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SPANISH ROMANCES, There are sublime lessons of morality in some of the old Spanish poets--they seem to march aloog in all the pomp and pageantry of funereal state. They speak as with an oracular voice. Their discourse is of that death over which they triumph, and which they make the servant of their verse, and the minister of their wisdom. The grave is almost as often the record of man's pride as the witness of his humiliation. He has his revenge on mortality by raising pillars and piles-whether of sculpture or of song-more durable than the poor tenement that mortality has laid in ruins. Death sweeps away the woe-worn creature of years, who in return builds up his monument, which lasts for centuries-deaf to the storm, and reckless of vicissitude. There is a fine flow of solemn truths in Jorge Manrique's Glosa on liis departed friend. These are extracts.
AWAKE, AWAKE, MY SLEEPING SOUL.
Awake, awake, my sleeping soul, Rouse from thy dreains of hope and fear: And think, and see How soon life's busy moments roll, How soon the hour of death draws near! How silently ! How swiftly hurrying joy glides by! And nought but sorrow's shade remains Of vanish'd bliss ! Yet sweeter is the memory of other moments' griefs and pains Than joys in this. Our lives are rivers flowing on To that interminable sea, The mighty grave: There go-as there have ever gone, All pomp, and pride, and royalty, Which nought can save. There roll the mountain's rapid streams, There rolls the little gentle rill, There mingle all Lost in tbat ocean-tide which seems To swallow-though unsated still The great--the small. O could we but adorn the face, The corporal face, with skilful art, And beauty rare ! As we might clothe with glorious grace, And angel charms, our brighter part, And all that's fairO what industrious, busy will, What passion and what ardour we Should bring, to deck The sensual captive with our skill, While the bright soul of liberty Might go to wreck! O mark of what delusive worth The fleeting things for which we sigh! Satisfied never; For, in this vain deceitful earth, We lose them ev'n before we die, Yes! lose for ever; And time destroys them in its way, Vicissitude and accident, And busy change ; All bear the seeds of self-decay, And o'er the beights most eminent, The tempests range. The dazzling dreams, the luscious sweets, Which round life's gloomy passage dwell, Are convent walls, Wbere pilgrim oft witb pilgrim meets, And hastens to death's gloomy cell, And then he falls. We reck not,-but with breathless speed We hasten o'er the travell'd track As driven by fate Then stop-Death calls-"Take beed, take heed," And then we fain would burry back, But 'tis too late.
Death treats all mortal things the same; And pope and prelate, king and count, Alike he shocks. He beeds no rank, respects no name, Calls seer or shepherd on the mount, Or senseless flocks. The Trojans are in darkness laid, And all they thought and all they did, Their losses-gainsThe Roman history's veil'd in shade, That tower'd as towers a pyramid But nought remains. Why should we seek the vain display Of distant ages, treasured not In memory's hold, When the events of yesterday Are vanish'd all-are all forgot As deeds of old? The battle to be fought,-though hard, Is far less dreadful than it seems Come on! Come on! For thou wilt gain a rich reward In that bright memory which streams From victories won. There is a life which virtue lives In men's deep hearts enshrin'd, though this Is passing too ; Yet the long-living fame, that gives An earthly heav'n to worth,-is bliss And glory true. This is the second life,--the best Was never gain'd in mortal strife, Nor mundane joy, Nor in the scenes of ease and rest, Nor 'midst the murderous sins of life, Which life destroy; But in devotion's sainted cell, Where monks and hermits pass their time In prayers and woes; And by bold warriors, who repel, 'Midst dangers, toils, and deeds sublime, The Moorish foes. Let's waste no words, for calm and still Ĩ Submission needs; For that, which is my Maker's will, Shall be my will,-whate'er it teach, Where'er it leads. I'm ready now to die.--I give My soul to heaven resignedlyTo death's great change : For to desire and long to live, When God decrees that we shall die, Were folly strange. Thou who didst bend thee from above, And take a mean and worthless name, O sovereigo grace! Thou who didst clothe thee in thy love With the low weeds of human shame, To save our race: Thou who didst bear the stripes abhorr'd, And give thy sacred name to bear All mortal pain ! Not for my merit-heavenly Lord ! But for thy mercies-hear me-beas! And pardon then !
We read of mighty monarchs driven
Yet if ever the staid and sober brow of religion was adorned with garlands of flowers -if ever she was led by cheerfulness into the daily walks of the world--if ever she was courted by the smiles of poetry and of natural joy-it was in Spain. True, she had a terrible aspect, and a scourge of vipers for those she hated; but on the simple, untutored, obedient spirits that followed in her gorgeous train, she breathed nothing but peace, and beauty, and blessedness. Their devotion had none of the high abstractions of philosophy, neither had it any of philosophy's doubts and fears. They believed and felt—they felt and believed. Their creed intermingled itself with their social affec. tions—their devotion was fed by every-day objects-over which their romanceros threw the lustre of poetical imagery, and which their priests enlisted in the service of religion.
WHILE TO BETHLEM WE ARE GOING.
Why did he, the Lord eternal,
From that world to bring to this
While to Bethlem we are going,
Well, then! let us haste to Bethlem,
The pastoral romances too are generally the very portraiture of genuine sentimentundefaced by the decorations and delusions of artificial society. Their charms are pot extraneous. They are varied ; they are pure and passionate. They have nothing of the mysticism of civilization, nor of the adorning of deceit.
THE MAIDEN IS DISQUIETED.
The maiden is disquieted,
NAY! SHEPHERD, NAY! THOU ART UNWARY.
Nay! shepherd, nay ! thou art unwary-
-0! he who is forgot by love
Throw off this yoke, young shepherd, be
Tis love then, shepherd ! O depart,
Then tell thy love--perchance 'tis hid,
The following is very illustrative of Spanish manners and Spanish feelings.
THE GOOD OLD COUNT IN SADNESS STRAY'D.
The good old Count in sadness stray'd
Be silent, father mine! I pray,
But these romances must be brought to a close. They must mingle no longer with other gems and Aowers, but be transplanted to a garden of their own. That's melancholy!--they quit the sweet society among which they have been proud to linger,-friends and companions- and they go to solitude, perhaps to oblivion. Be it not so!
It is hard to tear oneself away from delightful recollections and busy thoughts Yet in the progress of these desultory things, the heart has been often wounded when it has been dragged to that “ renowned, romantic land ” where they had their origin. Gloom soon cast shadows around it, and those shadows grew darker and darker. Meanwhile they with whom every remembrance of sympathy and affection was associated, have been torn up, like loathsome weeds, from tbe soil they blessed and we loved. Of the dearest, and the purest, some have perished ; and their memory, embalmed in burning and undying hate, to be poured out hereafter on the bare heads of tyrants, lives in the heart of heart ;-some wear cruel chains which may perhaps rust ere they fall--and some wander like the ghosts which can find no habitation on earth, nor an entrance to the grave-desolate-broken ;-and some most perfidiously--their figures pursue me, and ten times a day I hurl-Nay! stop thy indignation they were
I had forgotten—that I ought to forget. Yet a romance or two !- they will still a spirit that is sadly troubled.
THAT'S A LIE,—THAT'S A LIÈ !
Deserve both shame and suffering tog
That's true that's true!
But wondrous favours to be done,
And glorious prizes to be won ; That crowns give virtue-power gives wit,
And downy pillows for our bead, That follies well on proud ones sit ;
And thornless roses for our bed ; That poor men's slips deserve a halter,
In monarcbs' words-to trust and try, While honours crown the great defaulter ;
And risk your honour on the die-
That's a lie that's a lie.
That he who in the courts of law
Defends his person, or estate, To say a dull and sleepy warden
Should bave a privilege to draw Can guard a many-portal'd garden;
Upon the mighty river Plate ;* That woes which darken many a day,
And, spite of all that be can do, One moment's smile can charm away ;
He will be pluck'd and laugh'd at too-
That's true--that's true!
To sow of pure and honest seeds,
And gather nought but waste and weeds ; They must be gaggd who go to court,
And to pretend our care and toil And bless, besides, the gagger fort;
Had well prepared the ungrateful soil ; That rank-less must be scourged, and thank
And then on righteous heaven to cry, The scourgers when they're men of rank ;
As 'twere unjust-and ask it why? The humble, poor man's form and hue
That's a lie-that's a lie.
Gongora. * Rio de la Plata-Silver River.
CHEMICAL ESSAYS. NO. V.
(Sel. Mag.) AMMONIA-SULPHUR — PHOSPHORUS, WITH THEIR RESPECTIVE COMPOUNDS. NITROGEN and hydrogen also the alkalies to which we have just al
unite, and form a very extraordi- luded. Water absorbs it readily, tanary compound. It is called AMMONIA, king up four hundred and sixty times or the volatile ulkali. To explain this, its own bulk with ease. It was formerwe must first give some account of that ly called spirits of hartshorn, because class of bodies called alkalies. They it was obtained from the shavings of are such as unite readily with all acids, this last-mentioned substance. The Deutralize or impair their activity, and easiest method of procuring ammonia form with them a compound termed a for the examination of the student, is salt. As acids change all vegetable by heating, in a small glass retort, two blues red, so alkalies change them parts of dry quicklime, and one of mugreen. A very easy example of this riate of ammonia. It must be collectkind may be given. Let the operator ed over mercury, as water absorbs it colour with violets, or any other blue rapidly. Ammonia combines with the power, some common white paper, and acids, and forms salts mostly soluble in dip this, when coloured, into a solution water, and which give out the smell of of vinegar and water : it will immedi. ammonia when mixed with pure potash ately change to red. Let him then dip or lime.. it into a solution of soda ; and the red One of the most important of these will be converted into green. The is muriate of ammonia, the same salt test generally employed by chemists for which was anciently called sal ammodetecting acids, is paper dipped in a niac. It was obtained by burning camsolution of litmus : this is a blue vegeta- l's dung. ble extract, and forms so delicate a test, that it will show the presence of SULPHUR, the next body in our list, is one hundredth part of sulphuric acid. a very brittle substance of a light yellow
Ammonia is a gas of a very pungent colour, with very little taste, or, when smell, and possessing all the marks of cold, of smell. When heated, it exhales
very peculiar and suffocating fumes. one another, but, moisture being preIt is a mineral, and is found crystalli- sent in small quantity, they form a zed. If a roll of sulphur be taken and white solid, which is instantly decomsuddenly grasped in a warm hand, it posed when put into water: the nitrous crackles, and frequently falls to pieces acid reverts to the state of nitric oxide, from its unequal expansion, as it is a having transferred one additional provery bad conductor of caloric. Sulportion of oxygen to the sul, hurous phur in masses is got from Sicily ; in acid, and, with water, producing the rolls it is chemically obtained in Eng- sulphuric acid ; while the ninous oxland from sulphuret of copper.- ide plays the same part as before.
It unites with oxygen, forming two Sulphuric acid is acrid and caustic, compounds, to the latter of which we and produces a very sour liquid. It have already not unfrequently alluded --- rapidly chars and even destroys wood, this is sulphuric acid. The first pro- metals, or animal fibres, &c. indeed, all portion it unites in, forms sulphurous animal and vegetable substances. Its acid gas. This is formed whenever colour, when it is pure, is almost transsulphur is burned in common air. It parent, and of nearly the same subsistis obtained mure plentifully by burning ence as oil. The sulphuric acid of sulphur in a closed vessel filled with commerce, known by the name of oil oxygen : it should be collected over of vitriol, is seldom perfectly pure ;mercury, as water absorbs it very ra, lead, lime, and potash, are pot unfrepidly. Sulphurous acid gas destroys quently found in it. all colours, but when diluted with wa. The uses of sulphuric acid are variter it reddens vegetable blues. On the ous and numerous, as well in arts as in principle that this gas destroys colours, chemistry. It is an important article depends the common plan of removing of commerce. The makers of many of the stain of Ink, by wetting the place the other acids, bleachers, brass-foundwith common water, and burning a ers, gilders, dyers, paper-makers, all match underneath it. The gas rises, employ it. Some of its salts are very and is absorbed by the water, and the useful,but these we shall notice hereafter. colour is thus destroyed. This gas is Sulphur and hydrogen unite, and unrespirable, being exceedingly delete- form a singular gas, called by most rious even if largely diluted with atmos- chemists sulphuretted hydrogen. It is pheric air. It is chiefly used for wbi- peculiarly fetid : is infiammable, and tening cotton goods and silks. It is deposits sulphur in burning. Water also sometimes employed to check the may be strongly impregnated with it,
and in this case it is a very delicate test We will now consider the next com- for metals, which it precipitates in difpound of oxygen and sulphur, viz. sul- ferent colours. Sulpburetted hydrogen phuric acid. It was formerly obtained is by some chemists considered as an by the distillation of green vitriol or acid,and is termed hydrosulphuric acid. sulphate of iron ; it is now procured Our next body is PHOSPHORUS. It by burning about eight parts of sulphur may be obtained by distilling concrete and one of nitre in leaden rooms con- phosphoric acid with charcoal at a red taining water, wbich absorbs the gas, heat; the tube of the retort in which and it is then concentrated by distilla- it is distilled should be immersed an tion. The principle of the formation inch or more in a basin of water. When of sulphuric acid by the combustion the retort becomes red hot, the phosof sulphur and nitre may be thus ex- phorus passes over and looks somewhat plained. The sulphur, by burning in like wax. In this state it is impure; contact with atmospheric air, formis but it may be purified by melting it unsulphurous acid. The nitre gives rise der bot water, and squeezing it through to the production of nitric oxide, which, chamois leather. with the oxygen of the air, gives rise to But, before we proceed, we must nitrous acid gas. When these gases, caution the young experimentalist to (i. e. sulphurous and nitrous acids) are beware how he meddles with this danperfectly dry, they do not act upon gerous body; indeed, we would recom