, and HrDhows ETER. GRAVING. See ENGRAVING. In sea affairs the word graving is used for the act of cleaning a ship’s bottom, when she is laid aground during the recess of the tide See BREAMING and CAREEN INg.

« AnteriorContinuar »