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the spread of contagious or infectious disease among ored taxpayers to be entered in separate lists on the animals. Another rather novel one, designed ap- tax digests of the several counties of the State, a parently to prevent unhealthy progeny, prohibits measure which may hereafter afford some indication the intermarriage of persons either of whom, of the relative progress of the two races. whether man or woman, is epileptic, imbecile or

IDAHO. feeble minded, where the woman is under forty-five

Idaho exhibits the healthful tendency to secure years of age, under a penalty of imprisonment for

in elections a just expression of the popular will not less than three years, and sexual intercourse

by an act providing for a secret and uninfluenced with women of this character under forty-five, or

ballot. with any woman under forty-five by any man who

She has also determined to submit to popular deis an epileptic, and consent to such intercourse by cision the question of giving the full right of sufany woman under forty-five are made crimes pun. frage to women, and has made permanent and inishable with the same penalty. An attempt is made

curable insanity a ground for divorce, with a wise to settle or prevent labor disputes by the establishment of a State board of mediation and arbitra- precaution of a condition that the insane party shall

have been confined for six years next preceding tion. An election law adopting the methods such

the action in the State Insane Asylum. as are commonly embraced under the term “Australian Ballot" was enacted. All holidays are made ilies

ILLINOIS. non in respect to negotiable paper, and when falling The great and advancing State of Illinois has on Saturday, the following Monday is fixed for the been active in noteworthy legislation. It has estabpurposes of presentment, payment, protest, etc., lished for cities, subject to their assent by popular and days of grace are abolished. Rigorous penal- vote, a system of appointment to public offices ties are levelled against the dealing in obscene lit-based upon merit; limited the beginning of conerature. Building and loan associations are defined tests of the validity of wills to the period of two and regulated. The adulteration of candy is made years subsequent to probate; forbidden under penpunishable. The employment of children under alties the entry at horse races of “ringers" or fourteen in factories is probibited, and other provi- horses under false names; provided for the pensionsion made for the protection of children. Sales ing of school teachers after a service of twenty-five conditioned to keep the title in the vendor are re years, the pension fund to be raised by a tax of one quired to be in writing and recorded. The militia per cent on the salaries; abolished days of grace on law is revised. Conspiracy to commit a person to all negotiable paper; provided that all parties liable an insane asylum is made a punishable offense. The on negotiable paper shall be equally liable to the docking of horses' tails is prohibited under a severe holder and may be sued all together and judgment penalty. A secret ballot is provided in town elec rendered against those found liable, with the privitions upon the question of licensing the sale of in- | lege to any party paying the judgment to use it to toxicating drinks.

compel reimbursement against any other party GEORGIA.

liable secondarily to him; provided for the appointThe Legislature of Georgia has contented itself

ment of party committees for the settlement of diswith the passage of ninety-seven acts, which occupy putes as to what candidates may have been regularly two hundred and eighty-two pages.

These indi

nominated; enacted a measure for a tax, graduated

to cate that the practice of this State is to cleal with

some extent, upon property transmitted by large public concerns through the instrumentality

will or descent, making the tax in the instances of of special rather than general laws.

There are many

some beneficiaries other than near relatives as high acts establishing schools for particular towns, many

as six per cent; established a system for the regisaffecting the registration of voters in particular coun

tration of land titles as distinguished from the registies, and numerous special acts relating to particular tration of deeds, and designed to make the public counties and other political divisions of the

records conclusive to a large degree upon the title State, as well as to municipal corporations.

to real property; make provision enabling cities to An act, drawn with apparent care, makes pro- levy a tax for the establishment and maintenance of vision against the practice of medicine by unquali- public libraries made provision for the retirement fied persons. It recognizes three schools of media and pensioning of fire insurance patrolmen; forcine as reputable: the regular, the eclectic, and the bidden under penalties the wrongful taking of meshomeopathic; establishes three boards, composed sages from telephone and telegraph wires; made respectively of members of each of the schools, provision against extortion in the payment of and authorizes them to issue licenses to applicants laborers' wages, requiring payment thereof in bankafter due examination.

able money; prohibited under penalties the coloring Another act requires the names of white and col- of every substance designed to be used as a substi

tute for butter or cheese; forbidden the keeping of ment? Such must be its necessary tendency, and barber shops open on Sunday; forbidden the em so its presumable purpose; but such legislation ployment of children under twelve years of

seems calculated to favor the unworthy by compellin

age theatrical exhibitions; required railroads to erect ing secrecy in respect to their misdeeds. depots in towns of two hundred people; and has

A moderate indulgence is extended to publishers adopted various other measures evidencing a bold, of newspapers by requiring notice to be served bebut perhaps not impolitic, estimate of the just ex fore the bringing of any action for a libel specifying tent of the legislative power in growing, thickening the defamatory matter complained of. A full reand active populations.

traction protects the defendant publisher against

punitory damages. Such legislation seems of very INDIANA.

doubtful expediency. The law of libel built up by Indiana, the neighbor of Illinois, makes similar the wisdom of jurists upon close consideration of all assertion of general over individual interests. She the forms in which reputation is liable to be assailed, establishes as her principal mode of raising her is not likely to be improved by legislative action, revenue a system of property taxation designed to especially such as is sought for by the modern newsreach property of every description. To make this paper press. system effective she pays no attention to clamors A piece of well designed legislation, although against inquisitorial practices or the hazards of en- somewhat obscure-perhaps necessarily so-is found couraging perjury, and frames interrogatories in in an act prohibiting the printing or bringing into which every known tangible or intangible thing the State of “any paper, book or periodical the which may be the subject of property is enumerated, chief feature or characteristic of which is the record and the citizen is obliged upon the demand of the of the commission of crime, or to display by cut or assessor to answer as to his ownership of any of illustration crimes committed, or the acts or picthem. It would be interesting and useful to kuow tures of criminal, desperadoes, or of men or women how far this attempt to ballle concealment may in lewd or unbecoming positions or improper dress." prove effectual. It would seem certain that the Another act, passed probably in view of the Chisuccessful enforcement of such a scheme of taxation cago strike, organizes with apparent care and thorin some States and not in others would be a potent oughness the military force of the State in a managency in determining the choice of residence, and ner calculated to make it efficient in the repression greatly increase the list of taxpayers in some at the of disorder and violence. expense of others. The great legislative problem of In the interest of humanity and labor an act was the day is that of a just system of taxation.

passed requiring electric street railroads to provide The Gordian knot of litigation is cut by the statu- closed cabs for the protection of motor-men against tory sword in twenty-three separate acts legalizing inclement weather. the various oversights and neglects of legislators and

Another act was passed requiring a license for administrative officers. The losses and inconveni- the sale of goods made by convicts of other States, ences of individuals, if any there were, are disre- and compelling such goods to be stamped“ convict garded, except in some instances where the not very made,” and with marks showing the name of the equitable distinction is shown of saving rights which prison or penitentiary in which they were made. happen to have been made the subject of litigation. An attempt is made to prevent the miserable and

It is enacted that if any railway, corporation or mischievous results of the scramble for partisan other company in the State shall authorize, allow or spoils, so far as the charitable and reformatory inpermit any of its agents to “black-list” iny dis-stitutions of the State are concerned, by removing charged employee, or any employee voluntarily leav- the present heads of those institutions and providing service, or attempt by words, writing, or other-ing for the appointment of eighteen persons,“ all wise, to prevent any such employee from obtrining of whom shall be men of good moral character and other employment, the aggrieved person may have good business qualifications, and not more than nine a civil action for damages against the corporation of whom shall belong to the same political party,” or company. Legislation in favor of the laboring and are elsewhere described as men of known fitclasses is often either through negligence or design ness, probity and high character." Each of the invery loosely framed. What is “ black-listing?" Is stitutions, which are six in number, are to be govthe keeping of a list of employees with memoranda erned by boards of control composed each of three respecting their merits, obviously a useful and proper out of the eighteen trustees just mentioned, and precaution of large employers of labor, a black-list? are to be designated by the governor, and no more Or is the exhibition of such a list to other corpora- than two of the same political stripe are to be desigtions seeking a knowledge of the qualifications of nated for one board. Three of the institutions will applicants for work an attempt to prevent employ- | thus be under the control of one political party and

three of the other, and the scramble for the spoils mation upon all seals and coats-of-arms thereof of thus sought to be prevented by equally dividing the different States of the United States, as well as them. The unseemly contest will thus be avoided, the seals of States and coats-of-arms of foreign exeept such as may occur in the executive chamber countries.” Let us hope that all this will result in over the appointments of trustees; but will the

the establishment of a well defined and appropriate character of the corps of attendants at the institu- seal for our great sister State of Indiana; but that tion be improved? It is to be feared that the pre

the familiar emblems of the setting sun, the buffalo scribed qualifications for these partisan trustees of

and the woodman with his axe, will not under the “fitness, probity and high character," will hardly influence of Mr. Hatcher's antiquarian proclivities suffice to prevent the awarding by them of places as

be replaced by some device borrowed from the efpolitical rewards, a system which never has secured, fete despotisms of Europe, and never will secure, the best, or, in the long run,

KANSAS. even good service.

The legislative activity of Kansas is marked by Another experiment is added towards the solu- | the passage of three hundred and sixty-eight acts, tion of the liquor problem. Liquors at retail can occupying a neatly printed volume of 574 pages. be sold only on a ground floor exposed to the pub. The regular and orderly administration of governlic, and without screens, and no other business to ment in this State seems to have suffered somewhat be carried on in the same place except the sale of | in prior years by the ascendency of certain views on tobacco and cigars; no musical or other appliances social questions called “crazes” by those dissenting for attraction are allowed; no one is allowed to en from them, and much of the legislation of the past ter the place during the time when the sale of year is aimed at an amelioration of the supposed ill liquor is forbidden, and no licenses can be granted conditions thus produced. Impartial observers in any township or ward against the remonstrances of would probably agree that a large improvement has a majority of the voters thereof. 'his a keenly been effected. devised scheme; but, where is the incorruptible con Official carelessness and neglect are evidenced and stabulary, or, in its place, the numerous body of remedied by twenty legalizing statutes. The juready, willing, indefatigable public-spirited citizens dicial establishment has been largely amended, but who will stand constantly on the watch to enforce it? | by methods, the character of which is so accomoda

The State has magnanimously permitted itself to ted to special conditions in the State as not to be be sued upon any money demand in one of its particularly interesting or instructive to other comcourts designated by the State.

munities. Sternly repressive laws are enacted against The legislators of Indiana are not without the sense gambling in all its form. A board of irrigation has of humor, A curious doubt seems to have arisen as to been established, and scientific and practical tests whether the State had a State seal; but it is now to of the effectiveness of measures to that end provided be resolved, under a concurrent resolution for. The completion and opening of the important thorizing R. S. Hatcher, the reading clerk of institution of the State Reformatory has been prothe Senate, to investigate the matter and report vided for. to the Senate, It required many reasons set forth A somewhat novel policy, open to much discusby way of recital under an appropriate number of sion, has been adopted by a law providing that in whereuses to induce the passage of this resolution; the case of insurances on lives for the benefit of peramong them these, that the constitution of the sons other than the life insured, but who have an State required a State seal; that the legislature had interest in such life, moneys paid to the beneficiary never actually provided a design for one, or other shall be exempted from any present or future claims wise established one; that seals purporting to be on the person assured, or his 'representatives, and State Seals bad, notwithstanding, been used for a from the claims of the person effecting the insurance period of eighty years (thus even before Indiana was or his representatives, and even from all taxes a State) all of them cxhibiting in some form the large opportunity for placing property beyond the significant emblems of the setting sun, the bufalo reach of the law. Other acts of doubtful validity or and the woodman felling the tree, but differing in wisdom have received legislative sanction; among the arrangement of these symbols; that it was de- them one compelling railroad companies to furnish manded by the public business of the State, that free passes to shippers of certain descriptions of Indiana should have a well defined seal in order, property, and another taxing fire insurance conamong other things, that she “might be fully panies a certain per cent. of their earning for the abreast with the other States of the Union, and support of fire departments in all towns and cities lastly, that Hon. R. S. Hatcher, the reading clerk of where as much as $1,000 is invested in fire equipthe Senate, has given the subject of heraldry years ments. The justice of forbidding persons to insure of study and investigation, and has thorough infor- I against fire, unless they at the same time contribute


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and something towards protecting the property of their ishing estates in dower and courtesy as such, neighbors who choose to leave their property unin- giving to the widow or widower, as the case may sured is not obvious.

be, one-third of the intestate's land, and, if no The appearance of a new terror to the farmer is issue, one-half. evidenced by a statute designed to arrest the spread

Maine, after years of effort, seems not yet satisfied of the Canadian or Russian thistle.

that she has discovered the true method of prevent

ing those who love intoxicating drinks from obtainMAINE.

ing them. A new and elaborate statute amends her The work of the last session of the Legislature of existing legislation, and will prove the ingenuity, Maine contains, in comparison with its bulk, but or the folly, of those who think that laws can prelittle matter of general interest. The general pub- vent the gratification of the intense desires of men lic legislation consists mainly of amendments of ex

when such gratification does not, of itself, create an isting laws. The speciai and private enactments interest to enforce the laws. far outnumber the former, and embrace numerous acts for the creation of corporate bodies-- i pur

MASSACIIUSETTS. pose now effected, and probably better effected, in The ancient Commonwealth of Massachusetts dismost States, under general laws.

plays her legislative industry in six hundred and Prodigious attention is given to the brute crea- thirty-six enactments, including one hundred and tion. Numerous acts, both general and local, were twenty-seven of what are styled “resolves.” They passed for the purpose of preserving beasts, birds embrace much interesting matter. Among the and fish of various kinds.

more noteworthy acts is one designed to make the Among the new general laws is one for the pre- election laws more perfect; others prohibiting the vention of cruelty to animals, and another, quite display of foreign lays on public buildings and elaborate, providing for the establishment of a

providing for the display of the national flag on board for the registration of persons authorized to school-houses — of which legislation instances are practice medicine and surgery. All must be regis- presented this year in many other States and inditered. Certain classes already entitled to practice cate a concerted effort; another authorizing judges their art are recognized as entitled to immediate

of Probate Courts to grant leave to executors and registration. Others must exhibit qualifications to administrators to mortgage the real property of debe ascertained by examination. No unregistered cedents to pay debts and legacies; another, and person is permitted to practice. But the legislators one, it would seem of doubtful expediency not to do not presume to deny the existence of those mys- say validity, by which real estate subject to a vested terious agencies for healing which, confessedly remainder may be authorized to be sold by trustees transcending human science, appeal in civilized as appointed by the Probate Court upon the petiwell as barbarous times to human credulity ; for, ' tion cither of the party holding the particular while they still permit the unfortunate diseased to

estate in possession, or of the remainderman seek cure or comfort from the apostles of “hypno

an energetic :ict for suppression of what are tism, magnetic healing,''

“mind cure,”

sometimes called opium joints; an act permitting, sage,' ” “ Christian science,” or any other method but not requiring, Saturdays, not legal holidays, to of healing,” they put their foot down upon one be treated its dies non so far as concerns the presenpoint, the professors of these occult arts must not tation and acceptance of negotiable paper and perattempt to administer dangerous drugs, nor atlix mitting such paper to be presented on the next busithe significant M. D. to their names.

ness day; an act amending a prior act and regulatThe State has, like so many others, imposeil ing the manner in which prisoners supposed to have rigorously-drawn prohibitions against lotteries in reformed may be released on parole before the exwhatever form.

piration of the term of imprisonment; an act proIt has also made what seems to be a useful addi. viding that no oral or written misrepresentation by tion to the legislation against fraud by declaring the assured in the negotiation of a contract of life that agreements in contracts of sale that the title to

insurance shall be deemed material unless made goods sold shall remain in the seller shall be abso- with intent to deceive; an act making the provisions lutely void unless in writing signed by the party of Massachusett's statutes imposing penalties and sought to be bound, and void against third parties liabilities upon the officers and stockholders of dounless recorded in the manner prescribed.

mestic corporations for false and fraudulent stateThe rules in respect to the devolution of the ments and returns apply to the officers and stockproperty of intestates are modified in some import- holders of foreign corporations doing business in the ant respects. The tendency to equality as between State, and requiring corporations of the latter class husband and wife is yielded to, by provisions abol- i to file certain statements and imposing penalties

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upon the officers failing to comply with the require superficial glance, such only as I have been able to ment-a provision in passing which the Legislature give at this legislation of Massachusetts, without may have over-estimated its ability to make criminal being impressed with its conspicuous features. It law; an act providing for the construction of State shows many of the traits of her early settlers still high ways; an act authorizing the holding of an im- persistent, notwithstanding the abundant immigramediate inquest by designated magistrates upon tion from other and different peoples; a rigorous selfcomplaint made that any law relating to the regis- discipline, a belief in the efficacy of positive enacttration qualifications or assessment of voters, or to ments, and an unhesitating readiness to assert the voting lists or ballots, or to caucuses, conventions supremacy of the general good over individual and elections, or any matters or things pertaining

interest. Nor can one fail to be impressed with thereto have been violated and to hold for trial apy

the superior clearness and elegance which mark the persons appearing to be guilty; a stringent act for framework and language of the laws, an evidence at the abatement of the smoke nuisance in the city of once of the general cultivation of the people and of Boston; an act requiring every city to make pro

their discernment in the selection of their represenvision for the treatment of indigent persons suffer

tatives. ing from contagious or infectious venereal diseases,

MICHIGAN. additional rigorous enactments are made against gambling, lotteries, etc.; also rigorous prohibitions of the Legislature of Michigan, the only source of

A printed synopsis of the laws of the last session against secular business on the Lord's day, and

information accessible to me, exhibits, in divers against being present at any game, sport, play or public diversion on that day; a slight and perhaps modern beliefs with appropriate legislation.

forms, a disposition to meet social changes and innocuous amendment of the law of libel permitting the defendant to prove in mitigation that he pub

Street railway companies are required to protect

The charter of the city lished a prompt retraction.

certain employes from exposure to inclement of Boston is amended, inter alia, by the creation of weather by having the platforms of cars enclosed. exceutive departments for the principal concerns.

A general act makes provision for the incorporation Discriminations on account of race or color in pub- of divisions and clubs of American Wheelman as

Further enactments are lic places of amusement are prohibited; a commis- they style themselves. sion called the Old Colony Commission is created

made for the protection and welfare of children. for the investigation of spots of historic interest in The concerted movement for the display of the nathe counties of Bristol, Barnstable, Plymouth, Nor- tional flag on public school houses is favored by an folk and Nantucket, and the collection of historical enactment. Judges of Probate are permitted to information relating thereto; an act is passed for authorize executors and administrators to mortgage the establishment of textile schools in manufactur- | the property of the deceased in order to raise money ing cities; a hospital for epileptics is established; to pay his debts. Townships, cities and villages an elaborate act is passed extending the regulation are permitted, if they so elect, to use Meyer's autoof law to the proceedings of political caucuses;

matic ballot machine in all elections. Provision is elaborate provision is made for the inspection of made for the compulsory education of children, and domestic cattle; an act for the preference of vete

the punishment of truancy. The protection and rans in public employments was passed over the regulation of law are extended to political primary Governor's veto; a hospital for consumptives is meetings in cities of not less than fifteen thousand established; in sentences of imprisonment to the inhabitants. Fire insurance companies are proState prison, other than for life, and in the case of hibited from limiting their liability. An attempt habitual criminals, the court is not to fix the term, is made to render the law respecting acknowledgbut to name a maximum and a minimum term, and ment of written instruments uniform with that of after the expiration of the minimum, the prison other States. It is made unlawful for delegates to commissioners may issue to the prisoner a permit any political convention to appear by proxy. A for his liberty subject to such conditions as they State Examining Board is established for the admay choose to impose, and subject to revocation mission of lawyers to the bar. Juries are required and reimprisonment.

in finding verdicts in suits for libel to separate their No further protection is extended to the codfish; | findings for injuries to feelings from those for actbut in lieu thereof one hundred dollars is to be ex ual damages. The Governor is authorized in cer-' pended in taking down, painting and resuspending tain cases to liberate convicts on parole. The the time-honored image of that usesul denizen of capacity of packages for the shipment of fruit is the deep which has so long hung in the chamber of required to be marked. The age at which females the House of Representatives,

may marry without the consent of parents or guarNo one can fail to observe even in a cursory and | vians is raised from sixteen years to eighteen.

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