« AnteriorContinuar »
hoped that the time is very near at hand when departments of law and medicino can be adıled to the present lines of educational work of the university.”
The course of the schools attached to Howard and New Orleans universities and Central Tennessee College are graded, and are of four years. At Shaw University an annual courso of lectures is given. The first three institutions named require proficiency in an English education, all having examinations for admission Central Tennessee College and New Orleans University require the student to study Latin during tho junior year. The curriculum of the graded courses comprises anatomy, physiology, microscopy, histology, chemistry, toxicology, materia medica, therapeutics, obstetrics, gynecology, pediatrics, practice, hygiene, medical jurisprudence, ophthalmology, otology, and bacteriology, the difference in the distribution of the studies through the four years being that at the New Orleans University and Central Tennessee College the student's attention is confined to anatomy, chemistry, and physiology, whilo at Howard University physiology, materia medica, therapeutics, microscopy, and histology are introduced. A further difference is also apparent in the placing of the practice of medicine and surgery, which are third-year studies at Howard and fourth-year at the other two institutions. Howard University has upon its own grounds a well-filled hospital. The students of the Central Tennessee Colleg department may attend the Nashville City Hospital. All the schools have clinics.
The requirements for graduation are completion of the twenty-first year, of the course of the school, and the payment of fees in full. The fees are $30 or $60 a year. At New Orleans University and Central Tennessee College the entire course of four years costs the student $173; at Howard University $223, including all incidental expenses connected with instruction.
Connected with several of these schools are departments of dentistry or pharmacy. The course of the dental departments of Howard University and Central Tennessee College is of three years. The curriculum comprises anatomy, physiology, microscopy, histology, chemistry, materia medica, therapeutics, surgery, operative and prosthetic dentistry, hygiene, and medical jurisprudence, to which Central Tennessee adds metallurgy, dissecting, and materia medica. Tho expenses are $30 or $60 a year and incidentals.
Three institutions have courses in pharmacy. That of Howard University comprises botany, chemistry, toxicology, materia medica, and pharmacy, with a recommendation to study microscopy, which Central Tennessee includes as necessary. To graduate, the student must have attended two years, but to obtain the degree of graduate in pharmacy he must have had two other years of practical experience in compounding and dispensing drugs and medicines in a regular ostablished pharmacy. The charge at Central Tennessee College and Shaw University is $30 annually, not including incidentals; at Howard University, $60.
Among the colored people the study of law has not such a numerous following as the study of medicine. The same phenomenon is present among the Caucasian race of European and American countries, for the impetus given to the public mind by successful biological research and the ills attending a high-pressure system of life have rendered medical assistance advisable as an experiment and even necessary for continued existence.
There are five schools of law especially for colored people. These schools are all connected with a college or university. By far the largest enrollment is in the law department of Howard University, which, holding its sessions at night, gives opportunity to colored clerks and messengers of the public bureaus and to commercial clerks to undertake a course in law. The three schools of the national capital for the whites offer the same advantages to persons of that color whose necessities and ambition oblige them to work and study by day and recite or listen to lectures at night.
The law department of Howard University has been fortunate. It has recently been supplied with a remodeled building opposite the city court-house, through the generosity of certain members of the New York bar and of C. P. Huntington and J. W. Ambrose, both of New York, and has been named Evarts Hall in recognition of the exertions of the Hon. William M. Evarts in procuring funds for the reconstruction of the old building. It is also fortunate in having Congress, which legis. lates for the District of Columbia, provide in part for the salaries of four professors, in all, $3,200.
The course of study of this school is not of an advanced character. It is taken for granted that tho applicant for admission “has had a good English education and some mental training." But though no preliminary examination is held, that fact “is not to be construed as in any manner lowering the standard of attainments required for graduation," as preliminary examinations are frequently found to work injustice and are unsatisfactory. The course is of two years plus the post-graduate course tacked on to all the law-school courses established in Washington. The first year is spent on Blackstone, real and personal property, contracts, commercial paper, criminal law, and domestic relations; the second on pleading, practice, equity, evidence, and torts. During the third year constitutional limitations on the States, mercantile law, and corporations are taken up. Moot coirts aro lield. The instruction is by the usual assigned reading and quiz method, interspersed with lectures. The faculty is composed of six lecturers.
The law department of Central Tennesseo College has a course of two years. To gain admission to its courso the candidate must pass a satisfactory examination on all tho common English studies, and is advised to take a more extensive course of general study beforo beginning that of law. The course differs from that of Howaril University in that the study of the fundamental divisions of the substantive law share during the first year the time with the law of procedure, and international law (Vattel) is introduced, while during the second year Federal procedure, constitutional limitations, and corporations are taken up and procedure law continued. The faculty is composed of threo persons and a dean.
The law department of Allen University has a courso of two years, whose sessions, like the schools at Washington, D. C., aro held in the afternoon and orening, in order to suit the convenience of students otherwiso employed during the earlier portion of the day. Tho first year is, with the oxception of evidence, devoted to substantive law (Blackstone, Kent, contracts, and bills), and to constitutional law. Tho second year is, with the exception of criminal law and the statutory law of South Carolina, devoted to procedure, considering equity as falling in that category. The faculty appears to be the president of the university. Moot courts are held. During the six years of its existence fivo classes have been sent ont, “a majority of the members meeting with a great degree of success in life.”
The law school of Shaw University was established in 1888. Its course is not known. A scholarship of $50 a year will be granted to worthy students who need assistance.
Wilberforce University has a law course of two years, but no students.
“If you were in a Southern village watching the passers-by, you would perhaps see among them a colored man, strong in body, marked in countenance, an umbrella in one hand and a gripsack in the other. IIe is always well, always possessed of marvelous powers of endurance, always ready to speak. He is the negro preacher. Examine him anil you will find he has never been taught.
Is he doing much preaching? He is preaching a good deal. He has been at it twenty-five years. Multitudes arc swayed by liis cloquence. Men's, women's, and children's lives and careers aro subject to him. He is often the only colored man among them who can read. Ho is the one man who is looked up to as a leader. His influence extends to the utmost limit of the colored people's life. llere, then, is the colored minister, with many admirable qualities, but with certain deficiencies. llero lie is. What ought he to do? He onght to bo educated. lle ought to undergo a grand work in the three R's, he ought to ouderstand English, the English Bible, English
literature, English history, English doctrine, to speak and to write English, and to explain the Bible in English."}
In August, 1892, the presidents of the schools supported by the Baptist Home Mission Society adopted the following scheme: All students studying for a degree to study at Richmond Theological Seminary, and each school of the society to have a "minister's course":
This course is designed only for those who, from lack of literary training, are unable to take a more extended course, and who, at the same time, are unable, by reason of age and other insurmount. able corditions, to secure a thorough literary training. Many ministers engaged in active pastoral work who feel the need of further training will find this course specially adapted to their case. may, ordinarily, be completed in a year. No person will be allowed to pursue this course in the Richmond Theological Seminary except residents of the State of Virginia. Certificates will bo given to such as complete the course in a satisfactory manner. The instruction to be given is to be included under the following heads :
1.--STUDY OF THE ENGLISH BIBLE.
The work done under this head is to be strictly Biblical. No time is to be spent upon speculations about tho Bible. The study of Divine truth itself and the best methods of communicating this truth to the minds and bearts of others are to occupy the entire attention. The inductive method of instruction is to be pursued, and the special aim of the work is to accomplish the following endis :
(a) To permeate the minds and hearts of the students with the spirit and power of Divino truth. (6) To giro to the students a general but comprehensive knowledge of the Biblo as a whole.
(C) To impart to the students a correct method of studying the Scriptures, and practical anıl effectire methods of conveying Bible truth to the minds and hearts of other persons varying in age, capacity, and mental training.
In seeking to accomplish these three ends in the most successful manner, the following order of study and of imparting instruction is to bo pursued :
(i) The study and application of (a) Lible stories, (b) Bible characters, (c) consecutive Bible narrative or history.
(2) The study of principles and methods of giving Bible instruction. This exercise includes (at) the study of subjects specially selected, (b) parables, (c) miracles, etc.
(3) The study of the life of Christ, making the gospel of Luke the basis of instruction.
t'nder this lead the teachings of the Bible in reference to the family are to be carefully studied and enforced in a practical way. The following order is pursued:
(1) The teachings of tho New Testament upon marriago.
(2) The Scripture teachings regarding the reciprocal duties and responsibilities of husband and wife.
(3) The Scripture teachings in reference to the relation of parents and children. (a) The father's position in the family and his special responsibilities; (b) the mother's position and her responsibili. ties; (c) home surroundings, what they should be, and how to make them such; (a) The children in the liome, and their duties and responsibilities to their parents and to each other.
(4) Rights, duties, and responsibilities of employers and employees as taught in the Word of God.
In this department instruction is to be given on everything that pertains to a well-organized working church.
Special attention will be given to the peculiar needs of small country churches and mission stations. The instruction is to be of the most practical nature. It is to be accompanied also by such church work upon the part of the students as will fix it firmly in their minds. The following presents the order of study and instruction:
(1) The nature of church organization as taught in the New Testament: (a) Tho elder, bishop, presbyter, minister, or pastor-his office, his qualification, and his duties and responsibilities, both private and public; (b) tho deacons, their oflice, qualifications, and duties; (c) deaconcases, their place and work in the church; (d) church members, their relations to the minister or pastor, also to each other, and their special work and responsibilities; (e) church order and discipline.
(2) Church helps as a part of church organization: (a) All helps are to be regarded as subordinate to the church itself; (6) societies, Christian association, young people's union, Christian endeavor society, literary society, home and foreign missionary society, mission circle, mission band and tem. perance society, etc.
1 Rev. A. L. Phillips, secretary for colored evangelization for the Southern General Assembly, Presbyterian Church, in Secord Mohonk Conference, pp. 33–35.
(3) The Bible Sunday school as the training school of the church: (a) Methods of organizing such a school; (b) the officers and teachers, their qualifications, duties and responsibilities, and relation of their work to the church; (c) the home school, and tho pastor's relation to it; (d) mission schools, their organization and management, and their relations to the church; (e) teachers' ineetings, how best conducted; (f) methods of instructing and managing Bible classes, intermediate classes, and primary classes.
IV.--- MISSIONARY WORK.
The training in this department is to be strictly practical. The principle "To do is to know" is to be carefully applied. While a knowledge of the best methods of doing missionary work is regarded as very important, actual practice in doing the work is regarded as still more importart. Without this latter the former will be of little value, and the training given will be very defective. This practical work, during the school year, is to receive special attention, and will be under the special direction of the teachers. In addition to this practical work, each student will also be required to pursue a systematic course of missionary reading. This course is to include a careful selection of works on the history and progress of missionary effort and a wide range of biographical sketches of eminent and successful home and foreign missionaries of the Baptist and other denominations.
The foregoing is to be hereafter the maximum theological course for each of the home mission schools, except the Richmond Theological Seminary. The president of each school may, however, exercise his discretion in omitting from this course such portions of the work as he may deem necessary in the interest of the class of students who receive instruction.
The full course at the Richmond Theological Seminary includes Hebrew, Greek, Biblical introduction, English interpretation, Biblical theology and ethics, church history, homiletics, psychology, and moral philosophy, and is in short a regular theological seminary, having a course of four years such as was described in the report of this Bureau for 1890–91.
Other schools have courses ranging from two to five years, but generally of three, with the omission of Hebrew and Greek, with the exception of Wilberforce University, which has both in its "regular course;" Gammon Theological Seminary, which has both elective except for candidates for a degree, and Howard University, which has both in its “classical course of theology."
Several missionary courses have been established. That of the Central Tennessee College is called a “Training school for Africa.”
There is no charge for tuition in these institutions, and it is believed that lodging is also free. At the Gammon Seminary eight cottages have been erected for the use of married students, and at this school and at others loans and gifts are made to deserving students. TABLE 1.- Statistics of institutions for educating the colored race, showing grade of
students during 1892-93.
TABLE 1.--Statistics of institutions for educating the colored race, showing grade of
students, during 1892-93—Continued.
Tuskegee, Ala... Tuskegee Normaland Booker T. Wash. 30
Industrial Institute. ington. Little Rock, Ark. Philander Smith Col.
6 lege. * Pine Bluff, Ark.. Branch Normal Col. Joseph C. Corbin. 6
lege of Arkansas In
Normal School, seventh Lucy E. Moton... 2
and eighth divisions. Do....
Wayland Seminary.... Rev.G.M.P. King. 6
for Colored Teachers. Athens, Ga.. Jerual Academy..
John H. Brown... 1
3 Atlanta, Ga. Atlanta Baptist Semi- Rev. George Sale.. 7
nary. Do.... Atlanta University... Rer. Horace Bum. 9
Clark University.... Rev. D. C. John... 6
Gammon School of Rev. Wilbur P. 4
Ella E, Roper.. 0
2 Savannah, Ga. Beach Institute.
Julia B. Ford.. 0 Thomasville, Ga. Allen Normal and In. Katharine B. Dowd 0
dustrial School. Waynesboro, Ga. Haven Academy No report.. Berea, Ky.. Berea College
William Goodell 9
5 Winsted, La..... Gilbert Academy and W. D. Godman 10