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It is a trough of earthenware, with and renders it unable to retain so much plates of zinc and copper soldered to- electricity as it had before. It accordgether in pairs, each pair being fixed at ingly gives it out to the fluid, which regular distances from each other, and conducts it to the opposite plate of the interstices filled with fluid; the best copper. Hence it passes to the sucis acid diluted in water. By this means ceeding plate of zinc, whence it is drivthe electric fluid is produced, and car- en as before. The same action conried on from one plate to another, till tinues to the end. The chief differit reaches the extremity, where a wire ence between the electricity we obtain made of platina receives it. The fluid by the common glass machine and the evolved at the one wire is positive elec- voltaic or galvanic battery, is, that the tricity, or the same as we before stated latter gives us the fluid in the most inwas obtained from glass; that at the tense state, the former in the greatest other wire negative, answering to what quantity. was obtained from the friction of seal. The method of explaining the action ing-wax or resin.

of the electrical machine, according to There are two theories with regard the theory just mentioned, is, that the to the cause of this : one, that it arises amalgam* put on the latter, obtains in some way from the contact of the 'from the atmosphere oxygen by friction. zinc and copper ; this is supported by We have thus cursorily noticed the Sir Humphrey Davy; the other is call- powers and properties of matter, under ed the chemical explanation, which we the four heads of the attraction of cowill here give. According to this, the hesion, the chemical or heterogeneous acid of the water oxidizes* the zinc, attraction, caloric, and electricity.

(Europ. Mag.)

THE LAST SHILLING. THE clock struck six, as Harry Cra- transient, and the unbidden sigh which

ven issued from his obscure lodging arose to his lip terminated in a merry in Burleigh-street, ExeterChange, to at. wbistle. tend his professional duties, in the or- About three hundred yards beyond chestra, at one of the minor theatres, in the second toll, he came up with a wothe southern division of the metropolis. man, who was standing with her back It was a dismal November evening; a towards him, as though avoiding obdense fog obscured the atmosphere; servation, holding by the wall that yet he walked forward with a firm, skirts the foot-path, and leaning her buoyant step, for Harry had a light cheek upon the stone parapet. Her heart, and a clear conscience, and was tattered garb bespoke extreme poverty; not yet eighteen. In crossing Waterloo her arms were bare, and the slight cov. Bridge he did not encounter a single ering that was spread over her shoulpassenger; all above, before, around ders was drenched with the heavy dew. him, was loneliness and gloom; while She asked no alms, she uttered no lamthe dark watery expanse flowing silent- entations ; but the sound of her bitter ly below, showed through the beautiful sobs reached Harry's ear, and arrested balustrade with an appalling dreariness. his progress. He briefly enquired the Harry was touched with a feeling of source of her suffering, and was soon melancholy; but the emotion was enabled to gather from her broken, in* Here, as before, regularity obliges us coherent accents, that she was the

a to defer the explanation of some of the mother of a large family, reduced to terms which we are compelled to use. In state of the most abject distress and the acid there is a certain part of the acid destitution, and having been unsuccessand of ihe water called oxygen, This bas ful during the day in her attempts to a great inclination to unite with all metals, but with some more than others. It lessens | Amalgam is a metallic compound formthe conducting power of those with which it ed of mercury, zinc, and tin, with some oil unites,

or grease.

obtain some relief to their necessities, “Oh," replied Craven, hesitatingly, she had formed a resolution to drown “ I've lost it, that is, I gave it away just herself, rather than return home to now." brare che unanswerable cries of her “ fie, for shame," rejoined his friend, children's hunger. “But, oh! my "give away the seal of your mistress's baby,” she exclaimed, “ my own dear constancy! why, I'd as soon have partbaby, what must become of you ;” and ed with the great seals of England." the tears that gushed from her eyes « The fact is," said Harry, in exseemed drops of blood wrung from her culpation, “I used it to bribe a poor heart, by the torturing thought of her devil of a woman not to throw herself infant perishing for want. Harry's into the Thames; though, mayhap, I hand was instinctively in his pocket; was a fool for my pains, for it's odds if there was but one single coin remaining the world of waters, or any other world, there, and that was a love token ! a cu- be not better than this one." rious shilling of the reign of Queen Harry then recounted the incident Anne; but the end justified the njeans; he had met with on his way to the thehis time was pressing; he hastily drew atre, adding, "I'd gladly give a soveforth the keepsake of his absent fair, reign this moment to redeem that old and putting it into the woman's hand, shilling; and it's not worth more than ran off towards the theatre; while the eight-pence, I guess, to any one but me.” object of his compassionate bounty "Ah, you're a noble rascal,” cried supk, overwhelmed with gratitude, on his messmate; “I don't want your her knee, pouring out fervent benedic. cash. There, mine host, subtract tions on the head of her youthful bene- two-thirds out of that half-crown." factor for his unsolicited and timely aid. The landlord, who had been stand

Harry was a sad, thoughtless, un- ing near the box during the latter part thrifty cashier; his salary, such as it of the dialogue, bowed respectfully as was, was always mortgaged a fortnight he offered the change; and eyeing in advance; yet the boy had so much Craven with a marked expression of of honour and honesty about him, that kindness, wished his customers a corbis fellow-performers, or even the dial “ good night;" and the two friends manager bimself, never hesitated to shortly afterwards left the house. It lend him a guinea at any time. On was a few days subsequently to this this evening he executed his part, as that Harry, being engaged one mornsecondo violino, with unusual ability ing at reliearsal, received a message, and spirit; and when the performance desiring to be spoken with by a person was over, adjourned with a musical col- who refused to give his name; and, on league, to a tavern in the neighbour. descending to the box-office, was surhood, which the persons belonging to prised to find the landlord of the Welthe theatre were accustomed to frequent. lington Arms waiting to see him ; who

“Come," said Harry's companion, at once declared the object of bis visit when they had made an end of their by proffering to the astonished Harry refreshment,“ show us your metal, my the identical piece of money that he had lad; hand up some semi-quavers." bestowed in charity; at the same time

« Devil a doit have I got.” apswered explaining how it had come into his Harry, “not a single demi-semi to buy possession by saying, that having been a bit of rosin," turning out his pockets asked its worth by a baker in the as he spoke, to evince their utter emp- neighbourhood, who stated that he had tioess.

taken it of a poor woman in payment " Why, where's your silver pockets for a loaf of bread, on the very night piece !” exclaimed the other;" your in question, and having heard Harry Anna Regina.? the lady's head without bewail the loss of such a coin, he bara tongue in it. I thought you always tered with the baker for its full nominal carried it about you, just to swear by value, in order that he might have the and to pay for your swearing; a shilling's satisfaction of restoring it to its original the change for taking an oath you know.” owner. Harry, delighted with the re

13 ATHENEUM VOL. 1. nero series,

covery of his treasure, after making a your honest hand foremost among 'em, thousand acknowledgments, drew out I warrant it should be as much to your his purse to substantiate his gratitude; gain, as it would be to mine." but the worthy old man declining his « Strike hands, most princely Boniliberality, took Harry apart, and after face, I take your offer," cried Craven. briefly commenting on the youth's “ Henceforth I abandon drawing the candour and generosity, went on to say, bow, for drawing of beer; and, low that, if he felt inclined to relinquish his thou regal purple stream,' with accompresent unprofitable pursuit, he would paniments, be my morning and evening be happy to appoint him major domo song " of his own lucrative concern. “I have Preliminaries were soon adjusted, got neither chick nor child," said he. and it was not long before Harry was

I once had a boy, indeed, he might installed in his new office, where he be about your age, but the perverse conducted himself with the utmost indog went to sea and was lost; and my tegrity; married an amiable and repuwife is but a poor sickly thing, so I am table young woman of his own rank in obliged to confide the business almost life, and in the course of a few years entirely to servants, who consider it, I the whole property of the inn devolved presume, their chief duty to cheat me to himself; which he directed should of every sixpence that they possibly in future be known by the sign of the can; but now, if you will come and put Queen's Head.



TIIE DEADLY FIERY WIND. NUMBERS xi. 1. The fire of opened them. That the water which. w the Lord burnt among them, the caravan had with it was so heated This is now generally understood as by it, that it seemed as if it came from referring to the deadly fiery wind, the fire, so that they were not able to which sometimes appears in the eas- drink it. The camels were so affected tern deserts. MAILLET mentions its by this wind that they refused to eat. being felt in the desert between Egypt Its fury, however, lasted only six hours; and Mecca, in part of which the Israel- if it had continued longer, half the caites wandered for forty years. “If ravan must have perished. The year the north wind," he observes, “hap- before a similar wind had destroyed pen to fail, and that from the south two thousand persons of the caravan comes in its place, then the whole cara- going to Mecca. van is so sickly and exhausted, that NEBUHR not only confirms these acthree or four hundred persons are wont counts, but adds some other particuin common to lose their lives ; even lars. “ It is in the desert, between greater numbers, as far as fifteen hun- Bassorah, Bagdat, Aleppo, and Mecdred, of whom the greatest part are ca, that we heard most of the poisonous stified on the spot, by the fire and dust wind Samum. The Arabs in the deof which this fatal wind seems to be sert being accustomed to a pure air, composed.

are said to be able to discover its apJ. E. FABER is likewise of opinion, proach ; and as it blows in a horizonthat by the fire of the Lord in the tal direction, and consequently has not above passage, we are to understand so great a force near the surface of the the fiery poisonous wind described by earth, they throw themselves on the MAILLET.

ground while it is yet at a distance. THEVENOT, who set out from Suez Nature also is said to have taught anito Kabira, informs us, that on the jour- mals to hold their heads close to the ney they bad for a whole day or more ground when the wind approaches." such a hot wind, that they were obliged 6 One of my servants,” Mr. Niebuhr to turn their backs to it, and had their continues to observe, “who was with mouths filled with sand whenever they a caravan from Bassorah to Aleppo,

was overtaken by this wind : some of consequence. When a man is suffo. the Arabs in the company had called cated with this wind, blood is said to out in time, that they should throw flow from his nose and ears two hours themselves on the ground”; none of after his death. The body is said to those who did this received any injury, remain long warm, to swell, to turn but some of the caravan, and among blue and green, and if the arm or leg these a French surgeon who wished to be taken hold of to raise it up, the limb examine this phenomenon accurately, is said to come off.” had been too secure, and perished in

CUSTOM OF MAKING PRESENTS. 1 SAMUEL is. 7. " Then said Saul them come without bringing a flower, to his servant, But, behold, if we go, or an orange, or some such token of what shall we bring the man? for the their respect to the person visited." bread is spent in our vessels, and there MAUNDRECL. is not a present to bring to the man BRUCE, after noticing some insignifiof God : what have we ?" . cant present wbich he had received

“We all dined at Consul Hastings' from an individual who wished to obhouse, and after dinner went to wait tain a favour from him, remarks, “I upon Ostan, the Bassa of Tripoli, hav- mention this trifling circumstance, to ing first sent our present, as the man- show how essential to civil intercourse ner is among the Turks, to procure a presents are considered to be in the propitious reception. It is counted East : whether they be dates or whe. uncivil to visit in this country without ther they be diamonds, they are so an ofiering in hand. All great men ex- much a part of their manners, that pect it as a kind of tribute due to their without them an inferior will never be character and authority, and look upon at peace in his own mind, or think that themselves as affronted, and indeed de- he has hold of his superior for protecfrauded, when the compliment is omit- tion. But superiors give no presents to ted. Even in familiar visits among their inferiors." inserior people, you shall seldom have

THE FIGURATIVE STYLE OF SCRIPTURE. ALTHOUGH sceptical readers of the those events on which the figures of Bible may be disposed to ridicule some Scripture are founded. of those figures which appear to them 2. The difference between the extravagant, and even absurd ; yet any scene and climate in which the saone who lends an impartial attention to cred writers lived, and our own, forms the subject, will clearly perceive that another barrier to the right understandthe occurrence of imagery which would ing of their figurative terms. This be frequently obscure, and sometimes prevents us often from perceiving the unintelligible to us, was to be expected full force of a passage even when its in any composition formed on the mo- beauty, nevertheless, powerfully affects dels of our sacred writings.

the mind. Thus when the Psalmist 1. The innovating hand of time says, “ As the hart panteth after the has rendered many things obsolete; water brooks, so panteth my soul afand, consequently, the allusions which ter thee, O God," it is impossible not in metaphorical language are made to to be affected by the combination of those things must be difficult, if not im- chaste elegance of expression with vepossible, to be understood. And when hement ardour of feeling. Yet in our we recollect that some portions of the temperate clime, where water is scarceScriptures were written more than ly ever known to fail, where the sun 3000 years ago, and that the latest of is scarcely ever known to pour his them were written between 1700 and sickening ray upon our beads, we are 1800 years ago, it would have been not prepared to enter into all the beauvery remarkable had we lost sight of ty of the figure, as an inhabitant of Junone of those customs and none of dea would have done. Again, the hart is not with us a wild animal, subject to could not resist, and flew to revenge the various privations which it was bimself against the inhabitants of the compelled to endure in regions where adjoining cities. How striking a picthe sun had burned up its food, and dri- ture of the rage and violence of an ined the streams at which it was accus- vading army! tomed to slake its thirst. It would be In the second verse of the fourno unusual thing, however, for an Isra- teenth chapter of Hosea, the prayer of elite to see this inoffensive animal ex- repenting Israel is, “ Take away all hausted and fatigued, and panting for a iniquity, and receive us graciously, 80 drop of water; and, consequently, the will we render the Calves of our application of the figure to the Psalm- lips." To an English ear there is ist's desire after God would convey an something grating in the expression impression far more forcible than can "the CALVES of OUR LIPS,"-and be produced by it on our minds. without a knowledge of Jewish peculi

Jeremiah 49, we have a figure still arities, we shall not understand it. But more peculiar to the land of Judea. He when we remember that calves were shall come up like a lion from the among the best of the sacrifices which swelling of the Jordan against the were offered up to God, we gain at habitation of the strong. In this pas. once a key to the explanation, and a sage too, there is obvious beauty and view of the beauty of the figure. The even sublimity of description ; but it is passage, in our language, means simply considerably more obscure to us than this ; So will we render the best sacrithe former. It would however be per- fice of praise from our lips. fectly familiar and intelligible to those 3. The dress and manners of for whom it was first written. What the ancients was exceedingly differwe here know of a lion is chiefly by ent from ours. Their loose and flowdescription, and by the exhibition of a ing raiment formed a perfect contrast few of these monarchs of the four-footed to the tight and inelegant garb of our race encaged in caravans. These are own time and country. A knowledge comparatively small and feeble, and at of this is necessary to explain many the same time so tame through confine- passages of Scripture. The girding-up ment and the discipline of keepers, that of the loins is frequently mentioned in they show us nothing of the true char- places which allude either to diligence acter of that unrivalled animal, who in labour, or to swiftness in running the walks in conscious superiority through appointed course. Now it is obvious, the forest, or bounds with resistless that a long, loose robe, would be very speed and violence across the plain, and inconvenient to servants who required fills, by his tremendous roaring, a to have their hands much at liberty, whole neighbourhood with terror. The and to be able to stoop with ease in the river Jordan, too, is so dissimilar to our persormance of their work; and also rivers, as to increase the obscurity of to those who had to move quickly, and the passage to those who are not ac. required that their steps should not be quainted with the peculiarities of its impeded, nor their feet entangled by course. When the snows of Lebanon the length of their garments. To reand of the neighbouring mountains be- medy this, they always had a girdle, by gan to melt, and when the rainy sea- means of which, when they had gatherson commenced, the mountain torrents ed up the skirts of their garment, they rushed into the vale below, and regis- fastened it round their loins. To one larly caused Jordan to overflow all its who knew that he could neither work banks, and thus inundated all the ad- nor run without having recourse to joining lowlands. The lion had his this measure, how forcible would be abode among the lofty reeds which such passages as these-Let your loins grew on the bank of this river; and be girded about, and your lights burnwhen the descending waters caused ing, and ye yourselves like unto men Jordan to swell so as to invade his who wait for their Lord. Gird up resting-place, he was driven to madness the loins of your mind, be sober, and

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