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flowers of cowslips also are frequently sed and the husks rejected, for there rised, but they merely communicate their will be no redness unless the husks be tarovr to the wine, the spirit almost mixed up and fermented with the grape; entirely arising from the sugar: and in- and the same observation may be made deed when our own fruits are employ- respecting the damson, black currant, ed, they are not sweet enough to make and deeply coloured gooseberries, used any wine which would keep, and there- by ourselves. fore a considerable quantity of sugar is The natural colour of wine may be invariably added; while the continent- entirely and speedily destroyed, by the al fruits are sufficient of themselves. addition of hot well-burnt charcoal in
The foreign wines are principally pretty fine powder, or by pouring into. made from grapes, or the fruit of the it lime-water. This colouring matter vine, from which our own word wine is likewise may be gradually separated evidently derived. When the grapes and precipitated by exposing the wine are fully ripe, they are gathered, and to the heat of the sun. It sometimes submitted to the action of a press, from precipitates of itself, as is observed not which their juice runs into vessels. The only in the incrustation of the bottles of quantity of sugar contained in grapes port wine, but in its becoming more and when fully ripe is very considerable. more tawny the longer it is kept. It may be obtained in crystals by evap- The Red Port which is so much orating the must to the consistency of drank in England, derives its name syrup, separating the tartar which pre- from Oporto in Portugal. The quancipitates during the evaporation, and tity exported is from 50,000 to 70,000 then setting aside the must for some pipes annually, by far the greater part months. The crystals of sugar will of which goes to the British Dominions. thus gradually be formed.
Sherry is prepared near Xeres The colour of foreign wines is in in Spain,and has hence been termed by many instances artificial, and imparted our merchants Sherries and Sherry. to those liquors after they come into - Malmsey was formerly only made mercantile hands. Thus white wines in the Greek isles, but is now brought are tinged red by decoctions of log chiefly from Spain- Champagne, wood or brazil chips, the juice of elder Burgundy, Frontiniac, Rhenish, Hock, and bilberries, and, in France, by Alicant, &c. are among the most celemeans of the husks of tinged grapes ; brated of the French and German while other ingredients are too frequent- wines. Those from Germany are full ly employed by unprincipled persons of spirit, and will keep for a long time. which are decidedly deleterious.
Madeira is procured from the MaThe saccharine part of the grapes deira Islands, and from Palma, one of which as we have seen is the basis of the Canaries. This wine is of two the spirit, resides in the cells of the kinds, the first called Madeira sec, the grapes, while the colour is the husk or latter, which is far richer, Canary or skin. White wines therefore may be Palm sec (corruptly written sack) sigprepared from red grapes, provided nifies dry, these wines being made from that the juice may be carefully expres- half-dried grapes.
FEMALE TONGUES. Hippel, the author of the book “Up- amongst men. In general the current on Marriage," says—6 A woman, that remark upon men is valid also with does not talk, must be a stupid woman." respect to women—that those for the But Hippel is an author whose opinion most part are the greatest thinkers who it is more safe to admire than to adopt are the least talkers; as frogs cease to The most intelligent women are often croak when light is brought to the wasilent amongst women; and again the ter's edge. However, in fact, the dismost stupid and the most silent are otte proportionate talking of women arises e neither the one nor the other except out of these dentariness of their labours :
sedentary artisans, -as tailors, shoe- talk, as savages say, that they may not makers, weavers,—have this habit as be set to work : but women often talk well as hypochondriacal tendencies in double their share-even because they common with women. Apes do not work.
THE SPIRITS OF THE AGE.
MR. IRVING. THIS gentleman has gained almost that not in a sneaking under-tone, but
1 unprecedented and not an altogether at the top of his voice, and with the full unmerited popularity as a preacher. breadth of his chest) from a Calvinistic As he is, perhaps, though a burning and pulpit, is new and wonderful. The a shining light, not " one of the fixed,” Fancy have lately lost something of we shall take this opportunity of dis- their gloss in public estimation, and afcussing his merits a second time, while ter the last fight, few would go far to he is at his meridian height; and in see a Neat or a Spring set-to;—but to doing so, shall “ nothing extenuate, nor see a man who is able to enter the ring set down aught in malice.”
with either of them, or brandish a Few circumstances show the prevail- quarter-staff with Friar Tuck, or a ing and preposterous rage for novelty broad-sword with Shaw the Life-guards' in a more striking point of view, than man, stand up in a strait-laced oldthe success of Mr. Irving's oratory. fashioned pulpit, and bandy dialectics People go to hear him in crowds, and with modern philosophers or give a come away with a mixture of delight cross-buttock to a cabinet-minister, there and astonishment, they go again to see is something in a sight like this also, if the effect will continue, and send that is a cure for sore eyes. It is as if others to find out the puzzle and in Cribb or Molyneux had turned Methothe noisy conflict between extravagant dist parson, or as if a Patagonian savage encomiums and splenetic objections, the were come forward as a patron-saint of true secret escapes observation, which Evangelical religion. Again the docis, that the whole thing is, nearly from trine of eternal punishment was one of beginning to end, a transposition of the staple arguments with which, eterideus. If the subject of these remarks nally drawled out, the old school of had come out as a player, with all his Presbyterian divines used to keep their advantages of figure, voice, and action, audiences awake, or lull them to sleep; we think he would have failed: if, as a but to which people of taste and fashion preacher, he had kept within the strict paid little attention, as inelegant and bounds of pulpit-oratory, he would barbarous, till Mr. Irving, with his castscarcely have been much distinguished iron features and sledge-hammer blows, among his Calvinistic brethren : as a puffing like a grim Vulcan, set to work
tention rather by his quaintness and kindle the expiring flames anew with affectation of an obsolete style and the very sweepings of sceptical and mode of thinking, than by any thing infidel libraries, so as to excite a pleaselse. But he has contrived to jumble ing horror in the female part of his conthese several characters together in an gregation. In short, our popular deunheard-of, and unwarranted manner, claimer has, contrary to the Scriptureand the fascination is altogether irresisti- working, put new wine into old bottles, ble. Our Caledonian divine is equally or new cloth on old garments. He has, an anomally in religion, in literature, in with an unlimited and daring licence, personal appearance, and in public mixed the sacred and the profane tospeaking. To hear a person spout gether, the carnal and the spiritual man, Shakespeare on the stage is nothing the petulance of the bar with the dogthe charm is nearly worn out-but to matism of the pulpit, the theatrical and hear any one spout Shakespeare (and theological, the modern and the obso
lete;-what wonder that this splendid mon-place or bombast in his style of piece of patchwork, spendid by contra- composition. Put the case that Mr. diction and contrast, has delighted some Irving had been five feet high-Would and confounded others? The more he ever have been heard of, or, as he serious part of his congregation, indeed, does now, have “bestrode the world complain, though not bitterly, that their like a colossus ?" No, the thing speaks pastor had converted their meeting- for itself. He would in vain have lifted house into a play-house : but when a his Lilliputian arm, people would have lady of quality, introducing herself and laughed at his monkey tricks. Again, three daughters to the preacher, assures had he been as tall as he is, but had him that they have been to all the most wanted other recommendations, he fashionable places of resort, the opera, would have been nothing. the theatre, assemblies, Miss Macauley's “The player's province they but vainly try, readings, and Exeter Change, and have Who want these powers, deportment, voice, and eye." been equally entertained no where else, Conceive a rough. ugly, shock-headed we apprehend that no remontrances of a committee of ruling-elders will be able
Scotchman, standing up in the Caledoto bring him to his senses again, or
nian chapel, and dealing “ damnation
round the land" in a broad northern make him forego such sweet, but illassorted praise. What we mean to in
dialect, and with a harsh, screaking sist upon is, that Mr. Irving owes his
voice, what ear polite, what smile setriumphant success, not to any one prodigy, or not consigned him to utter
rene, would have hailed the barbarous quality for which he has been extolled,
neglect and derision ? But the Rev. but to a combination of qualities, the
Edward Irving, with all his native wildmore striking in their immediate effect, in proportion as they are unlooked-for
? ness, “ hath a smooth aspect framed to
make women” saints; his very unusual and heterogeneous, like the violent opposition of light and shade in a picture.
size and height are carried off and We shall endeavour to explain this view
moulded into elegance by the most adof the subject more at large.
mirable symmetry of form and ease of Mr. Irving, then, is no common or grey complexion, and firm-set features,
gesture; his sable locks, his clear ironmean man. He has four or five qualities, possessed in a moderate or in a
turn the raw, uncouth Scotchman, into paramount degree, which, added or
a noble Italian picture ; and even his
distortion of sight only redeems the multiplied together, give him the im
otherwise “ faultless monster” within the portant space he occupies in the public eye. Mr. Irving's intellect itself is of
bounds of humanity, and when admi
ration is exhausted and curiosity ceases, a superior order; he has undoubtedly
excites a new interest by leading to the both talents and acquirements beyond
ond idle question whether it is an advantage the ordinary run of every-day preachers.
to the preacher or not. Farther, give These alone, however, we hold, would not account for a twentieth part
him all his actual and remarkable adof the effect produced : they would
vantages of body and mind, let him be have híted him perhaps out of the mire
as tall, as straight, as dark and clear of and slough of sordid obscurity, but
skin, as much at his ease, as silver
u tongued, as eloquent and as argumentawould never have launched him into the ocean-stream of popularity, in which
tive as he is, yet with all these, and
without a little charlatanry to set them he “ lies floating many a rood;":--but to these he adds uncommon height, a
off, he had been nothing. He might, graceful figure and action, a clear and
keeping within the rigid line of his duty powerful voice, a striking, if not a fine
and professed calling, have preached
forever; he might have divided the oldface, a bold and fiery spirit, and a most
fashioned doctrines of election, grace, portentous obliquity of vision, which throw him to an immeasurable distance
reprobation, predestination, into his sixbeyond all competition, and effectually
teenth, seventeenth and eighteenth
heads, and his lastly have been looked relieve whatever there might be of com- for as
or com- for as “ as a consummation devoutly to 5 ATHENEUM VOL. 1. 2d series.
be wished; he might have defied the their magazine-writers; he levels their devil and all his works, and, by the resorts of business, their places of ahelp of a loud voice and strong-set per- musement, at a blow-cities, churches,
palaces, ranks and professions, arts and “A lusty man to ben an Abbot able"- elegances--and leaves nothing standing have increased his own congregation, but himself, a mighty land-mark in a and been quoted among the godly as a degenerate age, over-looking the wide powerful preacher of the word; but, in havoc he has made! He makes war addition to this, he went out of his way upon all arts and sciences, upon the to attack Jeremy Bentham, and the faculties and nature of man, on his vices town was up in arms. The thing was and his virtues, on all existing institunew. He thus wiped the stain of mus- tions, and all possible improvements, ty ignorance and formal bigotry out of that nothing may be left but the Kirk his style. Mr. Irving must have some- of Scotland, and that he may be the thing in him to look over the shining head of it. He literally sends a chalclose-packed heads of his congregation, lenge to all London in the name of the to have a hit at the Great Jurisconsult KING of HEAVEN to evacuate its streets, in his study. He next, ere the report to disperse its population, to lay aside of the former blow had subsided, made its employments, to burn its wealth, to a lunge at Mr. Brougham, and glanced renounce its vanities and pomp; and an eye at Mr. Canning; mystified Mr. for what?-that he may enter in crownColeridge, and stultified Lord Liver- ed with glory; or after enforcing his pool in his place in the Gallery. It threat with the battering ram of logic, was rare sport to see him, “ like an ea- the grape-shot of rhetoric, and the crossgle in a dovecote, flutter the Volscians fire of his double vision, reduce the in Corioli.” He ḥas found out the se- British metropolis to a Scottish heath, cret of attracting by repelling. All with a few miserable hovels upon it, those whom he attacks are curious to where they may worship God according hear what he says of them : they go to the root of the matter. Such is the again, to show that they do not mind it. pretension and the boast of this new It is no less interesting to the by-stan- Peter the Hermit, who would get rid of ders, who like to witness this sort of all we have done in the way of imonslaught, like a charge of cavalry, provement on a state of barbarous ig. the shock and the resistance. Mr. norance, or still more barbarous preIrving has, in fact, without leave asked judice, in order to begin again on a or a licence granted, converted the tabula rasa of Calvinism, and have a Caledonian Chapel into a Westminster world of Iris own making. It is not Forum or Debating Society, with the very surprising that when the whole sanctity of religion added to it. Our mass and texture of civil society is inspirited polemic is not contented to de- dicted as a nuisance, and threatened to fend the citadel of orthodoxy against be pulled down as a rotten building all impugners, and shut himself up in ready to fall on the heads of the intexts of scripture and huge volumes of habitants, that all classes of people run the Commentators as an impregnable to hearthe crash, and to see the engines fortress ;-he merely makes use of the and levers at work which are to effect strong-hold of religion as a resting this laudable purpose. What else can place, from which he sallies forth, armed be the meaning of our preacher's taking with modern topics and with penal fire, upon himself to denounce the sentilike Achilles of old rushing from the ments of the most serious professors Grecian tents, against the adversaries in great cities as vitiated and starkof God and man. Peter Aretine is said rianght, of relegating religion to his nato have laid the Princes of Europe un- tive glens, and pretending that the hymn der contribution by penning satires of praise or the sigh of contrition canagainst them : so Mr. Irving keeps the not ascend acceptably to the throne of public in awe by insulting all their fa- grace fi'om the crowded street as well vourite idols. Ile does not spare their as from the barren rock or silent valley? politicians, their rulers, their moralists, Why put this affront upon his hearers: their poets, their critics, their reviewers Why belie vis own aspirations ?
God made the country and man made the town." can be more insignificant as to mere So says the poet; does Mr. Irving say outward appearance, and yet he is lis$0 ? If he does, and finds the air of tened to in the House of Commons. the city death to his piety, why does he But he does not wield it, he does not not return home again? But if he can insult or bully it. He leads by followbreathe it with impunity, and still retain ing opinion, he trims, he shifts, he glides the fervour of his early enthusiasm, and on the silvery sounds of his undulating, the simplicity and purity of the faith flexible, cautiously modulated voice, that was once delivered to the saints, winding his way between heaven and why not extend the benefit of his own earth, now courting popularity, now experience to others, instead of taunting calling servility to his aid, and with a them with a vapid pastoral theory large estate, the saints," and the popuOr, if our popular and eloquent divine lation of Yorkshire to swell his infinds a change in himself, that flattery fluence, never venturing on the forlorn prevents the growth of grace, that he is hope, or doing any thing more than becoming the god of his own idolatry "hitting the house between wind and by being that of others, that the glitter- water." Yet he is probably a cleverer ing of coronet-coaches rolling down man than Mr. Irving. Holborn-Hill to Hatton Garden, that, There is a Mr. Fox, a dissenting titled beauty, that the parliamentary minister, as fluent a speaker, with a complexion of his audience, the compli- sweeter voice and a more animated and ments of poets, and the stare of peers, beneficent countenance than Mr. Irdiscompose his wandering thoughts a ving, who expresses himself with manlittle; and yet that he cannot give up ly spirit at a public meeting, and is the these strong temptations tugging at his darling of his congregation ; but he is heart; why not extend more charity to no more, because he is diminutive in others, and show more candour in person. His head is not seen above speaking of himself? There is either the crowd the length of a street off. a good deal of bigoted intolerance with He is the Duke of Sussex in miniature, a deplorable want of self-knowledge in but the Duke of Sussex does not go to all this; or at least an equal degree of hear bim preach, as he attends Mr. Ircant and quackery.
ving, who rises up against him like a To whichever cause we are to attri- martello tower, and is nothing loth to bute this byperbolical tone, we hold it confront the spirit of a man of genius certain he could not have adopted it, if with the blood-royal. We allow there he had been a little man. But his im- are, or may be, talents sufficient to proposing figure and dignified manner ena- duce this equality without a single perble him to hazard sentiments or asser- sonal advantage; but we deny that this tions that would be fatal to others. His would be the effect of any that our controversial daring is backed by his great preacher possesses. We conbodily prowess, and, bringing his intel- ceive it not improbable that the conlectual pretensions boldly into a line sciousness of muscular power, that the with his physical accomplishments, he, admiration of his person by strangers indeed, presents a very formidable front might first have inspired Mr. Irving to the sceptie or the scoffer. Take a with an ambition to be something, incubit from his stature, and his whole tellectually speaking, and have given manner resolves itself into an imperti- him confidence to attempt the greatest nence. But with that addition, he over- things. He has not failed for want of crows the town, browbeats their preju- courage. The public, as well as the dices, and bullies them out of their sen- fair, are won by a show of gallantry. ses, and is not afraid of being contra- Mr. Irving has shrunk from no opinion, dicted by any one less than himself. however paradoxical. He has scruIt may be said, that individuals with pled to avow no sentiment, however great personal defects have made a con- obnoxious. He has revived exploded siderable figure as public speakers; and prejudices, he has scouted prevailing Mr. Wilberforce, among others, may fashions. He has opposed the spirit of be held out as an instance. Nothing the age, and not consulted the esprit de