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permits the penniless student interested in philosophy to pursue his philosophy and the student of science to continue his chemical or zoological investigations. Without its aid the one would be obliged, for example, to devote his powers to professional studies for the ministry, and the other to medicine, professions for which each feels he is by nature unfit. The fellowship system, therefore, in American colleges is the most direct aid to the higher scholarship and to culture.

In the foundation and administration of fellowships in our colleges, however, the strict observance of certain rules is necessary to the attainment of their highest usefulness. It is the failure to observe the first two of the three following suggestions that has brought the English fellowship system into considerable disrepute among certain classes of English society.

(1) The fellowship should not be bestowed merely as a reward for high scholarship, but principally as the means for prosecuting original research in a comparatively new department of study,

(2) It should seldom be held for more than three, or at most, for more than four years. The progress which the fellow makes in this length of time enables him, with but little outlay of time or strength, to give instruction sufficient to provide for his pecuniary needs. The fellowship in such a case should at once be reassigned.

(3) If the fellow resides in Germany, as he usually will, he should be made a sort of corresponding member of his college faculty. The information which he could transmit regarding the educational movements occurring in the German gymnasia and universities would prove of much service to American colleges and American scholarship.

Speaking of the fellowships in English universities, Dr. Thwing says:

The conditions under which the fellow enjoys his annuity are usually very few and liberal. He is at liberty to pursue almost any line of intellectual labor. In many cases his position is a mere sinecure, and involves no actual work. In other cases it is, and in all cases may be, most effectually used for the advancement of the higher learning.

In some of the English universities certain fellowships are reserved for specified professors and some of the college offices are held by fellows. After holding such oftices for a certain length of time the fellows are entitled to retain their fellowship during life. In the majority of other cases the tenure of a fellowship in the English universities is now limited to seven years. Comparatively few of the fellowships in the English universities are provided by specific gifts or bequests. As a rule, a certain proportion of the income of a college is set aside, by statute, for a specified number of fellowships which are known as foundation fellowships.

While fellowships are, as a rule, for the use of graduate students, scholarships are for the use of both graduate and undergraduate students. Scholarships do not generally have as great a pecuniary value as fellowships, and are much more frequently bestowed after competitive examinations. The catalogues of universities and colleges, not only of this country but also of foreign countries, show that the requirement most frequently exacted of candidates for aid is that they be indigent or that without the aid granted by a scholarship they would be unable to pursue their studies. In many institutions in the United States, especially such as are under the control of religious denominations, another favored class is found in students preparing for the ministry or for missionary work, and in children of clergymen. To such students either free tuition or a liberal discount on the regular rates of tuition is granted.

The first scholarship in an American college was founded in Harvard College by Lady Ann Mowlson, of London, in 1643 by a gift of £100, the income of which was to be paid to some poor scholar until he shall attain the degree of master of arts. This gift was at first held by the colony of the Massachusetts Bay, and in 1713 was paid over to the college with accrued interest from 1685, by the provincial treasurer. In the early part of the last century this fund was probably mixed with other college funds and formed part of the stock account. In 1893 the scholarship was reestablished with a principal of $5,000 taken from the stock account.'

An attempt has been made to collect information concerning the value, tenure, and conditions for obtaining scholarships and fellowships in the several institutions

1 Annual catalogue of Harvard University, 1893-94.

of the United States, England, France, and Germany. No attention has been paid during this research to prizes which are granted for excellence in certain studies and which do not require the student to continue his studies. Neither has account been taken of the aid given by loan funds, which aid must be returned, frequently with interest at a low rate, by the student. The aid given to students is as follows:

1. UNITED STATES.

UNIVERSITIES AND COLLEGES.

Howard College, East Lake, Ala.—The sons of ministers engaged in the active work of the ministry pay one-half the tuition fee. Students who comply with the regulations of the ministerial board at Montgomery, Ala., are furnished $138 per session to assist in the defrayment of their expenses for board at Howard College. Such students are given tuition free. Other ministerial students will be given free tuition on presentation of licenses from their churches. The aid indicated applies only to ministerial students from Baptist churches in Alabama. Ministerial students from without the State are furnished tuition free.

Southern University, Greensboro, Ala.--Offers free tuition to two young men from each presiding elder’s district in the Alabama or north Alabama conference. Candidates must be 21 years of age, be prepared for the freshman class, be a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church South, be unable to pay his tuition, and bring a recommendation from his pastor and presiding elder. Such free scholarships may be held for two years. Sons of itinerant Methodist ministers and students preparing for the itinerant Methodist ministry receive free tuition.

University of Alabama, University, Ala.—Tuition in the collegiate department is free to all students who are bona fide residents of Alabama. There are also five postgraduate scholarships open to graduates of the university. They give free tuition, board, lights, fuel, and attendance for one year.

University of Arizona, Tucson, Ariz.-There is no charge for tuition in any of tho departments of

the university except in the schools of art and business. Duachita College, Arkadelphia, Ark.-Young ministers and children of ministers who are actively engaged in ministerial work receive free tuition.

Arkansas College, Batesville, Ark.No one of any promise will be denied entrance ou account of inability to pay tuition fees.

Hendrix College, Conway, Ark.There is a scholarship for each presiding elder's district in the State. Candidates must be needy of aid. The scholarships entitle to free tuition, and may be renewed from year to year. There is also a scholarship entitling to free tuition for one year for a teacher from each county in the State. Also a scholarship entitling to one year's collegiate tuition to the best student in each Arkansas school in which the course of study prepares for the freshman class.

University of California, Berkeley, Cal.— The fellowships are as follows: (1) The Le Conte memorial fellowship, income $500 per annum, is awarded annually by a board of administration elected by the alumni association. Candidates must be graduates of the University of California of not more than three years' standing. The sole test is superior excellence, and the holder must pursue his studies either at the university or elsewhere, as the board may determine. (2) The Hearst fellowships in astronomy, value not given, are for students who have already made decided progress in their work; candidates for higher degrees are preferred; (3) 4 university fellowships, each yielding $600 annually-2 in philosophy, 1 in mathematics, and 1 in mineralogy. The appoiutees devote their attention to graduate study and assist in the work of their department.

The scholarships are as follows: The Harvard Club scholarship, not less than $200, is awarded annually to some graduate of the University of California to be used in graduate study at Harvard University. The Phebe Hearst scholarships for women are 8 in number, each yielding $300. The qualifications are noble character and high aims, and it is understood that without this assistance a university course would be impossible. The Hinckley scholarship of $300 is awarded annually to some young man in the university of the State or some other school.

Tuition in the College of Letters and the colleges of science is free to all students.

California College, Oakland, Cal.—There are 3 scholarship funds of $5,000 each and 1 scholarship fund of $1,000. (Report of president for 1892.)

Leland Stanford Junior University, Palo Alto, Cal.—Tuition is free in all departments of the university.

Pacific Methodist College, Santa Rosa, Cal.-Sons and daughters of itinerant preachers are not charged tuition; neither are young men who have entered the ministry, or are contemplating such a step.

Unless otherwise stated the information concerning individual institutions was taken from the annual catalogues for the year 1892-93.

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University of Colorado, Boulder, Colo.—There is no charge for tuition in any department.

Colorado College, Colorado Springs, Colo.—The income of the following scholarships is devoted to the aid of worthy students who may need assistance in completing their course: Two of $500 each; 1 of $700; 1 of $300, and 1 of $1,000. Several other scholarships are supported by annual subscriptions.

University of Denver,' University Park, Colo.-There is a fellowship, income $100 per annum, offered to graduates of the College of Liberal Arts who pursue postgraduate studies in medicine, law, theology, or philosophy.

Trinity College,' Hartford, Conn.-There are 3 scholarships, income $200 each per annum, bestowed after a competitive examination in the sophomore year on students obtaining an education with a view to the sacred ministry and needing assistance; 6 scholarships, which cover the charges for tuition, room rent, fuel for recitation rooms, and other general objects; 4 scholarships, of $30 per annum, are bestowed, 1 in each year, on students from the public schools of Hartford; 1 scholarship, income from $3,000; 1 of $300 per annum; 3 scholarships, income from $50,000; 4 scholarships of $60 per annum; 23 scholarships furnish free tuition; 2 scholarships nonproductive at present. There is also a fund of $15,000, the income of which is divided in sums of $100 among needy students. The Kirby scholarships have an aggregate value of $300 a year. There are also some funds in the hands of church societies for ministerial students needing assistance.

Wesleyan University,' Middletown, Conn.- A limited number of scholarships exempting the holders from the charge for tuition have been established for the use of deserving students needing assistance. In addition to these there are: (1) A scholarship of $100 per annum, given annually to a member of the senior or junior class who is preparing for the ministry and is already a licentiate in the Methodist Episcopal Church; (2) the income of $5,000 is awarded to that member of the senior class who shall pass the best examination in Greek, provided he devote the ensuing year to classical study in residence in the university, or in connection with travel or residence abroad.

Yale University,' New Haven, Conn.—The Douglas fellowship, with an income of $600 a year, is given annually to a recent graduate of Yale College pursuing nonprofessional studies in New Haven; it may be held by one person for not more than three years. The Soldiers' Memorial fellowship, of $600 a year, is given to a graduate of Yale College of not more than three years' standing; the holder shall pursue nonprofessional studies, and may retain the fellowship for not exceeding five years; preference shall be given to one who has shown special proficiency in Greek, and the fellow may spend a part or the whole of his time of incumbency in Athens, instead of in New Haven. The Silliman fellowship has an income of $600 per annum, and is awarded to a graduate of Yale College who has given evidence of proficiency and promise in physical science; the incumbent is elected annually, but no person can hold the fellowship for more than three years. The John Sloane fellowship in physics has the income from $10,000, and is awarded annually to a graduate of Yale College for proficiency in physics, and who gives promise of success in the prosecution and application thereof. The incumbent shall reside in New Haven at least thirty-six weeks in the year, pursuing a course of study in physical science, and acting as an assistant in the physical laboratory; he may be reelected, but shall not hold the fellowship for more than three consecutive years. The Scott Hurtt fellowship, with a foundation of $12,000, is awarded annually to a graduate of Yale College of not more than three years' standing at the time of his first appointment; the incumbent may be reelected annually until he has held the fellowship for three years, and must pursue a scholastic, professional, or scientific career in which he gives promise of success. He may be required to reside in New Haven one year of thirty-six weeks, but with this exception he may attend any foreign university or the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. Five fellowships of $100 each are open to graduates of all colleges, but preference is given to those who have already spent at least one year in graduate study. The Hooker fellowship of $600 a year is assigned to a member of the graduating class of the theological school who has been connected with the school for at least two years; it may be held for two years, and the holder is expected to pursne a course of theological study at New Haven, or in Europe or Palestine. The Dwight fellowship of $500 per annum gives the same privileges for one year that are offered by the Hooker fellowship.

The Berkeley scholarship of about $60 a year is awarded to the student in each senior class who passes the best examination in certain Greek books, provided he remain in New Haven as a graduate, one, two, or three years. The Clark scholarship, the income of $2,000, is given to the senior who has attained the highest rank in the studies of his course, provided he remain in New Haven for one or two years and pursue a nonprofessional course of study. The Bristed scholarship, of about $100 a year, is awarded, whenever there is a vacancy, to the student in the sophomore or junior class who passes the best examination in the classics and mathematics; the successful candidate receives the annuity (forfeiting one-third in case of nonresidence) until the end of the third year after graduation. The Foote scholarships (4 in 1893), yielding $500 a year each, are awarded annually to graduates of Yale College who remain in New Haven for one or more years pursuing studies in the graduate department. The (3) Larned scholarships, each having a fund of $7,000, are bestowed 1 to each senior class; the incumbent must reside in New Haven and pursue a course of graduate study. The Macy scholarship, the income from $10,000, is given to a recent graduate of distinguished scholarship, who may hold it for three years; he must reside in New Haven and pursue a course of non professional study. The Woolsey scholarships, each having the income from $1,000, are awarded in suiccessive years, 1 to the student in each freshman class who passes the best examination in Latin composition, in the Greek of the year, and in algebraic problems. The scholarship may be held for four years; the student who stands second at this examination receives for one year the income of the Hurlbut scholarship fund of $1,000, and the student who stands third, the income for one year of the Third Fresluman scholarship fund of $1,000., Tho W. W. De Forest scholarship, income from $2,000, is given to a student in each senior class who bas attained distinction in the study of French, provided he pursue for the year after graduation a further course in the modern langnages, especially French, Spanish, Portuguese, or Italian, under the direction of the faculty. The Scott Hurtt scholarship, the income from $5,000, is assigned each year to a member of the sophomore class on the ground of approved scholarship; one-half of the income will be paid during his junior year, and one-half during his senior year. The income from the T. G. Waterman fund of $10,000 is given to not more than 3 scholars of limited means who have distinguished themselves in their studies; the incumbents are chosen from the senior or junior class, or from graduates of not more than two years' standing. The income from the A. B. Palmer scholarship fund of $5,000 is paid during his college course to a student in need of beneficiary aid, of unexceptionable character, and of high rank in scholarship: Twenty graduate scholarships of $100 each per annum are open to graduates of all colleges. In addition to the above, the sum of $20,000 and upward is annually applied for the relief of students who need pecuniary aid, especially of those preparing for the ministry. There is also a loan tund, the income of which is used for scholarships; also a considerable number of scholarship funds, each yielding $115 a year, the income of which is appropriated to worthy applicants in the undergraduate department.

1 Annual catalogue, 1893–94.

In 1892-93 there were 82 free tuition scholarships in the Sheffield Scientific School for citizens of Connecticut. The Holmes scholarship of $50 a year is awarded to a citizen of Middlebury, Prospect, Waterbury, or Wolcott, Conn.

In the Yale divinity school there are 5 scholarships of $200 each offered to candidates for admission to the graduate class. These scholarships are assigned in part to members of the graduating class of this school, and in part to graduates of other theological schools. Students of the junior, midille, and senior classes, whose circumstances require it, receive $100 a year. Additional aid to the amount of $75 anually is furnished by the American College and Education Society to its beneficiaries. In addition to this aid there are 10 scholarships of $50 each for members of the junior class. Candidates must be college graduates.

Delaware College, Newark, Del.— Tuition is free to all Delaware students.

Columbian Unirersity, Washington, D. C.-The Kendall scholarship, running for six years, two in the preparatory school and four in the college, is conferred annually on the best scholar in the public high school. Students on this 'foundation pay semiannually a fee of $8 for fuel, servants' wages, etc.

Hovard University, Washington, D. C.-No tuition is charged in the theological, normal, preparatory, and college departments. Aid is given to worthy students who need it, so far as funds allow.

Gallandet College, Washington, D. C.-Congress makes provision for the free admission of residents of the District of Columbia, who have not the means of supporting themselves, and for a limited number from the States and Territories.

John B. Stetson University, De Land, Fla.—There are 3 scholarships which provide for the entire support (exclusive of clothing and books) of one student each.

Florida Conference College, Leesburg, Fla.-Children of traveling preachers and young preachers preparing for the ministry are not charged for tuition in the literary course.

University of Georgia, Athens, Ga.-There are a certain number (2 in 1892-93) of fellowships in English, modern languages, and biology, the income of which is fixed annually by the board of trustees; competition is open to graduates of this and other institutions; fellows must perform any duties assigned them by the head of their department, and pursue a course of advanced study; fellowships are held for one year, with privilege of renewal. Tuition in the college department is free.

i Circular 1893.

Atlanta University, Atlanta, Ga.There is 1 scholarship fund of $10,000, 2 of $5,000 each, 2 of $1,000 each, 1 of $500, and 1 of $300.

Mercer University, Macon, Ga.—Tuition is free in the college and theological departments. There is a fund from which $13 per month for board and $65 per annum for tuition and incidentals is allowed indigent students from Jones Connty. Hiwassee high school holds a scholarship free from all charges for two years, awarded for superior scholarship:

Emory College, Oxford, Ga.—The sons of itinerant preachers are not charged tuition in the college classes. This rule applies to all the annual conferences. The sons of pastors in other churches are granted the same privileges.

Clark University, South Atlanta, Ga.-There is no tuition fee charged any student.

University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho.--Tuition in all departments, except music, is free. There are no fees or extras of any sort.

Blackburn University, Carlinville, III. -Students for the ministry may receive from the board of education of the Prespyterian Church aid, ou a scholarship basis, to the amount of $150.

Carthage College, Carthage, Ill.—There is 1 scholarship, the benefits of which are available for a member of the sophomore class.

University of Ilinois, Champaign, I.-There are 4 fellowships of $100 each per annum, tenable for one year, open to graduates of this or other similar institutions; appointments are made on the grounds of good character, high attainments, promise of distinguished success, and of usefulness to the university; incumbents are required to teach tive to ten hours a week during the year, and to devote the remaining time to graduate study.

There is 1 scholarship for each county in the State, the holder of which may attend the university for four years, free of charge for tuition and incidental fees; the value of this scholarship is $90, and is filled by competitive examination. Scholarships are offered to high schools on the accredited list, one a year to each school, tenable for two years; they are filled by competitive examination in the several schools. There are also a number of military scholarships, good for one year and covering the charge for term fees, open to students who have distinguished themselves in military science and tactics.

University of Chicago, Chicago, Ill.There are 20 fellowships, each yielding $520 per annum, and 20 yielding $320 each per annum, out of which sums the university fees must be paid. There are also Borary fellowships yielding no income and requiring no service, assigned as a mark of distinction in special cases. There are also special fellowships as follows: One of $100 in Latin; 1 of $300 in political economy; 1 of $100 in English; one of $100 in history, and 1 of $300 in comparative religion. The appointment to a fellowship is based upon proficiency already obtained in a department, and it is desirable that the student should have already spent one year in resident graduate study; special weight is given to theses. Fellows are expected to render assistance of some kind in connection with the work of the university. Appointments are made annually.

Eureka College, Eureka, Ill.Young men preparing themselves to become ministers of the gospel may obiaiu free tuition.

Northwestern University, Eranston, III.-There are 2 fellowships of $400 each in biology and chemistry, tenable for one year, which must be spent at the university. Incumbents are required to give limited assistance in the work of iustruction,

There are 51 State scholarships, 1 for oach senatorial district, tenable for the period of undergraduate study; holders are entitled to free tuition, and are nominated by the State senators. The Parkhurst scholarship, the interest on $1,000, is for lady students needing assistance. The Methodist Episcopal Church scholarship, tho interest on $1,000, is for the benefit of meritorious students. The Chicago Herald scholarship affords free tuition and incidental expenses. The Marcy scholarship in biology entitles the holders to a table at the marine biological laboratory at Woods Holl, Mass. No more than 3 students may be appointed for one season.

Ewing College, Euing, N.- No tuition is required of ministerial students.

Knox College, Galesburg, Ill.--Students who have the Christian ministry in view may receive aid from certain educational societies, if their circumstances require it, to the amount of $75 to $100 a year. Aid to the amount of $100 a year may also bó obtained by students in the full classical course.

Lombard University, Galesburg, Ill.There are 15 scholarships, each having the income from $1,000.

Illinois College, Jacksonville, Ill.—There are 6 scholarships, each entitling 1 student to enjoy the privileges of the institution free of charge, and 2 otfering free tuition to students preparing for the ministry. There are also 2 scholarships paying tuition and incidental expenses in the preparatory department.

Lake Forest Unirersity,' Lake Forest, III.-- There are 18 scholarships. Of these, 6 are available for college students in needy circumstances, 1 having the income from

1 Annual catalogue, 1893-94.

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