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For the ordinary high school perhaps the next criticism that might be made on this report is that the programmo and the work laid out there is too much on the factory plan of piecework—the effort to reduce the whole system of secondary school education to a scientific basis, where we could know beforehand just how much work was to be turned out provided the contract were fulfilled that the student did the work assigned. While that is a comparatively simple matter in an academy or school organized specially for fitting students for college, it is not so easily applied to the ordinary high school.

On this subject I had quite an extended correspondence with the chairman of the committee, and part of this has been printed in the June number of the School Review. Such exercises as inusic, drawing, elocution, orthography, and a great many subjects, some of which necessarily go into all high schools, seemed to be in danger of being left out entirely. The only thing we could get was a resolution in committee, that while no place was made for these in the programme, it was left to local authorities to deal with the matter as they saw fit. In the correspondence just referred to I said of the tentative report sent to the different members of the committee for examination before the final meeting: “I can not agree with tha report in recommending that nearly all the subjects taught in any year slould be taught during the same number of periods per week. Tablo III provides no place for music, drawing, elocution, spelling, penmanship, etc. Such studies as stenography and manual training are coming into high schools and are coming to stay, and we might as well recognize the fact. Another and a very different class of subjects, such as political economy, psychology, and ethics has long been taught in secondary schools, and I am not prepared to recommend their abolition from the curriculum. Remembering that more than 90 per cent of liigh school pupils may not go to college, I consider such studies far more valuable than astronomy, meteorology, or physiography." In reply to that the chairman said: "I see there is another objection in your mind which the committee can not meet, because the conference gives opposite advice. You think there must be in the high school course place for music, drawing, elocution, spelling, penmanship, stenography, manual training, political economy, etc. Now I believe it to be absolutely impossible to make a courso valuable for training to which these various and numerous subjects are admitted." In answer I said: “Of the subjects mentioned in your letter of the 24th which are not named in the tables of the provisional report, such as music, drawing, etc., I am firmly convinced that some should have a place in every high school course, while others I think should be admissible in certain courses.” Of course there was no conference provided to consider the question of any of these added subjects. Very naturally, therefore, they find no mention in any of the reports of the conference, with the single exception of political economy, and that I believe the conference reports adversely as a secondary school study. I hold that the typical high school, in order to do its best work, must have some of these subjects, and if the school is large enough and its equipment is sufficient it should have them all. We can not leave out elocution nor music and have the work complete. In a high school of this kind our students fortunately come from all classes and families. Some come from the most refined families in the community, and we must have an atmosphere in which they will feel that their manners will not be corrupted in the high school. Others get their highest ideas of culture and refinement from their connection with the high school, and for them it is necessary to introduce as many ethic and ästhetic exercises as we can without impairing the more solid courses of study.

I do not know that it is best to include the other class-political economy, psychol. ogy, and ethics—in the secondary school course. College men generally pronounce against them, but they bave never told us what we should do for the 90 per cent of the graduates of the high school who do not go to college, and therefore can not study these subjects under the most favorable conditions. I believe that a properly equipped school will find not perhaps that these subjects are best, but that they are

good and that the results are satisfactory, especially when a large proportion of these students go out as teachers. Without training in the subjects known as the intellectual studies they will be intelligent in a way, but they can hardly appreciate the ordinary writing of Dr. Harris or Dr. Taylor or any of our theologians or great writers who contribute so freely to magazines and educational periodicals. Certainly ethics and psychology should be taught to the senior class in the high school, and political economy also, for in all these some things are settled, and these as first principles may be taught. In spite of the blundering way in which they are often learned and taught, they are valuable.

But the committee says: “Then teach these things, but do not do it when any. body is looking. Teach them as something else. Let your ethics come in as part of your algebra, and your psychology as part of your geography, and your political economy as part of your history." Cicero long ago said that all the studies which pertain to culture have between themselves a certain relationship, but it does not follow from that that you can teach psychology from history very well or ethics from geography. It reminds one of tho modern furnishing of our houses, where everything is, as it wero, something else. Your ottoman is a coal-hod and your divan may be an ice-chest. A piano tuner said the other day he was afraid to sit down to tune a piano for fear a folding bed would fly out on him. So they would have these subjects taught under a different name when scholars are not aware that they are learning them. If you are to teach these studies, teach them by their true name; and though we can not do university work, yet I believe it is better to teach something of these than to send our scholars out with an idea that there is nothing in this universe except that which can be weighed and measured. The committeo says let them go to the college and university and they will make a better beginning. There they will begin with the discussion as to whether there is a soul. I do not object, but I stand on the proposition that I have a soul and a body. Following that, I believe we can teach in the high school a great deal that is valuable in these subjects.

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