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Since these departments provide for the much-needed specialization of work, and furnish a counterpoise to the mighty swing of the general meetings of the association, their influence is salutary. There is no doubt that much more can be done in this direction. There should be a department that unites those interested in the study of child life; another that unites the specialists who are at work in the mastery of foreign systems of education; one for students of the Herbartian educational experiments-those that make so much of Robinson Crusoo as a center of school work, and whose great word is “apperception.” Those who have read the educational essay that has made so much noise in England, and which bears the absurd title of “A Pot of Greeu Feathers," I need not say, are already interested in this question of apperception, as the very center of educational psychology. The doctrine of apperception, briefly stated, is this: We not only perceive objects, but we recognize or apperceive them. When we apperceivo we relate what we see to what we already knew before; wo sometimes call this inward digestion of what we see. Now education, it is evident enough, deals with this matter of recognizing or similating (apperceiving) the new material learned by relating it to what wo know before.
If a department of psychology were formed that held two meetings at each annual session, I doubt not that it would soon prepare some work which would gladly be given a place on the programmo of the general association, and certainly before it secured a place on the programme it would get into the old departments of elementary instruction or normal instruction, or into the superintendents' section or some other,
I would lay emphasis on the specializing of work indefinitely. Apart from the national associatiou such specializing would have its danger; but in the association it at once adds strength and gains strength. There could be a department of statistical study, wherein the few specialists who are interested in the science of statistics, in the new sense which is coming to be accentuated by sociologists, could confer together round a table. Round-table discussions over specialties is, in my opinion, what is needed to introduce a new fountain of vitality into the association. Not that the association is failing in vitality, for it never had so much at any former period as it has now. But this new element of specialization is a new element of vitality which may make the annual visit twice as valuable as it has been hitherto. I have mentioned by way of examples of these round-table departments, those that should study child life, foreign systems of education (say French, German, English, Chinese, etc.), or pedagogical movements like that of the Herbartians, or, again, educational psychology, or statistics. I would add other examples of specialization. Let the specialists in teaching English literature have a round table; the specialists in teaching ancient history or modern history or the philosophy of history; the specialists in teaching French or any modern language; those specially interested in teaching fractions or any other part of arithmetic. These round-table discussions could be called for any year. They could not be expected to discuss the same subject for two consecutivo years. Here is just the trouble with our present departments. They have worked over the material ready to hand, and have no new material in the process of making. The council of education has formed a list of committees on a variety of subjects and stereotyped it once for all. The members of those cast-iron committees find themselves appointed to report on some subject which has no new fresh interest for them, and they do not see how to begin fresh work. We do not want any more reports on such general topics as high schools, or private schools, or coeducation, or moral education, or educational psychology, but we do want specialized reports which focus the whole mind of the subcommittees on some special topic, within those more general topics such as (in the domain of moral education, the freedom of the will in the light of Ribot's work on The Diseases of the Will; or (in the domain of educational psychology) the effect of committing to memory by the so-called aids or arts of memory; or on the formation of logical habits of thinking; or the best method of cultivating a convenient memory for names; the true remedy for duplicate registration of pupils attending both winter and summer schools, a duplication which is common in most of the State school reports; on a legitimate modo of interesting the people in electing good members to the school board; on the proper manner of securing the interest of the pubJic press in the good features of the public schools; on the effect of the private schools in raising or lowering the standard of respectability in the profession of teaching; on the best method of securing literary and scientific culture in a corps of teachers. No one of these topics would do for a second report; no one of them would do for a first report mado by members of the council not interested in it. The volunteer system is the only system for round-table work. It would be best generally to concentrate attention, and guide it by having a report made upon some particular book, like Lange's work on Apperception, or Mrs. Jacobi's book on Science and Language Study.
The general work of the association, as a whole, should go on in deep ruts, but the special work of the departments should be specialized and always fresh and
This will take care of itself if there be a sufficiency of these small groups
encouraged. Perhaps there are only four persons in the entire nation interested in some special topic. The National Association, with its facilities for cheap transportation and cheap board, furnishes the best opportunity each year for the meeting of these four persons, or any other similarly interested four persons. Perhaps the attraction of the particular interest would not be sufficient to draw together the four specialists. But the National Association adds a host of other attractions, and in the aggregate these are strong enough to provail.
We wish to produce as many growing teachers as possible-as many as possible who each year have found fresh loads and have distanced their former selves.
It seems to me, therefore, quite donbtful whether the division of the National Association into sectional associations, with which it alternates biennially, would not be rather a step backward. It would perhaps break the continuity which is essential as a kind of background on which tho specialization which we have discussed can best take place. It will certainly make tho familiar faces that meet us from year to year, coming from a great distance-as in the present meeting, from Colorado and Texas-it will make these faces less familiar to us, and different sections of the Union will be in less direct sympathy than formerly.
If I havo studied aright this problem, it is not the general association that is in neel of reform, but only the departments. These departments, instead of breaking away from the type of the general association, as they should do, are imitating its organization when they ought to devote themselves to developing and fostering voluntary subcommittees or round tables devoted to special work.
The general association, with its wide scope, its great masses, its distinguished personalities, its cheap fares, its entertaining tours, and its spectacle of great combination, and, lastly, with tho great interest and substantial tributes of respect which it elicits from the business men of all parts of the conntry, and from the world in general outside the scholastic field-the general association, with these reasons for being, should continue as it is.
CONSTITUTION OF THE NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ASSOCIATION, 1886-1891.
To elerate the character and advance the interests of the profession of teaching, and to promote the canso of popular education in the United States, we, whose names are subjoineil, agree to adopt the following
This associatioa shall be styled the National Educational Association.
ARTICLE II.--Departments. SECTION 1. It shall consist of nine (lepartments: The first, of school superintendence; the second, of normal schools; the third, of clementary schools; the fourth, of higher instruction; the fifth, of indusirial education; the sixth, of art education; the seventh, of kindergarten instruction; the eighth, of music clucation; the ninth, of secondary education; and a national council of education. SEC. 2. Other departments inay be organized in the manner prescribed in this constitution.
ARTICLE III.-llembership. SECTIOF. 1. Any person in any way connected with the work of cducation, or any edncational association, shall be eligible to membership. Such person or association may become a member of this association by paying two dollars and signing this constitution, and may continue a inember by the payment of an annual fee of two dollars. On neglect to pay such fee, the membership will cease.
SEC. 2. Each department may prescribe its own conditions of membership, provided that no person be adinitted to such membership who is not a member of the general association.
SEC. 3. Any person eligible to membership may become a lito member by paying at once twenty dollars.
ARTICLE IV.-Ojicers. SECTION 1. The officers of this association shall be a president, twelvo rico-presidents, a secretary, a treasurer, one director for each State, district, or Territory represented in the association, and the presiding oflicers of the several departments and a board of trustees to be constituted as hereinafter provided. Any friend of education may become a life director by the donation of one hundred dollars to the association at one time, either by himself or on his bebalt; and any educational association may secure a perpetual directorship by a like donation of one hundred dollars, the director to be appointed annually or for life. Whenever a life meinber desires to become a life director, he shall be credited with the amount he has paid for his life membership.
SEC. 2. The president, vice-presidents, secretary, treasurer, directors, life directors, president of the council, and presiding officers of their respective departments shall constitute the board of directors, and, as such, shall havo power to appoint such committees from their own number as they shall deem expedieut.
SEC. 3. The elective officers of the association shall be chosen by ballot, unless otherwiso ordered, on the second day of each annual session, a majority of the votes cast being necessary for a choice. They shall continue in office until the close of iho annual session subsequent to their election, and until their successors are chosen, except as hereinafter provided.
Scc. 4. Each department shall be administered by a prosident, vice-president, secretary, and such other officers as it shall deem necessary to conduct its atrairs; but no person shall be elected to any office of any department, or of the association, who is not, at tho timno of the clection, a member of tho association.
SEC. 5. The president shall preside at all meetings of the association and of the board of directors, and shall perform the duties usually devolving upon a presiding officer. In his absence, the first vico. president in order who is present shall preside; and in the absence of all vico-presidents, a pro tempore chairman shall be appointed on nomination, the secretary putting the question.
Sec. 6. The secretary shall keep a full and accurate report of the proceedings of the general meetings of the association and all meetings of the board of directors, and shall conduct such correspondence as the directors may assign, and shall have his records present at all meetings of the association and of the board of directors. The secretary of each department shall, in addition to performing the duties usually pertaining to his oflice, kenp a list of tho members of his department.
SEC. 7. The treasurer shall receive and under tho direction of tbe board of trustees hold in safe. keeping all moneys paid to the association shall expend the same only npon the order of said board; sball keep an exact account of his receipts and expenditures, with vouchers for the latter, which accounts, ending the first day of July each year, lo shall render to the board of trustees, and, when approved by said board, he shall report tho sanie to the board of directors. The treasurer shall give such bond for the faithful discharge of his duties as may be required by the board of trustees; and ho shall continuo in oflice until the first meeting of the board of directors held prior to the annual meeting of the association next succeeding that for which he is elected.
Sec. 8. The board of directors shall have power to fill all vacancies in their own body; shall have in chargo the general interests of the association excepting those herein intrusted to the board of trustees; shall make all necessary arrangements for its meetings, and shall do all in its power to mako it a useful and honorablo institution. Upon the written application of twenty members of the association for permission to establish a new department, they may grant such permission. Such now department shall in all respects be entitled to the same rights and privileges as the others. The formation of such department shall in effect be a sufficient amendment to this constitution for the inser. tion of its name in Article II, and the secretary shall mako tlo necessary alterations.
Sec. 9. The board of trustees shall consist of four members, elected by the board of directors for a term of four years, and the president of the association, who shall be a member ex officio during his term of office. At the election of the trustees in 1886, one trustee shall be clected for one year, one for two years, one for three years, and one for four years, and annually thereafter, at the first meeting of the board of directors held prior to the annual meeting of the association, one trustee shall be elected for the term of four years. All vacancies occurring in said board of 'trustees, whether by resignation or otherwise, shall be filled by the board of directors for the unexpired term; and tho absence of a trustee from two consecutive annual meetings of the board shall forfeit his membership therein. The board of trustees thus elected and constituted shall be the executive financial officers of this association, as a body corporate, as conferred by the certificate of incorporation under tho provisions of the act of general incorporation, class third, of the Revised Statutes of the District of Columbia, dated the twenty-fourth day of February, 1886, at Washington, D. C., and recorded in Liber No. 4, "Acts of incorporation for the District of Columbia."
SEC. 10. It shall be the duty of the board of trustees to provide for safe keeping and investment of all funds which the association may receive from lifo-directorships, or from donations; and the incomo of such invested funds shall be used exclusively in paying the cost of publishing the annual volume of proceedings of the association, excepting when donors shall specify otherwiso. It shall also be the duty of the board to issue orders on the treasurer for the payment of all bills approved by the board of directors, or by the president and secretary of the association acting under the authority of the board of directors; and, when practicable, the trustees shall invest all surplus funds exceeding ono hundred dollars, that may remain in the hands of the treasurer after paying the expenses of the association for tho previous year.
SECTION 1. The annual meeting of the association shall be held at such time and place as shall be determined by the board of directors.
SEC. 2. Special meetings may be called by the president at the request of five directors.
SEC. 3. Any department of the association may hold a special mcoting at such time and place as by its own regulations it shall appoint.
SEC. 4. The board of directors shall hold their regular meetings at the place, and not less than two hours before the assembling of the association.
SEC. 5. Special meetings may bo held at such other times and places as the board or the president shall determine.
SEC. 6. Each new board shall organize at the session of its election. At its first meeting a commit. teo on publication shall be appointed, which shall consist of the president and the secretary of the association for the previous year, and one member from each department.
By-laws, not inconsistent with this constitution, may be adopted by a two-thirds voto of the asso. ciation.
ARTICLE VII.- Amendments.
This constitution may be altered or amended at a regular meeting by the unanimous vote of the members present, or by a two-ti ds vote of the members present, provided that the alteration or amendment has been substantially proposed in writing at a previous meeting.
1. At each regular meeting of the association there shall be appointed a committee on nominations, one on honorary members, and one on resolutions.
2. The president and secretary shall certify to the board of trustees all bills approved by the board of directors.
3. Each paying menuber of the association shall be entitled to a copy of its proceedings. 4. No paper, lecture, or address shall be read before the association or any of its departments in the absence of its author, por shall any such paper, lecture, or address be published in the volume of proceedings without the consent of the association, upon approval of the executive committee.
5. It shall be the duty of the president, secretary, and treasurer of the association, to appoint annu. ally somo competent person to examino the securities of the permanent fund held by the board of trustees, and his certificate showing the condition of thio said fund shall be attached to the report of the board of trustees.
The following amendment to Article III of the constitution has been considered by a committee, and recommended for adoption by the association:
Amond Article III by adding as follows: Section 4. Any association may secure a perpetual membership by the payment of thirty dollars, and shall be entitlel to ono representativo each year for every thirty dollars so paid.
NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION.
Tho National Council of Education shall have for its object the consideration and discussion of eda. cational questions of general interest and public importance, and the presentation through printed reports of the substance of the discussions and the conclusions formulated. It shall be its object to reach and disseminato correct thinking on educational questions, and for this purposo it shall be the aim of the council in conducting its discussions to define and state with accuracy the different views and theories on tho subject under consideration, and, secondly, to discover and represent fairly the grounds and reasons for each theory or view, so far as to show as completely as possible the genesis of opinion on the subject. It shall be thoduty of the council in pursuanco ot' this object to encourago from all its members the most careful statement of differences in opinion, together with the com. pletest statement of grounds for the same. It shall further require from the chairmen of its committecs the careful preservation and presentation of tho individual differences of opinion whenever grounds have been furnished for the same by members of their committees. It shall invite the freest discussion of the reports of its committees, and whenover said reports are not so amended as to embody the new suggestions developed by such discussion, any member making such suggestion or objection may put in writing his view and the grounds therefor, and furnish the same to tho secre. tary for the records of the council. It shall preparo through its president, with the aid of tho chair. men of the several committees, an annual report to the National Association, setting forth the questions considered by the council during the previous year and placing before the association in succinct form the work accomplished. It shall embody in this report a survey of tboso educational topics which seem to call for any action on the part of the association. The council shall appoint out of its own number committees representing the several departments of education, and thereby facilitate the exchange of opinion among its members on such special topics as demand the attention of tho profession or of the public.
ARTICLE I.- Membership.
1. The National Council of Education shall consist of sixty inembers, selected out of the member. ship of the National Educational Association. Any member of the association identified with cducational work is eligible to membership in the council, and after the first election such membership shall continue for six years, except as hereinafter provided.
2. In the year 1885 the board of directors shall elect eight members-four members for six years, two for four years, and two for two years; and the council shall elect eight members-five members for six years, two for four years, and one for two years; and annually thereafter the board of directors shall elect five members and the council five members, each member, with the exception herein. after provided for (section 5), to serre six years, or until his successor is elected.
3. The annual election of members of tho council shall be lield in connection with the annual meet. ings of the association. If the board of directors shall fail, for any reason, to fill its quota of members annually, the vacancy or vacancies shall be filled by the council.
4. The term of service of tho several members of the council, chosen at the first election, shall be arranged by the executive committee of the council.
5. The absence of a meinber from two consecutive annual meetings of the council shall be con. sidered equivalent to resignation of membership, and the council sball till vacancies caused by absence from the council as herein defined, as well as vacancies caused by death or resignation, for the unex. pired term. All persons who have belonged to the council ehall, on the expiration of their member. slip, become honorary members, with the privilege of attending its regular sessions, and partici. pating in its discussions. No State shall be represented in the council by moro than eight members.
ARTICLE II.- Fecs.
There shall be no feo for membership in the council of education, but each member of it shall secure a membership in the National Educational Association by becoming a lite member of the same, or by paying to the treasurer of the association the annual membership fee of two dollars.
There shall be a regular annual meeting of the council held at the same place as the meeting of the National Association, and at least two days previous to this meeting. There may be special meetings of the council, subject to the call of the executive committee, but the attendance at these meetings shall be entirely voluntary. The regular meeting of the committees shall take place on the days provided for the annual meeting of the council. Meetings of committees may be called at any time by the chairmen of the respective committees, but attendance at such special meetings shall be entirely voluntary. A majority of the council shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting, whether regular or callerl: but any lese number, exceeding eight members, may constitute a quoruin for the transaction of business at the regular annual merting, as defined in this article. ARTICLE IV.-Committees. The general management of the affairs of the council shall be vested in an executivo committeo composed of the president, vice-president, and secretary of the council, and four
other members, all of whom are to be elected by the council at its annual meeting. There shall be twelve standing com. mittees, cach consisting of five members. They shall be appointed by the executive committee, and be named as follows:
1. Committee on State school systems.
ARTICLE V.-Duties of standing committees. The committoes of the council shall consider the topics assigned to them, and report on the same; they may select for their deliberations such other questions belonging to their departments as they deem proper to discuss.
Whenever called upon, the committees shall continue the deliberative work of the association on topics assigned to them, or prepare questions to be submitted to that body.
It shall be the duty of the standing committees to observe the new educational experiments and original investigations within the scope of their assigned topics, and report the same from time to time to the president of the council.
ARTICLE VI.-Duties of members of the committees.
The members of the council shall render active service and assistance in the work of the committee to which they have been assigned, and further the general work of the council as much as is in their power. They shall give their attention to the questions submitted to them, and communicate their conclusions in writing to the chairman of the committee.
Meeting of committees for special work.-A half day at each annual session shall be set apart for "Round-table" discussions, and each standing committee may conduct its own meeting separately, inviting, at its pleasure, experts, original investigators, or other persons to present their experience or theoretical views before it, for discussion.
ARTICLE VII.-Duties of the chairmen of committees.
The chairman of each committee shall communicate the qnestions which are to be discussed to each of the members of his committee, and send them such other communications as may assist them in their work. He shall arrange a suitable plan for an exchange of opinion, and embody the conclusions arrived at in a brief report. He shall, from time to time, inform the secretary of the council of the progress made by lis committee. He shall, with the consent of the other members of his committee, arrange special meetings at a convenient time and place. He shall see that the communications, sent in turn to each member of his committee, are promptly forwarded. He shall state distinctly in the form of questions, when feasible) the topics on which he desires to have a brief expression of opinion from the members of his committee, and embody the substance of their answers in his report.
ARTICLE VIII.-The work of the committees.
The work of the committees of the council shall be carried on in the regular meetings provided for above, and in such special meetings as can be arranged from time to time, according to the pleasure of the committee, and principally in writing, by an exchange of briefly expressed opinions. It shall be the duty of each chairman to devise a plan for the latter. Each member may be required to report on a part of the subject; or the whole topic may be submitted to each member, together with the opinion of the other inembers that have considered the topic before.
ARTICLE IX.-Duting of the council.
It shall be the duty of the council to further the objects of the National Association, and to use its best efforts to promote the cause of eclncation in general. The council shall assign work to each committee, and receive a report on the same; it shall cause to be published such reports of committees, or part of the same, as in its judgment should be brought to general notice; it shall present, through the president of the council, an annual report of its work to the National Educational Association.
Arrangement of annual programme.-The president, in making up the annual programme of exercises, may select any of the twelve standing committees which will, in his opiniou, prepare work for the council of the most timely and vital character, and he shall not be limited in his choice by considerations of routine.
The committee thus reporting may introduce before the council such specialists, experts, original investigators or inventors of new inethods as they may deom essential to present effectively their subject-natter before the council for discussion.
ARTICLE X.-Amendments. This constitution may be altered or amended, at a regular meeting of the council, by a two-thirds vote of the members present, and any provision may be waived at any regular meeting, by unanimous consent.
By-lawy, not in violation of this constitution, may be adopted by a two-thirds vote of the council.