« AnteriorContinuar »
Protestant to avoid the appearance of sipid to general readers. Analysis symbolizing with this degrading and would ensure much repetition without brutalizing idolatry. But were all this an equivalent in valuable result. Mere mummery swept away, and the Holy extract would be nothing more than Land cleared of all the rubbish brought the paste-and-scissar system, and must into it by the Empress Helena, the perforce be wofully guilty of the morholy sepulchre included, more than tal sin of preterition. The editor of enough would remain to repay the the “ Modern Traveller" has taken Christian traveller, in the durable the effectual way of combining all the monuments of Nature. We know not three. He has introduced enough of the spot where Christ was crucified; extract and anecdote to give spirit,
for part of three days, his body was with sufficient analysis and reference ensepulchred; nor is the exact point to convey a general notion of what ascertainable from which he ascended has been contributed by different auto heaven. The Scriptures are silent, thorities ; and he has blended the and no other authority can supply the whole together, and given it com. information. But there are the scenes pleteness, by a judicious digest of the which he looked upon, the holy mount great mass of his materials. He has, which once bore the temple, that above all, imparted unspeakable value Mount Olivet which once overlooked to his volumes, by the recognition, not Jerusalem ;, there is Mount Gerizim forced or obtrusive, but explicit, of overhanging the Valley of Shechem, the great principles of morality and and the hill where once stood Sama- religion. The adoption of “Routes, ria ;-there is Nazareth, within whose as one of the principal vehicles of secluded vale our Lord so long await- description, though not always practic ed the time appointed for his public cable, has, in countries but partially ministry,—the Plain of Gennesareth known, the double advantage of indiand the Sea of Galilee,the moun- cating the lines which have been pretains to which he retired, the plains viously traversed, and of directing fu
waters which he trod,and there the which still require investigation. In Jordan still rolls its consecrated wa- short, these little volumes contain the ters to the bituminous lake where pith of many an expensive volume; Sodom stood.' pp. 363-365.
and while they will serve the travelAn editor of such a work as the ler as a pocket companion, and the present, would, we imagine, feel some general reader as a useful compendifficulty in determining his plan. dium, they will be found singularly Mere digest would serve the purpose available for the purposes of educaof conveying information in a small tion, at an age somewhat advanced compass, but it would be in great beyond the mere elements of geoperil of proving uninteresting and in- graphical knowledge.
Rome.-Two peasants of Macerata- broidered in gold; gold candlesticks, Feltre, near Fort Leo, in digging a with ancient inscriptions, &c. The pit, at the beginning of May, discov- chest is five feet long, two broad, and ered something concealed below the two and half deep. We impatiently surface. They informed their master, expect farther particulars of this inwho immediately came to the spot teresting discovery. Some persons with three friends and a smith. With conjecture that these jewels may have great difficulty they raised from the belonged to Berengar, Duke of Ivrea ground a brass chest bound with iron. and King of Italy, who, in his war The smith opened it, and they found with the Emperor Otho I., fort fied in it the following valuable articles :- himself with his Queen Gilda, in the many rods and vessels of gold ; a celebrated rock of St. Leo, where he crown ornamented with diamonds; a was beseiged, and, together with his great quantity of female ornaments; consort, fell into the hands of Otho, cloths of Amianthus with borders.em- who sent them both to Germany.
INSTRUCTION OF MECHANICS.
(Edin. Philosophical Journal.) SOME ACCOUNT OF THE SCHOOL OF ARTS, EDINBURGH. M HE public have heard a great design to Dr. Brewster, who entered
1 deal during the last year of insti- warmly into his views, a sketch of the tutions being established in different plan was drawn up, such as was parts of the island, for the diffusion of thought probable might be carried into scientific knowledge among operative effect; and it was circulated among mechanics, and several periodical publi- some of the most considerable master cations in a cheap form, have of late ap- mechanics, with a request that they peared with the same laudable purpose. would read it in their workshops, and It is an important epoch in the history take down the names of such of their of the country, and a spirit has been workmen as expressed a desire to obawakened, which, if properly directed, tain instruction of the kind proposed. may be productive of the most benefi- This was accordingly done, and in the cial effects, not only by ameliorating the course of a fortnight between 70 and moral condition of a great mass of the 80 names were put down. A Compeople, but also by increasing the skill mittee of several scientific genılemen, and prosperity ofour various branches of and of master mechanics, was inimedimanufacture. We are of opinion, there- ately formed for bringing the scheme fore, that a brief account of the School before the public ; it met with very of Arts of Edinburgh, which has now general approbation, and a liberal subexisted for three years, will be accept- scription having been raised, a regular able to our readers.
association was formed, under the title It is to Dr. Birkbeck that the merit of “ The School of Arts, for the inis unquestionably due, of having first struction of Mechanics, in such branchproposed a plan for conveying scien- es of physical science as are of practitific instruction to mechanics. While cal application in their several trades." he was resident in Glasgow, and held The Institution was opened in October the situation of Lecturer in the Ander- 1821, each student paying 15s. for a sonian Institution, about the year 1801, ticket, which entitled him to attend all he gave lectures on Chemistry and the lectures, and have the use of the Natural Philosophy to operative me- library for a year. Such was the eachanics on certain days set apart for gerness for admission, that after 420 that purpose, a plan which was follow. tickets were sold, the book was obliged ed up by his successors, and has been to be closed, as the room could not acconsiderably extended and improved commodate a greater number. The by Dr. Ure, who now delivers the lec- lectures delivered the first year, were tures in that establishment. The valu- on the principles of Chemistry and able suggestions which Dr. Birkbeck their application to the arts, on the had thrown out remained unheeded for elementary principles of Mechanical twenty years; for we believe, that, Philosophy, on Architecture, and on during the whole of that time, the lec- Farriery. At the close of these lectureship which he had founded, was tures at the end of April, one lecture a the only thing of the sort that existed week on each subject having been dein the united kingdom.
livered during the preceding seven About the autumn of 1820, Mr. months, there was established a class Leonard Horner proposed the estab- for Architectural and Mechanical Drae. lishment of a school in Edinburgh, in ing, which continued for which such branches of science as There was establisher! would be useful to mechanics in the library, containing de exercise of their trade, might be taught of the best elementa at convenient hours, and at an expense sciences taught in the that would be within their reach, upon with some of the work a plan similar to that of the Glasgow thority in the mechanica Institution. Having communicated his books the students have ..
of taking to their own houses, and they ments of Algebra and Geometry, with may be exchanged once a fortnight. their application. Without this instrucThe first session terminated very suc- tion it was obvious, that the students cessfully; and it appears from the could derive very little benefit from First Report of the Directors, that the the lectures on Mechanical Philosophy, students followed the lectures with the and what was of still more importance, most profound attention and the deep- without the knowledge of Algebra they est interest. It is stated in that report, could niake no use of some of the most that "no audience accustomed to ob- valuable works in the library. serve all those restraints which are the The course of instruction during the marks of good breeding and good edu- second year was, a lecture once a week cation in the more elevated ranks of upon Chemistry, once a week upon society, could have conducted them- Mechanical Philosophy, and the Mathselves with more perfect propriety and ematical Class met twice a week. This decorum."
plan has also been followed during the The following year the plan of in- last year, and the Drawing Class and struction was in some degree changed, Library continue on the same plan as it having been found that the attention the first year. of the students had been too much dis- The Institution continues to gain tracted by variety; and that, in order ground in the estimation of those for to make the institution really useful, whose benefit it was established, and it by conveying solid instruction to the has now assumed all the characters of mechanics, it was necessary to direct a regular seminary of instruction. their whole attention to the acquisition li is supported by the fees of the of the elementary principles of chemis- students, and an annual subscription try and mechanical philosophy ; as among the inhabitants of Edinburgh, these were quite sufficient for all the and other friends of the institution. time they could bestow, and were the The management of its affairs is conbranches of science of most general ducted by Eighteen Directors, chosen application in the mechanical arts. annually at a General Meeting of the
The Directors obtained also this year Subscribers. Many of the details are the powerful assistance of Professor managed by Committees of the styLeslie in digesting their plan of in- dents themselves, appointed by the Distruction; and upon his suggestion a rectors, who act gratuitously, and are class was established for the higher found to conduct the business entrusted branches of Arithmetic, and the ele- to them with great assiduity and skill.
POLAR SEAS. The theory that there are open seas prosecuted his voyage towards the Pole, round both the Earth's Poles, has re- if other considerations had permitted. ceived strong corroboration within the there was no field ice in sigirt towards last few months. We have now on the South ; and the water was inhabitour table a letter from a Naval Officered by many finned and humpbacked at Drontheim, who notices the fact that whales. The longitude was between Capt. Sabine had good weather, and the South Shetland Islands, lately disreached 80° 81' north latitude without covered, and Sandwich land : this obstruction from the ice, so that the proves the former to be an archipelago Expedition might easily have proceeded (as was supposed,) and not a continent. farther had its object so required. And The voyage is remarkable as being the we have also had the pleasure to meet utmost South upon record, and we recently with a British Officer, who, hope to be favoured with other particuwith two vessels under his command, lars of it. At present we have only to last season, penetrated to 74° 25' south add, that the variations of the needle latitude in the Antarctic circle, which were extraordinary, and the more imis above three degrees beyond Cook's portant as they could not readily be utmost limit. Here he found the sea explained by the philosophical principerfectly clear of ice, and might have ples at present maintained on the subject.
H ENRY ordered the carriage, and direct a single glance of curiosity on
quitted the Louvre, followed by the decorations which were preparing the Dukes of Montbazon and Epernon, in the streets and public places, in Marshal de Lavardin, de Roquelaure, honour of the approaching entrance of de la Force, de Mirabeau, and Lian- Mary de Medicis into Paris. Thoughtcourt, first equerry. Mathieu the his- ful, and, as it were, collected within torian affirms, that when Ravillac un- himself, the king remained absorbed in derstood the king had given orders for the profoundest reverie, when the carhis carriage, he with an air of exulta- riage was suddenly stopped at the end tion muttered between his teeth : “I of the street Ferronnerie, in consehold thee fast: thou art lost!” At quence of two waggons, the one loaded that moment, says the Journal d'Etoile, with wine and the other with corn, Vitry made his appearance ; when the which blocked up the way. Numerous king said, “ I neither require you nor stalls, then placed at the termination of your guards ; for these forty years that street, rendered the passage very past I have almost uniformly been the narrow; and Henry the Second, a few captain of my own guards; I will days previous to his death, had in connot have any one to surround my car. sequence commanded their removal : riage.” The coachman then having this order, if executed, would have alinquired where he was to drive? Henry lowed a free passage to carts and wag. replied in a peevish tone, “ Convey me gons, in which case the regicide could from hence." On passing before the not have perpetrated his diabolical hotel de Longueville, the driver repeat- deed. The king's foot pages quitted ed the former question ; when the king the vehicle, in order to see the way said, “ To the Cross of Trahoir :" and cleared, when Francis Ravillac the on arriving at the spot, he observed in most execrable of murderers, who had a bewildered manner, “ To the Saints- followed the vehicle, placed his foot Innocents." By a most unfortunate upon a spoke of one of the hind wheels, fatality, Henry, on a sudden, desired on the side where the monarch was that the curtains of the carriage might seated and supporting himself with one be raised ; for at that period there hand upon the door of the carriage, were no glasses to the vehicles, wbich he with the other struck the king with were closed in by leather curtains. Had a two-edged knife. The first blow they been dowii, the assassin could not thus inflicted grazed the second and have directed his aim, nor struck the third ribs, and would not have proved fatal blow!
. mortal; upon which the king exclaimNo unfortunate event had been wit- ed, “I am wounded !”—at the same nessed during the queen's coronation, instant he received a second stab, the notwithstanding the opinion that had weapon piercing his heart, when the prevailed throughout the city that some monarch expired on the instant. So dreadful misfortune would occur. The determined was this execrable assassin, day having passed happily, public dis- that he had intended a third blow, quietude had in consequence in a great which, however, struck the sleeve of measure subsided ; and the populace, the duke de Montbazon, who had raised re-animated by the presence of their his arm to parry off the weapon. adored monarch, made the air ring F rancis Ravillac was a native of with their accustomed acclamations, as Angouleme, where he followed the he proceeded on his route. Henry, avocation of a school-master till the who usually felt touched at these de- age of 31 or 32. Mathieu surmises monstrations of love, appeared insensi- that he was of unsound mind; but, acble on this occasion ; neither did he cording to the ideas usually conceived
of insanity, it does not appear from his that the city was taken by assault. conversations while in prison, and dur- Every one confusedly thought that he ing the period of his execution, that was deprived of his only safeguard, such was the fact. Guy Patin says, in defender, and father; it appeared as if Letter 122, that Ravillac had a brother every thing was gone in losing him ; , who died in Holland; and from a de- nothing was felt but dread, and the claration made upon his death-bed it most invincible terror. The Duke appeared, that in case Francis Ravillac d'Epernon immediately cried aloud, had not succeeded, he would have un- that the king was only wounded; and, dertaken to perpetrate the deed.
to persuade the populace that such was Of the seven individuals who were the truth, he demanded a goblet of unfortunately in the carriage with the wine : every one at the instant rushed monarch, the firm attachment of six from the houses, and the most affecting could not be suspected, as the only exclamations of joy resounded in all diperson present who had not uniformly rections, while tears flowed in abunbeen upon good terms with Henry was dance from the anxious bystanders. the Duke d'Epernon. They were, no The Duke d'Epernon continued crying doubt, all occupied in observing the em- incessantly that the king was only hurt : barrassment of the different vehicles upon which the people expressed a dethat obstructed the progress of his sire to see their monarch ; and for this majesty ; in addition to which, the purpose flocked round the vehicle, but blows were struck with the greatest were kept at a distance on being told rapidity. Mathieu states, “ that during it was necessary his majesty should be the morning Ravillac had continued à forthwith conveyed to the Louvre, for great length of time at the Louvre. the purpose of having his wound exseated upon the steps of the portal, amined. Saint Michel, one of the where the valets were waiting the arri- king's gentlemen in ordinary, had folval of the king. He had intended to lowed the prince, but was not near the strike the blow between the two doors, carriage at the time of the assassination, but he found the Duke d'Epernon on He came up on hearing the noise, the spot where he had predetermined drew his sword, snatched the bloody to attack the monarch.” This execra- knife from the hand of the regicide, ble villain afterwards acknowledged whom he was on the point of killing, that he had followed Henry in the had not the Duke d'Epernon interposed morning to the church of the Feuillans, to prevent the act. The villain was in order to commit the murder : but then confided to proper hands, and led that the Duke of Vendome, who arriv. away. During the whole scene every ed, forced him to keep at a distance. thing continued perfectly quiet at the
Not one of the inmates of the carriage arsenal ! saw the king struck ; and, if the san- « Two circumstances were particuguinary villain had thrown away the larly remarked,” says Mezerai, “ from knife, it would not have been known which the reader may draw what inwho had committed the infernal deed. ference he pleases. The one was, All the personages in the vehicle im- that, immediately after the seizure of mediately got out to prevent the people, Ravillac, seven or eight men arrived who flocked from all quarters, from with swords in hand, saying it was tearing the assassin to pieces: three of requisite the assassin should be killthe noblemen stood at the carriage ed; but they instantaneously concealdoor to succour their master ; and one, ed themselves among the crowd. The perceiving the blood gush from his other fact was, the murderer's not bemouth, and that he was speechless, ing immediately conveyed to prison, cried out “ The king is dead!” This but placed in the hands of Montigny: terrible exclamation created the most that he was kept for two days in the dreadful tumult: the people who were hotel de Rais, with so little care, that in the streets rushed into the shops and all ranks of people were permitted to houses, apprehensive of becoming the communicate with him ; and among prey of some unknown enemies, and others, an ecclesiastic greatly indebt