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approbation, and particularly the approbation of persons respected or beloved, shame, pride, self-respect, pleasure in discovery, activity, or achievement, delight in beauty, strength, grace, and grandeur, and the love of power and of possessions as giving power. Any of these motives may be overdeveloped; but in moderation they are all good, and they are available from infancy to old age.

From the primary school through the university the same motives should always be in play for the determination of the regulation of conduct. Naturally they will grow stronger and stronger as the wholo nature of the child expands and bis habits become more and more firmly fixed; and for this reason these samo enduring motives should be continuously relied on. Obviously, then, there is no difference between men who manage colleges and men who manage schools in relation to this impor. tant principle of educational reform. The methods of both should be identical; and the college man or the school man who does not guide and govern through the reason of his pupils, through their natural interest in observation, experiment, com. parison, and argument, and through tho permanent motives which lead to right conduct, is not in sympathy with one of the most humane and hopeful educational reforms of the present generation. All teachers who deserve the name now recog. nize that self-control is the ultimate moral object of training in youth-a self-control independent of temporary artificial restraints, exclusions, or pressures, as also of the physical presence of a dominating person. To cultivate in the young this self-control should be the steady object of parents and teachers all the way from babyhood to full maturity.

VI. The next principle of educational construction to which I invite your atten. tion is again one which applies throughout the length and breadth of education. It is the specialization of teaching. One might easily imagine that this principle had already been sufficiently applied in universities, and only needed to be applied hereafter in schools, but the fact is that the specialization of instruction is still going on in universities, and needs a much greater extension in American colleges and professional schools than it has yet received. Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes was professor of anatomy and physiology in Harvard University down to 1871, and he really taught, in addition to these two immense subjects, portions of histology and pathology. lle described himself as occupying not a chair, but a settee. The professorship in Harvard University which was successively occupied by George Ticknor, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and James Russell Lowell, is the Smith professorship of the French and Spanish languages and literatures. In many American colleges we find to-day the same professor teaching logic, metaphysics, ethics, and political economy. Indeed, this was the caso in Harvard College down to 1871, except that moral philosophy and Christian ethics were detached from the Alford professorship from and after 1860. The specialization of instruction is by no means completed in American colleges. It is better advanced now in American secondary schools than it was in the American colleges eighty years ago, and it is just begin. ning to be developed in the American grammar schools, or grades, where it is generally spoken of as departmental organization. From the extension of this principle in American schools much is to be hoped within the next ten years, particularly for the teacher. To teach one subject to pupils at different stages, adapting the instruction to their different ages and capacities, watching their development, and leading them on with due regard to individual differences through four or five years of con. tinuons progress, gives an inexhaustible interest to the teacher's function. To master ono subject so as to be able to give both elementary and advanced instruction in it, is for the teacher himself a deep source of intellectual enthusiasm and growth. Real scholarship becomes possible for him, and also a progressive intellectual expansion through life; for only progressive scholars can maintain for many years the mastery of even a single subject. Does it seem to you an unreasonable expectation that teachers in the grades, or grammar schools, should possess the mastery of single subjects? Careful observation seems to me to give assurance that exceptional

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teachers, both men and women, already possess this mastery, and that what remains to be done is to make the exceptions the rule. Toward effecting this great improvement two important measures are the elevation of normal schools and the creation or strengthening of educational departments in colleges and universities. At any rate, there can be no doubt that this specialization of instruction is a common need from beginning to end of any national system of instruction, and that is capable of adding indefinitely to the dignity, pleasure, and serviceableness of the teacher's life. Obviously this common need and aspiration should unito rather than divide the various grades of education, and should iuduce cooperation rather than canso dissension.

VII. There is a fundamental policy in regard to educational organization which slıould unito in its support all teachers, whether in schools or universities--the policy, namely, that administrative officers in educational organizations should be experts, and not amateurs or emigrants from other professions, and that teachers should have large advisory functions in the administration of both schools and universities. The American colleges and universities are better organized in this respect than the American schools. More and more, the heads of the institutions of higher education are men of experience in education itself or in other administrative services. The presidencies of colleges are no longer filled, as a rule, by withdrawing from the ministry men well advanced in lifo and without experience in teaching. The deans of the rather distinct schools which compose universities are usually men of experience in their several departments; and much power is exercised by the faculties of colleges and universities, theso faculties being always bodies composed of the more permanent teachers. Morcover, in large colleges and universities all the teachers of a given subject are often organized into a body called a division or department, with a chairman chosen from among them as a judicious man and a distinguished teacher. These or similar dispositions need to be adopted throughout the largo urban school systems. Superintendents should ducational experts of proved capacity. Their assistants, whether called supervisors, inspectors, or assistant snperintendents, should be organized as a council or faculty, and all the teachers of a single system should be associated together in such a way that by their representatives they can bring their opinions to bear on the superintendent and his council, or in the last resort on the committee or board which has the supreme control of the system. The teachers of the same subject should also be organized for purposes of mutual consultation and support, and at their lead should be placed the best teacher of the subject in the whole system, that his influence may be felt throughout the system in the teaching of that subject. Moreover, the colleges and the schools need to be assimilated in respect to the tenure of office of teachers. After suitable probationary periods, the tenure of office for every teaclier should be during good behavior and efliciency.

In general, the differences of organization between colleges on the one hand and school systems on the other are steadily growing slighter. The endowed schools and academies already have an organization which closely resembles that of the colleges, and ail the recent changes in the mode of conducting urban school systems tend in the good direction I have described. There is in some quarters a disposition to dwell upon the size of public school systems as compared with the size of colleges and universities; but size is no measure of complexity. A university is indefinitely more complex than the largest city school system, and the technical methoils of university management are more various and intricate than the technical methods of any school system. Independently of all questions of size or mass, however, administrative reform is taking the same directions in both colleges and schools—first, toward expert control under constitutional limitations; secondly, toward stable tenures of office; and thirdly, toward larger official influence for teachers.

Recalling, now, the main heads which have been treated, namely, tho individuali. zation of instruction, the sis essential constituents of education, power in action as

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the true end of education, the selection or election of studies, the appeal to permanent instead of temporary motives for controlling conduct, the specialization of teaching, aud the right principles of educational organization, do we not see that the principles and methods of educational reform and construction have a common interest for all teachers, whether connected with colleges, secondary schools, or elomentary schools, and shall wo not agreo that there is something unphilosophical in the attempt to prejudice teachers of whatever grado agaiust the recommendations of the committee of ten and of the conferences that conimittee organized, on the grounds that a small majority of the persons concerned in making them were conuected with colleges, and that tlo opinion of college or university officers about school matters are of little valuo?

The plain fact is that there is community of interests and aims among teachers thronghout all the grades into which tho course of education is at present artifically divided. Tho identity of the principles which govern reforms and improvements at every stage is strikingly illustrated by the simultaneousness and similarity of the advances now being everywhere made. Elementary schools, secondary schools, and colleges all feel similar impulses, and are all making similar moilifications of their former methods. I can testify from personal observation that some of the administrative improvements lately made in universities resemble strikingly improvements maile at the other extremity-namely, in the kindergartens. It is very noticeablo that even some of the mechanical or business changes made in school administration-changes which were not supposed to have any bearing on the philosophy of education, or on new methods of teaching-have facilitated true educational reform. Thus, the method of transporting children at public expense to central grammar schools in a rural town, or to high schools in large towns and cities, has distinctly facilitated the introduction of departmental and elective instruction. Again, the purchase and free issue of books for pupils by towns and cities has facilitated the use of good literature instead of readers-an important contribution toward improve ing the teaching of tho nativo language and literature by increasing interest in them and love for them. In liko manner, the institution of departmental libraries—that is, of small working collections of books on the same general subject, deposited in a place by themselves, and always accessible to students of that subject--has made possible great improvements in the instruction of Harvard Collego and many other colleges.

The committee of ten declare in their report “that it is impossible to make a satisfactory secondary school programme, limited to a period of four years, and founded on the present elementary school subjects and methoils.” In view of tho rapid changes now going on in elementary school subjects and methods, this declaration amounts to saying that the committee's work on the four secondary school programmes they recommend has only a temporary interest. Tables I, II, and III of their report have some permanent value; but Table IV, which contains the four programmes called classical, Latin-scientific, modern languages, and English, and which cost the committee a great deal of labor, will surely be rendered useless by improvements in the elementary and secondary schools which may easily be accomplished within ten years. Some firm, lasting principles are embodicd in Table IV, but the programmes themselves are only temporary trestlework.

If I were asked to mention the best part of the contribution which the committee of ten have maile to the progress of American education, I should say that their general metliod of work was the best part-the method of investigation and discussion by snbject of instruction teachers and experts from all sorts of colleges and universities and from all sorts of schools, public, private, and endowed, taking part in both investigation and discussion. The committee's method of work emphasizes the cominurity of interest at all grades, and the fact that experience at every grade is valuable for suggestion and counsel at all other grades. To my thinking, the present artificial and arbitrary distinctions between elementary schools and secondary

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schools, or between grammar schools and high schools, have no philosophical foundation, anıl are likely to be profouncily modified, if they do not altogether pass away. In the same sense, I believe that the formal distinction between college work and university work is likely to disappear, althongh the distinction between liberal education and technical or professional oclucation is sure to endure. I have never yet seen in any college or university a method of instruction which was too good for an ele:rentary or a secondary school. The alert, inspiring, winning, commanding teacher is just the same rare and admirable person in school and in college. There is, to be sure, one important element of university work which schools and colleges can not participate in-namely, the clement of original investigation, but although this element is of high importance, and qualifies, or flavors, a considerable part of university work, there remains in all largo wiversities, and particularly in those which make much of professional training, an inmense body of purely disciplinary work, all of which is, or should be, conducted on principles anıl by methods which apply throughout the whole course of eclucation. When it is a question low best to teach a given subject, tlio chances are that college or scientific school teachers of that subject can help school teachers, and that school teachers can help college teachers. Moreover, it is important that each shonld know wbat tho other does. I have observed, too, that, even when neither party is ready to venture on affirmative counsel, each is pretty well prepared to tell the other what not to do. Such negative counsel is often very useful.

On the whole, the greatest promise of usefulness which I see in the report of the committee of ten lies in its obvious tendency to promote cooperation among school and college teachers and all other persous intelligently interested in eclucation, for the advancement of well-marked and comprehensive educational reforms.


By JAMES H. BAKER, President of the University of Colorado.


In a report on requirements for admission to college, made to the National Council of Exlucation in 1891, the following recommendation appeared:

“That a committee be appointed by this council to select a dozen universities and colleges and a vlozen high and preparatory schools to be represented in a convention to consider the problems of secondary and higher education.”

In accordance with the recommendatiou the columittee making the report, of which the writer was chairman, was authorized to call a meeting of representatives of leading educational institutions at Saratoga in 1892. Invitations were issued and some 30 delegates responded. After a three days' session a plan was formulateil which was adopted by the National Council. The committee of ten thus appointed and charged with the duty of conducting an investigation of secundary school studies held its first meeting in New York City in Norenber, 1893. The committee arranged for nino subcommittees or conferences, each to consider a principal subject of high school courses, and submitted to them definite inquiries. Each conference was composed of prominent instructors in the particular subject assigned. The inquiries covered suich points as place of beginning the study, time to be given, selection of topics, advisability of difference in treatment for pupils going to college and for those who finish with the high school, methods, etc. The reports of these conferences in printed form, together with a summary of the recommendations, were in the hands of the committee of ten at their second meeting in New York, November, 1893. The report of the committee of ten, including the conference reports, throngh the good offices of the Commissioner of Education, was published by the Government, and it has now been before the country for some mouths. ED 93




The manner of investigation took a somewhat different turu from what was anticipated when the original report, which led to the undertaking, was made, but I do not doubt the wisdom of the plan finally adopted. The committee is confident that it would be difficult to find groups of men in America better fitted than the members of the conferences to discuss the specific subjects assigned them, and their recommendations as to choice of matter, tho time element, place in the curriculum, and the best methods constituto a most valuable contribution to the educational literature of the period. In the main they represent the best thought of practical educators. It is not my purpose to enter into a discussion of the details of these conference reports. Each report, and in many instances each part of the report, is in itself a large theme. The summary of results and the recommendation of the committee of ten will occupy the time allotted me.

It was expected that the report as a whole would excite much discussion and invite extensive criticism; and if no other result is attained than the sharpening of wits in controversy, the existence of the report has sufficient warrant.

It is iinpossiblo to say of any opinions that they are final and of any methods that they are the best. Some hold that the eternal verities are to be discovered in the consciousness of the few geniuses, and that obtaining a consensus of opinion is not the way to reach wise conclusions. If we are Hegelian in our philosophy of history, we shall hold to the law of development, shall believe that each stago of thought is a necessary one, that the best light is obtained by the historic method, and that the highest evolution of thonght is to be found in the belief and practice of the advanced representatives of any line of investigation. The work of the conferences was to correlate the parts of each subject by the method of applying reason to history; it was tho work of the committee proper to correlate these results by the same method. Whother the committee was largo and varieel enough to represent all sides is to be decided by the discussions of those best fitted to form opinions.


After a careful review of the work of our committeo I venture to make a formal list of opinions presented, most of which I think should be heartily indorsed, reserying till later the discussion of a few of them.

(1) That work in many secondary school studies should be begun earlier.

(2) That each subject should be made to help every other, as, for example, history should contribute to the study of English, and natural history should be correlated with language, drawing, literature, and geography.

(3) That every subject should be taught in the same way, whether in preparation for college or as part of a finishing course.

(4) That more highly trained teachers are needed, especially for subjects.that are receiving increased attention, as the various sciences and history.

(5) That in all scientific subjects laboratory work should be extended and improved.

(6) That for some studies special instructors should be employed to guide the work of teachers in elementary and secondary schools.

(7) That all pupils should pursue a given subject in the same way and to the same extent as long as they study it at all.

(8) That every study should be made a serious subject of instruction, and should cultivate the pupil's powers of observation, memory, expression, and reasoning.

(9) That the choice between the classical course and the Latin-scientific course should be postponed as long as possible, until the taste and power of the pupil have been tested and he has been able to determine his future aim.

(10) That twenty periods per week should be adopted as the standard, providing that five of these periods be given to unprepared work.

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