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a bird called by authors loxia. See Lox1A. Gross weight, the whole weight of merchandize, with their dust and dross: as also the bag or chest wherein they are contained. An allowance is usually made out of the gross weight for tare and tret. See TARK. GROTTO, a large deep cavern or den in a mountain or rock. Okey-hole, Eldenhound, Peake's-hole, and Pool’s-hole, are famous among the natural caverns or grottoes of our country. The entrance to Okey-hole, on the south side of Mendiphills, is in the fall of those hills, which is beset all about with rocks, and has near it a precipitate descent of near twelve fathoms deep, at the bottom of which there continually issues from the rocks a considerable current of water. The naked rocks above the entrance shew themselves about thirty fathoms high, and the whole ascent of the hill above is about a mile, and is very steep. As you pass into this vault, you go at first upon a level, but advancing farther, the way is found to be rocky and uneven, sometimes ascending and sometimes descending. The roof of this cavern, in the highest part, is about eight fathoms from the ground, but in many particular places it is solow that a man must stoop to get along. The breadth is not less various than the height, for in some places it is five or six fathoms wide, and in others not more than one or two. It extends itself in length, about two hundred yards. People talk much of certain stones in it resembling men and women, and other things; but there is little matter of curiosity in these, being only shapeless lumps of a common spar. At the farthest part of the cavern there is a good stream of water, large enough to drive a mill, which passes all along one side of the cavern, and at length slides down about six or eight fathoms among the rocks, and then passing through the clefts of them, discharges itself into the valley. The river within the cavern is well stored with eels, and has some trout in it; and these cannot have come from without, there being so great a fall near the entrance. In dry summers, a great number of frogs are seen along this cavern, even to the farthest part of it; and on the roof of it, at certain places, hang vast numbers of bats, as they do in almost all caverns, the entrance of which is either level, or but slightly ascending or descending; and even in the more perpendicular ones they are sometimes found, provided they are not too narrow, and are sufficiently high. The
cattle that feed in the pastures through which this river runs have been known to die suddenly sometimes after a flood; this is probably owing to the waters having been impregnated, either naturally or accidentally, with lead ore. Elden-hole is a huge profound perpendicular chasm, three miles from Buxton, ranked among the natural wonders of the Peak. Its depth is unknown, as it is pretended to be unfathomable. Peake's-hole, and Pool's-hole, are two remarkable horizontal cavities under mountains ; the one near Castleton, the other just by Buxton. They seem to have owed their origin to the springs which have their current through them; when the water had forced its way through the horizontal fissures of the strata, and had carried the loose earth away with it, the loose stones must fall down of course: and where the strata had few or no fissures, they remained entire; and so formed these very irregular arches, which are now so much wondered at. The water which passes through Pool’s-hole is impregnated with particles of lime-stone, and has incrusted the whole cavern in such a manner that it appears as one solid rock. Grotto del Cani, is a little cavern near Pozzuoli, four leagues from Naples; the air contained in it is of a mephitical or noxious quality; it is in truth carbonic acid gas, whence also it is called Bocca Venenosa, the poisonous mouth. Two miles from Naples, (says Dr. Mead,) just by the Lago de Agnano, is a celebrated mofeta, commonly called la Grotta del Cani, and equally destructive to all within the reach of its vapours. It is a small grotto about eight feet high, twelve long, and six broad ; from the ground arises a thin, subtile, warm fume, visible enough to a discerning eye, which does not spring up in little parcels here and there, but in one continued stream, covering the whole surface of the bottom of the cave; having this remarkable difference from common vapours, that it does not, like smoke, disperse itself into the air, but quickly after its rise falls back again, and returns to the earth; the colour of the sides of the grotto being the measure of its ascent: for so far it is of a darkish-green,but higher,only common earth. And as I myself found no inconvenience by standing in it, so no animal, if its head is above this mark, is the least injured. But when, as the manner is, a dog, or any other creature, is forcibly kept below it, or, by reason of its smallness, cannot hold its head above it, it presently loses all motion, falls down as dead, or in a swoon, the limbs convulsed and trembling, till at last no more signs of life appear, than avery weak and almost insensible beating of the heart and arteries; which, if the animal is left a little longer, quickly ceases too, and then the case is irrevocable; but if it is snatched out and laid in the open air, it soon comes to life again, and sooner if thrown into the adjacent lake.” Gnorro is also used for a small artificial editice made in a garden, in imitation of a natural grotto. The outsides of these grottoes are usually adorned with rustic architecture, and their inside with shell-work, coral, &c. and also furnished with various fountains, and other ornaments. The following is recommended as good cement for grotto work. Take two parts of white resin, melt it clear, add to it four parts of bees’-wax; when melted together, add some flower of the stone you design to cement, two or three parts, or so much as will give the cement the colour of the stone; to this add one part of the flower of sulphur; first incorporate all together over agentle fire, and afterwards knead it with your hands in warm water. With this fasten the stones, shells, &c. after they are well dried, and warmed before the fire. GROUND, in painting, the surface upon which the figures and other objects are represented. See PAINTING. GROUP, in painting and sculpture, is an assemblage of two or more figures of men, beasts, fruits, or the like, which have some apparent relation to each other. Groups, with respect to the design, are combinations of several figures, which bear a relation to each qther, either upon account of the action, or of their proximity, or of the effect they produce. These we conceive as representing so many different subjects, or at least so many distinct parts or members of one great subject. Thus, in architecture, we say a group of columns, when we speak of three or four columns standing together on the same pedestal. Groups, with respect to the clair-obscure, are assemblages of figures, where the lights and shadows are diffused in such a manner, that they strike the eye together, and naturally lead it to consider them in one view. Group, in music, one of the kinds of diminutions of long notes, which, in working, form a sort of group, knot, or bush. It usually consists of four or more crotch
ets, quavers, &c. tied together at the discretion of the composer. GRUB, the name of worms produced from the eggs of beetles, which are at length transformed into winged insects, of the same species with their parents. GROUSE, a species of the TETRAo, which see. GRUINALES, in botany, the name of the fourteenth order of Linnaeus's Frag. ments. This order furnishes both herbaceous and woody plants. The roots are sometimes fibrous, and sometimes tuberous. In some species of the oxalis, woodsorrel, they are jointed; the stems are cylindric, and the young branches in some nearly square; the buds are of a conic form, covered with scales; the leaves in some genera are simple, in others compound ; the flowers are hermaphrodite; the calyx consists either of five distinct leaves, or of one leaf divided almost to the bottom into five parts; it generally accompanies the seed bud to its maturity : the petals are five, spreading, and are frequently funnel-shaped ; there are generally ten stamens, the anthers oblong, and frequently attached to the filaments by the middle; the seed-vessel is commonly a five-cornered capsule, with one, three, five, or ten cells, with one seed in each cell. In this order are the geranium, crane’s-bill ; linum, flax; oxalis, woodsorrel; guiacum, lignum-vitae. GRUS, the crane. See ARDEA. GRYLLO talpa, the mole-cricket, a species of gryllus, with the anterior feet palmated. See the next article. GRYLLUS, in natural history, the locust, grasshopper, and cricket, a genus of insects belonging to the order Hemiptera. Generic character: head inflected, armed with jaws, and furnished with feelers: antenna, in most species, either filiform or setaceous; wings four, deflex, convoluted; lower wings pleated; hind legs formed for leaping; claws double on all the feet. There are sixty-one species, of which the following are most worthy of notice : 1. Among the most numerous species is the gryllus migratorius of Linnaeus, or common migratory locust, which, of all the insects capable of injuring mankind, seems to possess the most dreadful powers of . destruction. Legions of these amimals are from time to time observed in various parts of the world, where the havock they commit is almost incredible: whole provinces are in a manner desolated by them in the space of a few days, and the air is darkened by their numbers : nay,
even when dead, they are still terrible; since the putrefaction arising from their inconceivable number is such, that it has been regarded as one of the probable causes of pestilence in the eastern regions. This formidable locust is generally of a brownish colour, varied with pale red, or flesh-colour, and the legs are frequently bluish. In the year 1748, it appeared in irregular flights in several parts of Europe, as in Germany, France, and England; and in the capital itself, and its neighbourhood, great numbers were seen : they perished, however, in a short time, and were happily not productive of any material mischief, having been probably driven by some irregular wind out of their intended course, and weakened by the coolness of our climate. The ravages of locusts in various parts of the world, at different periods, are recorded by numerous authors. In the year 593 of the Christian era, after a great drought, these animals appeared in such vast legions as to cause a famine in many countries. In 677, Syria and Mesopotamia were overrun by them. In 852, immense swarms took their flight from the eastern regions into the west, flying with such a sound that they might have been mistaken for birds : they destroyed all vegetables, not sparing even the bark of trees and the thatch of houses; and devoured the corn so rapidly, as to destroy, on computation, a hundred and forty acres in a day: their daily marches, or distances of flight, were computed at twenty miles; and these were regulated by leaders or kings, who flew first, and settled on the spot which was to be visited at the same hour the next day by the whole legion : these marches were always undertaken at sunrise. The locusts were at length driven, by the force of winds, into the Belgic ocean, and being thrown'back by the tide and left on the shores, caused a dreadful pestilence by their smell. In 1271, all the corn-fields of Milan were destroyed; and in the year 1339, all those of Lombardy. In 1541, incredible hosts afflicted Poland, Wallachia, and all the adjoining territories, darkening the sun with their numbers, and ravaging all the fruits of the earth. 2. One of the largest species of locust yet known is the gryllus cristatus of Linmaeus, which is five or six times the size of the gryllus migratorius; and, together with some others of the larger kind, is made use of in various parts of the world as an article of food. The gryllus cristatus is a highly beautiful animal, being of a bright red, with the body annulated
with black, and the legs varied with yellow ; the upper wings tesselated with alternate variegations of dark and pale green; the lower with transverse undulated streaks; the length of the animal from head to tail is about four inches; and the expanse of wings from tip to tip, when fully extended, hardly less than seven inches and a half. 3. The gryllus viridissimus of Linnaeus, is one of the largest European species, and is often seen during the decline of summer in England. It is wholly of a pale grass-green, with a slight bluish cast on the head and under part of the thorax, which is marked above by a longitudinal reddish-brown line; the length of the insect, from the mouth to the tips of the wings, is about two inclues and a half: the female is distinguished by a long sword-shaped process at the end of the body, being the instrument with which she pierces the ground in order to deposit her eggs; it consists of a pair of valves, through the whole length of which the eggs are protruded; they are of an oblong form, and of a pale brown colour. 4. The gryllus gryllotalpa, or mole. cricket, is by far the most curious; and in its colour and manners differ greatly from the rest. It is of an uncouth and even formidable aspect, measuring more than two inches in length, and is of a broad and slightly flattened shape, of a dusky brown colour, with a ferroginous cast on the under parts, and is readily distinguished by the extraordinary structure of its fore-legs, which are excessively strong, and furnished with very broad feet, divided into several sharp claw-shaped segments, with which it is enabled to burrow under ground in the manner of a mole; the lower wings, which when expanded are very large, are, in their usual state, so complicated under the very short and small upper wings, or sheaths, that their ends alone appear, reaching, in a sharpened form, along the middle of the back; the abdomen is terminated by a pair of sharp pointed, lengthened, hairy processes, nearly equalling the length of the antennae in front, and contributing to give this animal an appearance, in some degree, similar to that of a blatta. The mole-cricket emerges from its subterraneous retreats only by night, when it creeps about the surface, and occasionally employs its wings in flight. It prepares for its . an oval nest, measuring about two inches in its longest diameter; the eggs are about two hundred and fifty or three hundred in number, nearly round, of a deep brownish-yellow colour, and of the size of common shot: on the approach of winter, or any great change of weather, these insects are said to remove the nest, by sinking it deeper, so as to secure it from the power of frost; and, when the spring commences again, raising it in proportion to the warmth of the season, till at length it is brought so near the surface as to receive the full influence of the air and sun-shine; but should unfavourable weather again take place, they again sink the precious deposit, and thus preserve it from danger. The young at their first exclusion are about the size of ants, for which, on a cursory view, they might be mistaken; but on a close inspection are easily known by their broad feet, &c." In about the space of a month they are grown to the length of more than a quarter of an inch ; in two months, upwards of three quarters; and in three months, to the length of more than an inch. Of this length they are usually seen during the close of autumn, after which they retire deep beneath the surface, not appearing again till the ensuing spring. During their growth they cast their skin three or four times. The mole-cricket lives entirely on vegetables, devouring the young roots of grasses, corn, and va. rious esculent plants, and commits great devastation in gardens. It inhabits Europe and America.
GUAIACUM, in botany, a genus of the Decandria Monogynia class and order. Natural order of Gruinales. Rutaceae, Jussieu. Essential character: calyx fivecleft, unequal; petals five, inserted into the receptacle ; capsule angular, fivecelled There are four species. From the G. officinale is obtained a resin, which exudes spontaneously, and is also driven out artificially by means of heat. This substance has been long known and celebrated as a medicine in various cases; and in the Transactions of the Royal Society for the year 1806, we have a very complete analysis of it: by distillation 100 parts yielded,
Acidulous water - - - 5.5 Thick brown oil - - - 24.5 Thin empyreumatic oil - 29.0 Charcoal - - - - - 30.5
ty of charcoal it leaves when distilled in close vessels; 2. in the action that nitric acid has upon it; and, 3. in the changes of colour that it undergoes when its solutions are treated with nitric and oxymuriated acids. Its properties may be thus enumerated: it is a solid substance resembling a resin; its colour varies, but is generally greenish ; it is readily dissolved in alcohol; alkaline solutions dissolve it with ease : most of the acids act upon it with considerable energy; if digested in water, a portion is dissolved, the water acquiring a greenish-brown colour: the liquid, being evaporated, leaves a brown substance, which possesses the properties of an extract, being soluble in hot water and alcohol, but scarcely at all in sulphuric ether, and forming precipitates with the muriates of alumina, tin, and silver.
GUANA. See LAceRTA.
GUANO, a substance found on many of the small islands in the South Sea, which are the resort of numerous Rocks of birds, particularly of the Ardea and Phaenicopterus genus. It is dug from beds fifty or sixty feet thick, and used as a valuable manure in Peru, chiefly for Indian corn. It is of a dirty yellow colour, nearly insipid to the taste, but has a powerful smell, partaking of castor and valerian. According to the analysis of Fourcroy and Vauquelin, about one-fourth of it is uric acid, partly saturated with ammonia and lime. It contains likewise oxalic acid, partly saturated with ammonia and potash; phosphoric acid, combined with the same bases and with lime; small quantities of sulphate and muriate of potash and ammonia; a small portion of fat matter; and sand, partly quartzose, partly ferruginous.
GUARD, in a general sense, signifies the defence or preservation of anything; the act of observing what passes, in order to prevent surprise; or the care, precaution, and attention we make use of, to prevent anything happening contrary to our intention or inclinations.
GUARD, in the military art, is a duty performed by a body of men, to secure an army or place from being surprised by an enemy.
In a garrison the guards are relieved every day, and it comes to every soldier's turn once in three days, so that they have two nights in bed, and one upon guard. To be upon guard, to mount the guard, to dismount the guard, to relieve the guard, to change the guard, the officer of the guard, or the serjeant of the guard, are words often used, and well understood. GUARD, advanced, is a party of either horse or foot, that marches before a more considerable body, to give notice of any approaching danger. When an army is upon the march, the 5. guards which should mount that ay serve as an advanced guard to the army: in small parties six or eight horse are sufficient, and these are not to go above four or five hundred yards before the party. An advanced guard is also a small body of twelve or sixteen horse, under a corporal or quarter-master, posted before the grand guard of a camp. GUARD, artillery, is a detachment from the army, to secure the artillery: their corps de garde is in the front, and their centries round the park. This is a fortyeight hours guard: and upon a march they go in the front and rear of the artillery, and must be sure to leave nothing behind. If a gun or wagon break down, the captain is to leave a part of his guard to assist the gunners and matrosses in getting it up again. Guann, main, that from whence all the other guards are detached. Those who are to mount the guard meet at their respective captain’s quarters, and go from thence to the parade; where, after the whole guard is drawn up, the small guards are detached for the posts and magazines; and then the subaltern officers throw lots for their guards, and are commanded by the captain of the main guard, GUARD, piquet, a good number of horse and foot always in readiness in case of an alarm: the horse are all the time saddled, and the riders booted. The foot draw up at the head of the battalion, at the beating of the tattoo; but afterwards return to their tents, where they hold themselves in readiness to march upon any sudden alarm. This guard is to make resistance, in case of an attack, till the army can get ready. GUARD boat, a boat appointed to row the rounds among the ships of war in any harbour, to observe that their officers keep a good look-out, calling to the guardboat as she passes, and not suffering her crew to come on board, without having previously communicated the watch-word of the night. GUARD irons, are curved bars of iron placed over the ornamental figures on a ship’s head or quarter, to defend them from injury. WOL. VI.
Guand ship, a vessel to superintend the marine affairs in a harbour or river, and to see that the ships which are not commissioned have their proper watch duly kept; she is also to receive seamen who are impressed in time of war: she generally has an admiral's flag at one of her mast’s head. GUAnd, in fencing, is a posture proper to defend the body from an enemy's sword. There are four general guards of the sword; to form a perfect idea of which, we must suppose a circle drawn on a wall, and divided into four cardinal points, viz. top and bottom, right and left. When the point of the sword is directed to the bottom of the circle, with the hilt opposite to its top, the body inclining very forward, this is called the po or first guard., The second guard, by many improperly called the tierce, is when the point is directed to the right or second point of the same circle, with the hilt of the sword turned to the left, and the body proportionably raised. The tierce, or third guard, is when the point of the sword is raised to the uppermost part of the same circle ; in which case the body, the arm, and the sword, are in their natural position, and in the mean of the extremes of their motion. The quart, or fourth guard, is when the point of the sword is directed to the fourth point of the circle, descending to the right as far as one-fourth of the tierce, with the outward part of the arm and the flat of the sword turned towards the ground, and the body out of the line to the right, and the hilt of the sword towards the line to the left. There is also a quint, or fifth guard, which is only the return of the point of the sword to the right, after traversing the circle to the point of the prime from whence it had departed, with a different disposition of the body, arm, and sword. The common centre of all those motions ought to be in the shoulder. In all these kinds of guards there are, the high-advanced, high-retired, and high-intermediate guard, when disposed before the upper part of the body, either with the arm quite extended, quite withdrawn, or in a mean state. The uneanadvanced guard, or simply mean guard, is when the sword is placed before the middle part of the body. The low-advanced, retired, or intermediate guards, are those where the arm and sword are advanced, withdrawn, or between the two extremes, before the lower part of the body. GUARDIAN, in law. A guardian is L.