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(Extracted from Blackwood's Magazine.) AMONG the rest of those sciences, In fact, (poetry apart,) the standard
beneficial and ornamental, which of novel-writing has changed among have been making huge strides of pro- us. That which was the “ trash” (eo gress during the last fifteen years, the nomine) " of the circulating libraries,” advancement of the art of novel-writing the circulating libraries now can circa(in this country) stands very eminently late no more. distinguished. “ Mrs. Roche” has Nonsense will be printed in the year ceased to rave; and, if she raved still, 1824, but not much that is pure, unno man would mark her. “ Mr. Lac adulterated nonsense. The dog-eared thom" can no longer terrify the prenti- darlings of the dressmakers' workces nor “ Anne of Swansea" now de- rooms have been at auction for the last light the ladies boarding-schools. “ Mrs. time!“ Miss Nimifie” and “Miss Bluemantle" (alas, poor “ Bridget !") Moffat," and all the 6 ladies” and has washed her hands (of ink) for “ gentlemen” of “ fashion,” have jumpever; and but a water-colour kind of ed up, to be “knocked down,” at reputation is left to Mrs. Radcliffe and seven-pence-halfpenny a volume; and Mrs. Helme. Harp of Leadenhall the cheesemonger smiles, for, at the Street, thy strings are cracked past mending !-Messrs. Lane and New * Percy Mallory, a novel, in three volumcs, by the man's " occupation's gone !"
author of Pen Owen. Edinburgh 1824.
next transfer, he knows them for his now perhaps from a certain want of the own.
same power in the author before us. For an array of new combatants But it is curious to observe the manner have burst into the literary field, who in which that extraordinary writer concanter, and caracole, and bear down all trives to maintain as perfect an arrangebefore them! There is the Waverly ment through his history of four voknight-he of the hundred weapons ; lumes, as the Italian conteur ever did
-and his war-cry rings loudest on the in his anecdote of four pages. The plain. There is the author of Vale- Tuscan artist built pavillions—the Scotrius, in his Roman armour; and the tish sorcerer raises cities ; Boccacio can Ettrick Shepherd, with his knotted steer a gondola, amid the “ crinkum club; and there is Hope, on his barb crankum” of a Venetian canal ; but of the desart ; and Galt, in his pawkie the author of Waverley is “ The Flying costume ; and Maturin, with his fright- Dutchman," who doubles Cape Horn ful mask; and Washington Irving, just in the eye of the wind. The Italian in his silk doublet, throwing darts into prances along, to a hair's breadth, in his the air, and catching them again, and cabriolet, the prettiest Pall Mall pacing riding as easily as if he were on pa- in the world! but the Waverley man rade; and then there are the Amazons, draws THE MAIL “through” – from equipped after every fancy and fashion! London to Edinburgh” “ twice aMiss Porter, waving her Polish lance, week !"—He looks to his “ way-bill” and Miss Edgeworth. holding up her — takes care of his passengers, loses no ferula, and the authoress of “Mar-' parcels, and never “ drags” an inch of riage," (in Miss Jacky's green joseph,) the road! He has got his fourbig tucked up upon a pillion'; and Lady ones"_" well in hand"_before him. Morgan, astradelle, (and in French His “five-and-thirty hundred weight," breeches, since she has taken to be _“ live and dead load,” behind him. mad about politics ! and poor old Mrs. He gets his four “ insides” up, and his
Thickenwell, and her friends, are no three “ out”- bis “ bags”-his « timemore able to stand their ground against piece”-spare whip, and six great coats. the trampling, and jostling, and caper- The horn blows-he handles the 6 ribing, of this rabble rout, than a washing- bands”-lets go the traces : off they go,
tub (with a north-west wind,) could be and he comes in, five hundred miles off, * fit to carry sail in the Bay of Biscay, or without cracking a splinter bar, sleeps
a poney chaise hope to pass unpulver- his six hours, has his boots cleaned, and ized through Bond Street, in July is ready to start again.
A modern novel, indeed, if it hopes Piecemeal, perhaps, we might match ever to be cut open, must show talent the author of Waverley, but we cannot of some kind or other. Accordingly, match him as a whole. He awakens we find, one author trusts to passion, an impatience in us as to the fate of his another, to invention ; one, to an acute dramatis persone, from the very moperception of what is; another, to a ment that we are introduced to them. vigorous fancy for what he cannot be. He keeps us straining, and “ craning,” One brings to market wit-another, and tiptoeing, after his catastrophe, and metaphysics-a third, descriptive force trotting along, with our noses in the air,
-a fourth, poetic feeling—a few, like like the hackney coach-horses of Dubthe Waverley writer, bring the rare lin, who are coaxed forward by a pole faculty of managing a long story; with hay upon it, pushed from the winbut very few venture to come at all, dow of the carriage before them. We who cannot bring some faculty or are always villainously inclined, before other.
we have got a hundred pages into his People commonly find out the value book, to kill the goose at once, and get of any qualification best, in A, when, the eggs out of the last volume; and we proceeding in their speculations, they are just now (as we observed before) fail' to meet with it in B. The pecu- put in excellent condition to admire the liar felicity of the Scottish novellist, in dexterity and facile conduct of this authe business of telling a story, strikes us thor, the adroitness with which he keeps
constantly dragging his readers on, stands better the advantage of “ shiftneck and heels, (sometimes, too, by the ing a scene;" but, in return, a general way, when they might be inclined to heedlessness makes his transitions pangrumble a little, if he allowed them tomimic; his “ situations” fall out intime to stop,) by the want of that same artificially, and his means are seldom facility being the chiefest defect of the proportioned to his end; he sets a great writer whose work lies before us for deal of machinery to work, which he dissection.
cannot manage when it is in action ; he Percy Mallory, a novel, by the au- makes a great bustle where he comes to thor of Pen Oren." It's a pretty prac- a difficulty, walks round it, and fancies tice this, upon the living subject;" that he has overcome it. The links and we are inventing (only it must be a that connect his tale are often clumsy, great secret) an improved system of and sometimes inefficient; and proba“ operative" surgery, by which we pro- bly incident, or accurate description, pose, shortly, to “ cut up" authors in are points upon which he seldom pauan entirely new way! In the mean- ses to attend. time, however, we will open Monsieur But he doesn't prose, and therefore Pen Owen, “ from the systole, to the we won't do it for him.diastole.” So !-one cut across the His present work is better, upon the abdomen, from right to left; another whole, than Pen Owen; but its faults incision (transverse about from eight to (and they are not few) are pretty geneeleven inches. There! now we shall rally of the same character. In both see what the gentleman is made of. novels, the great charm lies unquestion
The author of “ Percy Mallory" has ably in the display of a very extraordigreat talents, and his books will be ge- nary measure of practical shrewdness nerally read; but, either he has not the and knowledge of life. In addition to the knack of managing a narrative, or this, Pen Owen had a strong spice of he will not be at the trouble of exercis- political, and this book has a strong ing it. His main excellence lies in the spice of romantic interest. The aurapidity and boldness with which he thor appears to be gaining skill as to sketches character. He is a quick ob- the management of fable; although we server of men's habits and oddities, are far from wishing him to believe and has a clever sort of idea of their that he is not still much below what he passions and affections; he writes a might make himself as to this point. In sipart, petillant dialogue, with great that and other minor matters he may apparent facility, and gives the chit and must improve; we certainly can chat, in general, of a mixed com- scarcely hope to see him better than he pany, with an adroitness hardly to be is already in regard to certain qualifi. exceeded.
cations of a much higher order-qualiAgainst these “ good gists” in an fications in which he certainly is not author, there are some grievous ill tricks surpassed by any living author, in any to be set off. We would wager, al- style whatever--the charming idiomathough we don't know who he is, that tic character of his language-the nahe could write farces as fast as he could tive flow of his wit-his keen satire move his pen. He has the “ touch and thorough acquaintance with man, and go” faculty (so lauded in the man- as man exists in the 19th century, ager's room) as light as any gentleman and more especially as he exists in we ever met with. No man is less like- LONDON. ly to overlay a conversation, or under
THE DEATH OF MOSES. Aod Moses was a hundred and twenty years old when he died : his eye was not dim,nor bis natural force abated.-Deuteronorry xxxiv. 7.
A sadow passed before me, and the form
Or dying Moses on my vision rose :
Albeit he wore upon his aged brow
O which 'twas writ the Prophet was to die;
Drawn by the band of sweet Euthanasy.
His placid cheek assumed po paler dye
Nor age had cast her dimpess on his eye;
CALORIC-ELECTRICITY. W E have before observed, that cal- various fluids; for if they are now all
oric has the power of expanding poured into water of the same tempeall bodies. This expansion varies ex- rature, (when they will give out all the ceedingly in the various substances up. caloric they have absorbed, it will be on which it acts. Different metals found that the oil will heat the water expand in different degrees. To show most, and so on in succession; thus these variations, instruments called py- clearly showing that different bodies rometers have been invented. Upon have different capacities for caloric. this principle, thermometers have been But we will now proceed to our secformed: they are tubes with a bulb at ond division of specific heat: the heat the bottom; the air is excluded from connected with or developed in the them, and some liquid (generally spi- changes of state. This is generally rits of wine or mercury) is introduced called latent heat. The sudden chaninto the bulb, which by its expansion ges of bodies from a solid to a liquid, or contraction, measured by a scale af- and from a liquid to a gaseous or aerifixed to the tube, shows the tempera- form state, and the reverse of these, ture of the bodies with which it is give the body new capacities for calobrought into contact.
ric. In the changing of ice into wa. The most important powers then of ter, great heat is absorbed; this befree caloric to which we have alluded, comes latent in the newly formed liare its tendency to an equilibrium, its quid. In the same way, to carry on power of radiation, of expansion, and the experiment, when water is boiled, of conducting. We will now pass on it does not rise in temperature after it to examine our second modification of has once reached the boiling point, becaloric; namely, specific or combined cause the additional heat it acquires caloric. The study of this part of is employed in changing the water into heat we may subdivide into two branch- steam, and becomes latent heat in the es : first, the specific heat of bodies newly formed vapour. On the other while they retain the same state; sec- hand, the latent heat of a liquid may cond, the heat connected with or de- be made sensible, by any method which veloped by a change of state.
we can adopt for solidifying it: for it The specific heat of a body is that may be remarked, (though with sevewhich is as it were imprisoned in it: ral exceptions,) that the inore solid bofor the only heat we can feel is the dies have frequently less capacity for free caloric with wbich it parts, conse- caloric than others which are less solid. quently the thermometer can form no If we mix sulphuric acid and water, we test for the specific heat of bodies. The shall find, that sufficient heat is evolved quantity of heat required to raise dif- to raise the thermometer considerably ferent bodies an equal number of ther- above the boiling point. The cause of mometric degrees, is quite different. If, this is, as we before saw, that through for instance, we take water, alcohol, some disposition of chemical affinity, mercury,* and oil, and heat them in the particles of the acid and the water tin vessels by the heat of an oven, we enter into composition in a much more shall find that they will not all arrive solid form, the capacity for caloric is at any given point of heat at the same diminished, and that which was latent time. The oil will be the last to ac- heat in its less condensed form, is now quire the temperature, the alcohol next, sensible, or free caloric, becoming senand then the water; the mercury will sible as it is evolved. "Another examfirst reach it. Nor can this arise from ple may be found in the slaking of the different conducting powers of the quick-lime. The heat which is here * Mercury was anciently called quick
produced arises from the water and the silver, from its resemblance to silver.' The Time entering into a more solid form: name is not yet quite lait aside.
and the capacity for caloric being les
and chrystalized transparent
sened, the latent heat of the water this fluid in its weakest state : when is evolved, and becomes sensible. collected in larger quantities by instruThere is one more striking instance of ments which we shall hereafter dethe effect produced by the demand for scribe, it appears as a spark. As for caloric to be converted into latent heat; its operations, almost all the minute namely, in the cold produced by evapo- changes as well as the grander lumiration. This is very great in the evapo- nous appearances of matter, seem to ration of spirits of wine, ether, and other originate in it. fluids which evaporate quickly. Here There are several substances, such the caloric is absorbed by the spirits of as glass and sealing-wax, which, by wide, when converted into a state of friction or other methods, seem to acvapour, to exist in the vapour in the quire an increased quantity of the elecshape of latent heat. In very hot cli- tric matter froin ihe atmosphere. We mates, the cold produced is so intense, will mention some of these in the order that a large animal may be actually in which they naturally occur, placing killed by the frequent application of the more powerful bodies at the head ether to his body. In India, ice is pro- of the list, and decreasing gradually to duced during the night, by evaporating the close. water in large and very shallow vessels, 1. SHELL LAC. 7. GLASS, and all vitrified so that a large surface shall be exposed 2 AMBER: bodies containing diamonds,
3. RESINS. to the air.
4. SULPHUR. minerals. We have now discussed the subject
8. RAW SILK. 6. ASPHALTU
9. PAPER. of heat, or caloric. Its chief chemical
10. BAKED WOODS, &c. use is as a solvent. As water destroys On the other hand, there are certain the attraction of cohesion by introduc- substances which do not partake in the ing its particles between the particles least of the power to which we have of the body acted upon, so fire acts just alluded, but which favour the diswith regard to many bodies which are tribution of electricities when they are not acted upon by water. Caloric in- acquired. Among these we may rank troduces its particles, and thus renders first the metals. The following is a the body more liable to be acted upon list of a few of the best conductors of
electricities, as these are termed, in opWe will now advert to our last gene- position to the former class, which are sal power, electricity; and here we termed electrics, and non-conductors. must content ourselves with a mere 1. COPPER.
DILUTE ACIDS. cursory and popular view of the sub
ICE and SNOW, above 00 ject, as it would carry us to a far great 4. IRON.
11. LIVING ANIMALS. er length than our limits will admit,
VAPOUR. were we to attempt to enter into its 7. CHARCOAL. | 14. DRY EARTHS. more abstruse speculations.
But not to enter at present more at If we rub with a dry hand, or with large upon this part of our subject, a silk handkerchief, a glass tube, and wbich would well merit a particular then bring it near to bits of paper, cot- lecture, we will pass on to galvanism, ton, or, which is better, gold-leaf, it a branch of electricity more especially will first attract these bodies, and then connected with chemistry. Galvani, repel them. If when the atmosphere a professor of natural philosophy of Bois dry, we take a glass rod in one hand, logna, discovered, that when a piece of and a stick of sealing-wax in the other, any kind of metal was laid on the nerve and having rubbed one of them, ap- of the leg of a recently killed frog, proproach it to a bit of gold-leaf floating vided the nerve rested on some other in the air, it will repel, and then attract metal, the leg suddenly moved on a it: if while the one repels it, we rub communication being made between the other, and approach it to the parti- the two pieces of metal. This was cle, it will attract it; and thus you may soon found to be effected by a fluid of proceed for any length of time, alter the same nature as electricity. A nately repelling and attracting.. mechanism was soon formed, by means
Such are some of the phenomena of of which this fluid might be collected.