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(11) That parallel programmes should be identical in as many of their parts as possible.

(12) That drawing should be largely employed in connection with most of the studies.

(13) The omission of industrial and commercial subjects. This is mentioned without comment.

(14) That more fieldwork should be required for certain sciences. (15) The desirability of uniformity; not definitely recommended in the report.

(16) That the function of the high schools should be to prepare for the duties of life as well as to fit for college.

(17) That colleges and scientific schools shonld accept any one of the courses of study as preparation for admission.

(18) That a good conirso in English should be required of all pupils entering college.

(19) That many teachers should employ various means for better preparation, such as summer schools, special conrses of instruction given by college professors, and instruction of school superintendents, principals of high schools, or specially equipped teachers.

(20) That the colleges should take a larger interest in secondary and elementary schools.

(21) That technological and professional schools should require for adınission a complete secondary school education.

(22) That each study pursued should be given continuous time adequate to securing from it good results.

The points of the report which I should question are as follows:

(1) That Latin should be begin much earlier than now. (This is a conference recommendation.)

(2) That English should be given as much time as Latin, (Conference recommendation.)

(3) The large number of science subjects recommended, with loss of adequate time for each.

(4) The omission of a careful analysis of the value of each subject, absolute and relative, preparatory to tabulating courses.

(5) The apparent implication that the multiplying of courses is advisable.

(6) The implications that the choice of subjects by the pupils may be a matter of comparative indifference-the doctrine of equivalence of studies.

(7) Some parts of the model programmes made by the committee.


An examination of tabulated results of the investigations of the conferences will show that in their opinion the following studies should be begun below the high school:

English literature.
German or Freuch.
Elementary algebra and concreto geometry.
Natural phenomena.
Natural history.
Biography and mythology, civil government, and Greek and Roman history.

Physical geography, There has been much discussion within a few years as to improvements in elementary courses of study, with, I believe, a growing tendency toward important modifications. Rigid and mechanical methods and an exaggerated notion of thioroughness in every detail have often become a hindrance to the progress of the pupils in elementary schools. The mind of the child is susceptible of a more mature development at the age of 14 than is usually attained. There are numerous examples of pupils in graced schools, who, with very limited schoo. terms, prepare for the high school at the age of 14. Under the guidance of painstaking and intelligent parents or private tutors, children cover in a very brief timo tlıe studies of the grammar school. All have noted, under favoring couditions, a surprising development at an early age in understanding of history, literature, and common phenomena, a growth far beyond that reached at the same age in tho schools. These facts simply slow the possibilities of the period of elementary edncation. We understand that ultimately those best prepared to judge must determine the modifications, if any are needel, of the elementary courses. Some sy tlie courses are already overcrowded, it is impossible to add anything. Is it not true, however, that by placing less stress upon a few things, by arousing mental activity through the stimulus of the scientific method, and by improving the skill of the teachers, the work suggested by these conferences may be easily accomplished? All these experiments are already old in many scliools in the country.

Consider the logical order of studies. Each child, almost from the dawn of consciousness, recognizes relations of number and space, observes phenomena, and draws crulo inferences, records in his mind the daily vleeds of his associates, and employs langnage to express his thonght, often with largo use of imagination. Already has begin the spontaneous development in mathematics, science, history, anil literature. Nature points the way and we shoulıl follow the direction. These subjects in their various forms should be pursued from the first. Hill's True Order of Studies shows that there are some five parallel, upward-running lines representing the divisions of knowledge, and that developinent may be compareil to the encircling onwarıl movement of a spiral which at oach turn cuts off a portion of all the lines. If we accept this view, we must grant that geometry on its concreto side belongs to the cariest period of education; that the observation of natural phenomena with simple iuferences will be a most attractive study to the child; that the importanco of observation of objects of natural history is foreshadoweil taneous interest taken in them before the school period; that tales of ancient heroes, and the pleasing myths of antiquity, together with the striking characters and incidents of Greek and Roman history, belong to the early period of historic knowl. eilge; that the whole world of substance and phenomena that constitutes our environment should be the subject of study under the head of physiography or physical geography; that thu thoughts of literature, cthical and imaginative, appeal readily to tho cliild's mind. We may add that the taste of children may bo early cultivated and that thio glory which the child discovers in nature makes possible the art idea and the religions sentiment. The reason for beginning a foreign language early is somewhat independent, but all agree that early study of a living language is desirable.

Should we not reconsider our analysis of the elementary courses? Superintendents and teachers will linıl the necessary changes not impossible, but easy. The sum of all that is recommended for the elementary schools by the conferences is not so formidable as at first appears.

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The relation of tho mind to a study is determined by the nature of the mind and the nature of the study, and thero seems to be no reason in psychology why a college preparatory subject should be taught differently to one fitting for tho duties of life. Besides, it is economy to make iilentical the work of different courses as far as possible. There was perfect unanimity in the opinion that the same studies should be pursued by all in the same way as far as taken.


Everyone knows that many teachers are unskillel to present in the elementary schools the beginnings of geometry, science, history, or literature, and that the failures in this work are due to the mechanical efforts of those who have had no higher

or special training. The domauds of present methods are imperative for improved power in instruction. Science is well tanight in but a few schools. I bavo seen within a few months a school which taught biology from a manual without specimen, microscope, or illustrations. It was a humiliating confession of the committee that the classical course is superior, for the reason that it is difficult to find enougli instructors competent to teach modern subjects by modern methods.


A very important principle recognized by the committee is the advantage of postponing the necessity of makiug a final choice of courses as long as possible. In this country we have no fixeil conditions of rank, and the poor mau's son has the same privileges as the sons of men of position and wealth. Hence, the station in life is not determined by the differentiation in courses at an early period. Very few parents decirle upon the final character of the children's instruction much before the beginning of tho college period.

For these reasons I would not agree with the conference recommendation to begin Latin at an earlier period. It would not be economy; there is enough else that belongs to the elementary stage of education, and I would not recommend a plan that is founded upon the foreign view of caste and fixed condition in life.


Uniformity in requirements for admission to college was the subject of the report that finally led to this investigation. Although uviformity is not prominently urged in the report of the committee of ten, I think that the logical outcome of the latter report will be a tendency toward uniformity. There is a vigorous conflict of opinion to-day as to nationalism and individualism, with a strong tendency, especially in education, towarıl individualism. In my judgment there exists a harmful slavery of the high anı preparatory schools to the erratic and varied demands of different col. leges, and also a slavery to ignorance and caprice in some schools themselves, which would be removed by a general agreement to uniformity. Men are not enslaved, but are emancipated, by organization, and freedom of the individual is fonnd in the good order of society and government. In a facetious criticism of the committee's report by a man with whom I have had many a friendly tilt, I read the following. The writer is arguing for extremo individualism in choice of studies: “Please tell us if you and your colleagues on the couference considered any methods for the encouragement of cranks.” No; for the encouragement neither of cranks nor of crankiness, but for the encouragement of the best kind of rational education. While there are a few wise, independent investigators who need po enforced uniformity and will not be bound by the recommendations of others, nine-tenths of the schools are largely imitators, or, worse, are working independently with limited insigbt, and this nive-tenths would be vastly improved by adopting courses and methods growing from a consensus of tlie best opinions of the country. The lowest would thereby tend to rise to the highest and from that plane a new advance could be made. Meantime the original thinkers would be free to puslı forward toward higher results to bo generally adopted later. Through contact of various ideas some principles are settled, and the world is free to move on towarı fresh discovery.

The selection of studies is to be determined largely by the nature of the mind anel the universal character of natural and civil environments, and this fact points toward the possibility of uniformity. The period of secondary education is not the period for specializing, and even if it is there should be some uniformity in differentiation. In tlie United States there is a general uniformity of tradition of government, of civilization, and the educated youth of San Francisco bears about the same relation to the world as the educated yonth of Boston; hence, so far as elementary and secondary education is pursued, there is no reason why it shoulıl not be substantially the same in various schools, not in details belonging to the individual teacher, but in paper requirements and important features of methods. This is an argument for the general adoption of such recommended courses as shall be the final outcome, after free discussion of the investigations of these conferences and of the committee.


Nothing in the whole report is more important than the proposed closer connection between high schools and colleges, and this is clearly and forcibly urged. Whatever course of study properly belongs to a secondary school is also a good preparation for higher education, else either secondary or higher education is seriously in error. Whenever a youth decides to take a college course, he should find himself on the road toward it. No one can doubt that in the coming years pupils from properly arranged high school courses must be admitted to corresponding courses in higher education. The divorcement between higher education and all lower grade work, except the classical, has been a fatal defect in the past. The entire course of education should be a practical interest of college professors, and there should be a hearty cooperation between them and school superintendents and principals in considering all educational problems.

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It is a fact of siguificance that a committee on which some leading institutions are represented urges the professional schools of the country to place their standard of admission as high as that of the colleges; and we hope that aid will thus be given the institutions endeavoring to raise the prevailing low requirements of law, medical, and divinity schools.

The reports of most of tho conferences asked for continuous and adequate work for each subject, that it might become a source of discipline and of valuable insight. No doubt part of the work in high schools is too brief and fragmentary to gain from it the best results, and I regret that the committee report did not more clearly prosent this defect.

In fact, I believe the aim should be to reduce the number of courses, the number of subjects, and the number of topics under a subject. It is not necessary that the entire landscape be studied in all its parts and details if a thorough knowledge of the most prominent features is gained.


In one important point I was constrained to differ from tho reading of the report, as finally submitted, although the expressions to which exceptions were taken were due rather to the standpoint of the writer of the report than tke resolutions of the committee. I refer to those paragraphs in which it is implied that the choice of studies in secondary schools may be a matter of comparative indifference, provided good training is obtained from the subjects chosen. This view makes education formal without giving due regard to the content. Here are the world of nature and the world of mind. Nature, when its meaning is realized, has the same meaning for all, and in its various phases affects all in substantially the same way. The history of mankind in its various kinds and degrees of development has the same content for all. The nature of mind in generic characteristics and the universal truths that belong to tho spiritual world are the same for all. Mind has the same powers in all human beings. We all know, feel, and will; all persons acquire through attention; retain in memory under the same conditions; obey the same laws of association; reason, so far as rightly, from the samo principles; act from motives. Men may be classed crudely according to the motives that will appeal to them. While there are infinite variations iu details of men's natures, in power of insight, degree of development, methods of acquisition, predominant motives, in interests and tendencies, all persons in their growth obey the laws of human nature. Hence I argue that a science of education is possible; that it is possible to select studies with a view to their universal use in the primary development of the powers and with the assurance of superior value as revealing to man his entire environment and the nature of his being.

Mere form, mere power, without content, means nothing. Power is power through knowledge. The very world in which we are to use our power is the world which we must first understand in order to use it. The present is understood not by the power to read history but by what history contains. The laws of nature and deductions therefrom are not made available by mere power, but by the power which comes from the knowledge of them. Hence the education which does not include something of all views of tho world and of the thinking subject is lacking in data for tho wise and effective use of power.


In view of this position I would regard it the duty of the committee to analyze carefully the nature and importance of each leading subject representing a part of the field of knowledge, to the end that a wise correlation of tho work of the conferences might be made. The study of number in its concrete form and in its abstract relations, the study of space relations as founded upon axiomatic truths, are necessary as a basis of many kinds of knowledge, as representing an essential view of the world, as a foundation for the possibilities of commerce and structures, and as furnishing important training in exact reasoning. Science includes many things; but chemistry and physics, which explain the manifestations of force in the material world; biology, which reveals important laws of plant and animal life, and physiography, which acquaints us with our entire environment as to location, phenomena, and partial explanation—these are connected with tho practical side of civilization and the welfare of humanity, and are a guard against superstition and error. They are indispensable for practice in induction, and they should be well represented in a course of study. History, in which man discovers the meaning of the present and gains wisdom for the future, which is a potent source of ethical thought, must not be omitted. English language, as the means of accurate, vigorous, and beautiful expression, and English literature, which is the treasury of much of the world's best thought, are not subjects to leave to the election of the pupil.

In addition to the training in observation, memory, expression, and inductive reasoning which inost studies offer, we must consider the development of imagination, right emotion, and right will. In other words, æsthetic and ethical training is most essential. Secondary schools need not employ formal courses of study to this end, but various means may be employed incidentally. There are a hundred ways in which taste may be cultivated, and literature is one of the best means for developing the art idea. Moral character is developed by right habit, by the right uso of the powers in tho process of education, by growth in knowledge of ethical principles, by growth of the spirit of reverence, and by the ethical code of religion. All of these means, except the formal use of the last, may be employed by the schools. And the ethical element is inherent in the very nature of right education. To educate rightly is to educate ethically. History, biography, and literature make direct contributions to ethical knowledge.

We now reach the study of foreign classical tongnes. If there is nothing moro than formal training, for instance, in Latin, the sooner we abandon its study the better. But we find in it also a valuable content. In the process of development some phases of human possibility seem to have been aimost fully realized, while the world has continued to develop along other lines. In such cases we must go back and fill our minds with the concepts that belong to the remote period. The insight into the character of the peoples and their institutions, the concepts of their civilizations, tho beauty of their literatures, the practical contribution to the knowledge of our own language, form an important content to be realized by the study of the

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