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country and England, so as to aid in arriving at have lost more than one case; in fact, I know a system which shall combine the utmost sim- that it was only in one instance that I failed to plicity with the greatest excellence. It is in establish the lunacy of the prisoner under trial. many respects the most important work in the My last case before I left London was the way of law reform which has been suggested or Saunderson murders. Four months before undertaken for many years. It is quite proba- Saunderson came to trial I said that he was a ble that the commission appointed in this State lunatic and could not plead. You must underto report as to the revision of the Code of Pro- stand that in England the question is asked if cedure will find it very desirable to postpone a man is sane now, and if he was insane at the any definite action in the matter until the data time the murder was committed. If he is insuggested has been gathered and a study made sane when the trial comes on, he cannot be by competent persons from its results as to the tried; and in either case he cannot plead. very best method of procedure, based upon the Saunderson was a young man under twentyexperience of all English speaking countries. five. As soon as I saw him and talked with

him for a while I became certain that he was a The newly elected President of the American

homicidal lunatic. Five other doctors examBar Association, Mr. Moorfield Story, of Bos

ined him and said he was a perfectly sane man, ton, is a man of wide culture as well as of ex

and that he could plead. In face of this oppotensive practice. He has been much interested in the work of the association, and last year he was to be brought to trial, but the day be

sition the prosecution decided against me, and delivered the annual address at Saratoga upon fore the day fixed for the trial the chief attend“American Legislation," which attracted much

ant of the prosecution went to the prison to attention. He is a man of middle age, active

see Saunders, and after talking with him reaand energetic, and will doubtless do much to

lized that he was crazy, and came to me to say ward forwarding the interests of the association.

Saunderson's was an auricular mania. He J. Newton Fiero, of Albany, was elected as heard voices compelling him to commit the Vice-President for the State of New York, and murders, but rather than be tried as a lunatic, William H. Robertson, of Westchester, elected he suppressed the fact so skillfully that he ima member of the General Council, having pressed everybody as being a man of sound charge of the affairs of the association. Several

It is just this shrewdness in criminals prominent members of the bar of the State and this apparent saneness which lead people were selected as members of the local council to believe that they are responsible, when, as a which controls the matter of admission to the

matter of fact, they are homicidal lunatics. In association of members of the bar from this my opinion a very small proportíon of men acState.

cused of crime are sane. The Medico-Legal Society commenced its

An instance of this, and the way the law congress at the United States court rooms in

treats it, occurred in a murder known in Eng

A wretched the city of New York, on the 4th, 5th and 6th | land as the Old Kent road murder. of September, under a committee of arrange-old man killed his wife and almost succeeded ments of which Hon. Rastus S. Ransom was

in cutting his throat. If the point of the knife chairman, and Clark Bell, Esq., secretary. Many had reached an inch further it would have cut eminent doctors and lawyers have consented to his jugular vein and the verdict of a coroner's read papers, and, among others, Dr. Forbes jury would have been that he had killed his Winslow of London will discuss “ Suicide, con- wife and committed suicide when temporarily sidered as a Mental Epidemic." In a recent in- insane. But it happened that the knife did not terview Dr. Winslow gave many interesting and penetrate far enough to kill him. So as soon valuable facts from his experience, which has as he was well enough to come out of the hos. been greatly devoted to insanity in criminal pital he was dragged to the Old Bailey and cases, on which he said :

tried for murder. He was wretchedly wounded, For years past I have testified in a great with a great hole in the side of his throat, but number of cases, and I don't believe that I the jury decided that he was not insane, and


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he was hanged. I talked io him in his cell at or two he was lying quietly on his cot. He told recess on the day of his trial, and was convinced me that for several years he had attended murthat he was a lunatic. It turned out to be der trials habitually, and read the reports of true, for after his death a lot of letters written those that he couldn't get to. He became so by him were found, and they were perfectly possessed with the thought of them that his irresponsible, indicating undoubtedly that their mind was affected ultimately, and he turned writer was insane.

and killed his own brother one day with no “Not only are most murderers homicidal provocation. lunatics, but homicidal lunacy in London is in “My theory of the Jack the Ripper murders creasing very rapidly, particularly among young was that they were the work of a religious mamen between sixteen and twenty-five years old. niac who fancied that he had some grudge to I think the increase comes chiefly from the pay against these women. When I proposed force of imitation. These boys read about men this theory first in London I got letters from who have committed murders; their minds be every quarter. After the third murder I got come filled with the stories of them; the pulpit one signed ^ Jack the Ripper,' saying: 'This does all that it can to make the situation worse week you shall hear from me.' The police at by preaching about these men, and this com- Scotland Yard got the same letter in the same bination has its effect on their youthful minds. handwriting, which proved also to be the same They want to do something of the same kind writing that was found on the arches in Whitethemselves to attract the same attention to chapel after the murders were committed. One them, and I am certain it is this motive which of the people who wrote to me at that time was is the strongest now in the increase of the num a lodging-house keeper. He said that a young ber of young men in London who are tried for medical student lived with him, and he demurder. But they are homicidal lunatics just scribed this man's actions the nights the same, even if it be only this force of imita- when the first three murders occurred. tion which inspires them. They are not re At each time he had gone from the house differsponsible ; their brains are affected. Homicidal ently dressed, and had come back with his shoes lunacy, unlike suicidal lunacy, is curable. A

and clothes covered with blood. He was a rehomicidal lunatic may recover entirely from ligious monomaniac and went to St. Paul's the attack which led him to commit a certain Cathedral every morning. He came home after crime, but at the same time he will never be the murders, changed his clothes, and got out safe at large. Of all the men that are saved of the house in time to go to early service. from the gallows in England by establishing The men that kept the lodging-house told me their lunacy not one has ever been set free. these facts. I investigated them and found They are all sent to Broadmoor prison, the them to be true. I got a pair of the man's prison for the criminal insane. From suicidal shoes that were covered with human blood. lunacy a patient rarely recovers, even for a After the third murder the medical student disbrief period. It takes the form of melancholy, appeared and no trace could be found of him. and for that reason it is rarely ever shaken off. I went to Scotland Yard and asked them to When I go into a room and find a man raving, assist me in the matter and put an officer at my with three men holding him down, I feel very disposal, so that we could look for the man, much more encouraged than if he walks into but they refused to do that, and I was unwillmy presence quietly and soberly, with a look of ing to undertake the whole thing myself. Later, melancholy.

I wrote to one of the newspapers an account of One case that I had, and the most striking this young man and my theory of the way in instance of the force of imitation in leading which the murders were committed. From young men to crime, particularly murder, is that time there was not another murder, and that of a boy who had been arrested for killing that strengthened me more than ever in the his brother. When I went to see him he was belief that I could hit upon the right man. Someraving and three keepers were necessary to what later the body of this medical student was hold him, but I stayed in the room alone quiet- found in the Thames. He had drowned himing him by talking with him, and in a moment self.

I was very much interested in the case of recently of a man who stole small sums of Mrs. Maybrick. I believe now that she will be money in a club. The members had been losout of prison in six months. I handed up the ing money, from time to time, with no idea petition to the Home Office for her release, and where it went. It was generally missed out of it was Mr. Matthews' refusal to pardon her the pockets of their coats which hung in the which cost him his place under the present gov- cloak room. One day some marked coins were ernment. I found that Maybrick had taken put there--a couple of shillings and a sixpence arsenic two days before he died, which had been or two. They were afterward found in the prescribed by his physician. Mrs. Maybrick possession of this gentleman, who was a memwas arrested simply on the ground that arsenic ber of this club. His rooms were searched, and was found in her husband's body. The arsenic in them were found a great number of pipes, which he took was ample to explain the pres cigarette boxes, cigars, etc., which he had taken ence of what was found in his body after at the club. He told me that he would walk to death.

the door of the cloak room, and a voice would “I have been witness in most of the principal say to him, 'Go over there and take the money cases the last twenty years. Once I testified in out of that coat pocket.' He said that it was two murder cases on the same day at places 200 repeated until he was compelled to obey it, and miles apart.

A man named Richardson had it was only when he found himself up stairs shot two people at Ramsgate. I went down with a few silver coins or a cigarette case in his there and proved that he was unable to plead. I could not take the articles back, for he could

hand that he realized what he had done. He When I got back to town that afternoon I found

never remember from what pockets he had a telegram begging me to come down to a place

taken them. When he was arrested there were where a man named Taylor, who had killed a six pounds in gold pieces of his own money in child in his wife's arms and afterward a police his pocket along with a small silver coin which man who attempted to arrest him, was to be

he had stolen. tried for murder the next day. I got down

A woman came into my hospital once in there and found the entire sentiment of the London, and after examining her I wrote the town against the man. I gave my testimony


entry “kleptomaniac' after her name. proving that he was a lunatic irresponsible for months later she was arrested in Brighton for his acts, and he was acquitted. I was almost

theft. I went down there to see her, found that lynched when I left the town, the indignation she was the same person, and succeeded in against me being so great, but I had the satis- having her discharged, as I had diagnosed her faction of learning later that I was right. The

case four months before when I had no other inan was sent to prison as a religious maniac, and three months later, in a mania of religious feature of the mania was.

means than examination of learning what the excitement, he tore both his eyes out.

“Moral lunacy, which is the general descrip“I have had a great deal of experience in tion under which cases of this kind would come, kleptomania, particularly of late, and it seems takes many forms, and it is impossible to tell in to me the cases are growing very much more what way it will manifest itself. Kleptomania frequent. I attribute that also to the force of is one of them. Oscar Wilde has had a reimitation, just as in the cases of murder. It is markable career, and I have no doubt of his invery difficult to get a rich man off on a plea of sanity. I could not be persuaded that he was kleptomania. It is very much easier to get a responsible for what he did. I never have seen poor man off on that ground, but whenever the him except on the street, but I believe him to prisoner is a man of means the cry always is be insane. ‘there is one law for the rich and another for

“I am radically opposed to capital punishthe poor. Even in cases when women are ar ment. In Belgium, where it has been abolrested with false pockets in their dresses and ished, murder has decreased. I believe the men with false pockets in their coats it may be same result would follow in any country. We just as much a case of kleptomania as when have now in England 94,081 lunatics out of a such elements were not present. I had a case population of 30,000,000. I was reading the

other day in a paper which my father edited mission to hold inquiries in such cases. Anfifty-one years ago, a description of the Ameri- other proposal was that each belligerent should can lunatic asylums. At that time we were depute military authorities of its own to act as only passing a lunacy law, trying to do some a check on their brother officers; but quis custhing to help these unfortunates, but as early as todiet ipsos custodes? Finally the proposition that, according to this letter from America, of M. Lammasch, of Austria, was adopted your institutions were built on a splendid scale that either belligerent complaining of violations and splendidly equipped. I expect to see them should be able to appeal to a neutral State, all before I return to England.”

who should exercise the sort of voluntary supervision of a bystander in a street fight; the

State appealed against must hold the inquiry, The Institute of International Law held at Cambridge, England one of its most successful punish the offender and report what has been sessions, and has materially increased the done to this neutral government. This scheme chances of securing some increased recognition has, perhaps, the merit of being a trifle less unof the laws of one country by another, as well

workable than the others, but the position of as uniformity of laws. The Daily News furn- the neutral State as a registration office can be ishes a very complete history of the Institute no guarantee of the bona fides of the inquiry. and on this subject says:

The institute was

Proposed modifications of the Berne Convenconstituted some twenty years ago by Mr. Roln- tion for the international protection of copyJacquemyns, who, after a varied experience, right also occupied considerable time; the theoretical and practical, in Belgium, the Congo agreement was signed in 1886, and a meeting State and elsewhere, is now prime minister to of delegates of all the signatory Powers, includthe King of Siam. It consists of specialists in ing England, will take place in Paris in the international law, most of whom have established autumn to consider the question of revision. their claims to an European reputation. Dr. The proposals adopted by the late conference von Bas (Gottingen), Professors De Martens will doubtless have great weight with the re(St. Petersburg), international adviser to the vision committee. Roughly speaking, at preRussian government, Matzen (Copenhagen), sent copyright is protected in two cases: (a) If Beirrao (Lisbon), Catellani (Padua), and Pro- the author be a subject of a signatory Power, fessors Westlake and Holland, of Cambridge wherever the place of publication; (6) If the and Oxford respectively, were among the most work be published in the country of a signatory, distinguished delegates.

whatever the nationality of the author. A proThe discussion commenced with the Geneva posal to extend the privilege in the first case to Convention of 1864 for the protection of the strangers domiciled in the territory was rejected, wounded in the time of the war, which all the and does indeed appear to throw open the door European powers have signed. The experience too widely, and to cut down the privileges of the Franco-Prussian war goes to prove that secured by signing the treaty. It was decided either side in the throes of a death struggle also to recommend: 1. The extension of the will be quick to accuse the other of breaches of period during which translations should be prothe Convention, and to threaten to retaliate by tected from ten to twenty years.

2. That news acts of similar brutality. What is specially paper articles, so far as they contain literary wanted is machinery for inquiry, so that the matter, 1. g., short stories or scientific and truth may be at once ascertained. The con- literary critiques, should be secured; full freeduct of the Japanese in connection with the dom to reproduce political articles and news massacre of Port Arthur shows that even a should be allowed, provided the source from nation outside the European family feels it which they were taken be acknowledged. Two dare not face the charge of proved cruelty to other interesting points were the necessity of the wounded. Various schemes for preventing printed notice on musical publications reserving infractions of the Convention were suggested. expressly the right of performance, as to which M. van der Beer-Portugael, a Belgian general, the Institute decided against the necessity of favored the idea of a permanent military com express reservation; and the damage done to

the rights of musical authors by the growing answered the question in the negative till 1870, popularity of the common musical box. but now allows free right of expatriation to

These, however, are really questions of de- British subjects. The institute decided in favor tail on which the resolutions of a body of of freedom to break the tie, but suggest that savants are somewhat wasted. Questions of the mother country may still require such preprinciple, such as are involved in contraband liminary conditions to be satisfied as will pracof war, nationality, and the privileges of an tically destroy the right altogether. If it be ambassador, all of which were discussed at the recognized that Germany may still require three late meeting, afford much more room for use- years' service of every subject, one of the chief ful work in harmonizing and codifying funda- inducements for Germans to be naturalized in mental principles. The law of contraband is America will have disappeared. Again, if an a field peculiarly suited for such work. In the American woman marry an Englishman, she is great wars of the last two centuries the interest at present an English woman in England, an of the great maritime powers has been directly American in America. The institute refused to opposed to that of the smaller States, who admit the principle that any one can have two were usually neutral. The maritime powers nationalities, and if this were generally adopted naturally wished to make the list of forbidden it would clear the ground of many difficulties. articles much wider than mere powder and English lawyers are tempted to ask what shot, and especially to reserve the right of de practical use these abstract rules and resoluclaring, as the circumstances of each case arose, tions can have. It is quite clear that immediwhat should be considered contraband and what ately they bind no one, not even their authors. not. In many cases of blockade it may be But, undoubtedly, though the direct results more important to forbid neutrals carrying pro. may not be very obvious, indirectly the instivisions to the enemy than powder and shot. tute does much to promote international harThe neutral powers, on the other hand, tried mony. The discussion, in cold blood, of disto restrict the list to munitions of war, and puted points tends to remove prejudice and especially rejected the theory of occasional disarm suspicion, as the results of the recent contraband altogether. The two armed neu debates on contraband law proved. While the tralities of 1780 and 1800 attempted to secure presence of so many professors from all parts the adhesion of all Europe to this idea, so as of Europe at these conferences must mean that to compel "perfidious Albion” to give up her the views of the rising generation of law stuiniquities in this respect. England, however, dents will be brought into line in a way hitherto is not the only country which has maintained impossible. the right of varying the list according to circumstances. America has done the same. In the present day, when so much is said And it is interesting to find that, with the about women's rights, it will delight many to growth of her navy, Germany recognizes the know that, although the judicial bench is now necessity of the English custom. On the mo- monopolized by the sterner sex, we believe at tion of M. Perels, of the German admiralty, least once in the history of England a woman the Institute rejected the principle of a fixed has acted as judge. This was in the reign of catalogue, and adopted that of the belliger-Henry VIII., and the woman to whom the ent's right to vary the list provided that neutral | unique honor fell was the Lady Ann Berkeley, powers had full notice by proclamation before of Yate, in Gloucestershire. She had appealed confiscation was attempted.

to the king to punish a party of rioters who had The questions involved in the word na

broken into her park, killed the deer, and fired tionality again are many, and crying aloud for the hayricks and His Majesty granted to her some system of settlement. Has a man a right and others a special commission to try the to resign his allegiance to his mother country offenders, armed with which she opened a comat will and adopt that of another State? To our mission, empanneled the jury, heard the charge, continental neighbors with their lengthy periods and, on a verdict of “Guilty" being returned, of service, this is a vital question. England pronounced sentence.

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