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Of the value of our exports during the fiscal year ended June 30th, 1896, $70,392,813 was carried in American vessels, while $751,083,000 was carried in foreign craft, or but 8} per cent. of the value of our exports was exported in American vessels. Of the value of our imports $117,299,074 was brought in American vessels and $626,890,521 in foreign vessels, or 15.7 per cent. of the value of our imports was carried by foreign craft.

Twelve per cent. of the total value of our foreign trade, including both imports and exports, was carried in American vessels; the value carried by foreign vessels being $1,377,973,521, and that carried in American vessels $187,691,887.

In 1860, 664 per cent. of our imports and exports was carried in American vessels.

The value of our foreign trade carried in American and foreign vessels during the year 1895, was $1,456,403,388; of this amount, American vessels represented $170,507,196, and foreign vessels $1,285,896,192. The value of our foreign trade transported in vessels during 1896, was 1,565,665,408, of which American vessels represented $187,691,887, and foreign vessels $1,377,973,521. The share of our foreign trade carried in American vessels in that year was 11.7 per cent. of the total, which is the lowest point reached in American shipping. In 1895 American ships carried but 3.18 per cent. of our imports from and our exports to Great Britain, but 5.44 per cent. of our trade with France, 6.56 per cent. of our trade between the United States and Brazil, and only onethird of one per cent. of our trade with Germany. In 1845 American ships handled 81 per cent. of our imports and exports. In 1855, 75.6 per cent.; in 1860, 66.5 per cent.; in 1870, 35.6 per cent.; in 1890, 12.9 per cent.; in 1895, 11.7 per cent., and in 1896, 12 per cent.

In 1895 the American Consul General at Bangkok, in a report on the foreign trade in Siam, said: “The lack of American shipping everywhere is so noticeable as to give the impression among Asiatics that we are not a commercial nation. Of over 500 merchant steamers and ships that entered the port of Bangkok in 1894 not one was American. Of over 1,700 vessels that entered the ports of Japan in the same year only 32 carried our flag.”

A British foreign office report on the commerce of Rio de Janeiro for 1895, records that only 51 American ships entered that port out of a total of 1,460. At Pernambuco there were entered in 1895, 351 British ships, 120 Norwegian and 88 German, with only 5 American sailing vessels and not a single steamer under the United States flag.

Newport News as an export point is growing in importance, especially with reference to grain. From that port were exported, among other articles, 8,131,631 bushels of corn, 1,994,091 bushels of oats, 204,869 bushels of wheat and 1,235,981 barrels of flourduring the fiscal year 1896; and during the year ended December 31st, 1896, 10,376,625 bushels of corn, 3,750,054 busbels of oats and 1,611,952 barrels of flour, its against 4,866,355 bushels of corn, 104,982 bushels of oats and 1,274,045 barrels of flour during 1895.

During the calendar year, we exported 15,731,129 barrels of wheat flour, 82,748,191 bushels of wheat, 5,323,889 bushels of rye, 40,676,350 pounds of oatmeal, 30,378.552 bushels of oats, 128,518,437 bushels of corn and 16,278,780 bushels of barley, as compared with 14,187,483 barrels of wheat flour, 66,371,200 bushels of wheat, 837 bushels of rye, 35,051,681 pounds of oatmeal, 2,019,858 bushels of oats, 61,469,669 bushels of corn and 3,539,096 bushels of barley during 1895. The noticeable feature in this comparison is the enormous increase in the quantity exported of oats and of corn.

CHICAGO. The receipts of grain and of flour in its grain equivalent, during the year 1896, aggregated 253,802,134 bushels, against 189,432,819 bushels in 1895, 187,553,469 bushels in 1894, 246,972,966 bushels in 1893 and 255,832,556 bushels in 1892; the shipments during the year aggregated 219,710,781 bushels, against 171,464,137 busbels in 1895, 148,638,822 bushels in 1894, 198,791,216 bushels in 1893 and 216,182,008 bushels in 1892. The receipts of wheat during the year aggregated 19,933, 402 bushels, against 20,637,642 bushels in 1895, 25,665,902 bushels in 1894, 35,355,101 busbels in 1893 and 50,234,556 bushels in 1892; the shipments during the year aggregated 25,888,647 bushels, against 22,775,780 bushels in 1895, 18,213,143 bushels in 1894, 24,715,738 bushels in 1893 and 43,833,795 bushels in 1892. Of the quantity shipped during the year 1896, 13, 232,878 bushels went by the great lakes. On page 3 may be seen a statement showing the quantity taken by the various railway lines, respectively.

The receipts of corn during the year aggregated 92,722,348 bushels, against 59,527,718 bushels in 1895, 64,951,815 bushels in 1894, 91,255,154 bushels in 1893 and 78,510,385 bushels in 1892.

The largest quantity brought in by any railroad was by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and was 19,685,761 bushels. The

receipts on the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific R'y were 14,388,200 bushels, and on the Illinois Central R. R. 13,381,950 bushels. These great railway lines, grandly equipped, run into those vast and prolific regions known as the great corn belt, comprising the States of Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas and Nebraska, whose combined yield of corn aggregated, last year, 1,332,394,596 bushels. The shipments of corn during the year aggregated 87,713,321 bushels, against 59,964,265 bushels in 1895, 54,528,482 bushels in 1894, 78,919,781 bushels in 1893 and 66,104,220 bushels in 1892. The receipts of oats during the year aggregated 109,725,689 busbels, wbicb in volume are without precedent. 30,000,000 bushels of this aggregate were brought by the Chicago & North Western Railway, 17,500,000 bushels by the Illinois Central Railroad, 15,300,000 bushels by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway, 12,700,000 bushels by the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and 14,940,000 bushels by the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway. The shipments during the year aggregated 82,119,852 bushels, against 66,839,596 bushels in 1895, 50,376,089 bushels in 1894, 67,129,119 bushels in 1893 and 67,332,322 bushels in 1892. Of the total shipments during the year 1896, 23,798,409 bushels were shipped via the great lakes. Detailed statements of receipts and shipments of grain may be seen in the statistical part of this volume. A proper and impressive comparison of the volume of the receipts of grain at Chicago with those at other principal grain markets may be made by consulting page 181 of this report. It may there be seen that the total receipts of grain and of flour in its grain equivalent at Chicago, aggregated, as elsewhere stated in this review, 253,802,134 bushels; the next market in order is Duluth, where were received 91,483,101 bushels; the next, Minneapolis, with 85,183,904 bushels; then follow St. Louis with 56,635,702 bushels and Milwaukee with 52,780,069 bushels. Chicago's receipts of grain during one month in 1896 aggregated about 42,500,000 bushels. The number of cars of grain inspected during the year amounted to 295,138, against 222,960 in 1895 and 204,408 in 1894; the quantity of grain inspected, received by lake and canal, was 3,944,814 bushels, against 4,294,138 bushels in 1895 and 2,270,931 bushels in 1894. The week of the largest receipts of flour and grain was that which ended on October 17th, when 12,514,405 bushels were received, 5,003,419 bushels being of oats, 4,441,800 bushels being of corn and 1,410,490 bushels being of wheat; not to make invidious comparison, but merely to indicate the immensity of the receipts of grain in this city, I would state that the receipts of grain in Detroit during the year aggregated 10,356,254 bushels, and in Toledo 20,121,622 bushels.

The week of the largest shipments of flour and of grain was that which ended on October 17th, when 8,071,373 bushels were shipped, 4,472,746 bushels being corn and 2,345,974 bushels being of oats. During the month of October there were shipped from Chicago 32,195,081 bushels of grain and of flour in its grain equivalent. The volume of grain stored in warehouses of class “A," declared by this board regular warehouses for the storage of grain, at the close of the year, aggregated 24,868,433 bushels, as against 22,920,903 hushels upon the corresponding date in 1895. On December 26th, 1896, there were stored in "regular" warehouses 13,355,308 bushels of wheat, 5,567,305 bushels of corn and 4,773,557 bushels of oats, as compared with 21,212,938 bushels of wheat, 911,612 bushels of corn and 544,268 bushels of oats upon the corresponding date in 1895.

The receipts of grass seed, including timothy, clover, hungarian, millet, etc., during the year aggregated 83,577,243 pounds, and shipments 92,212,310 pounds, as against 63,868,526 pounds and 65,567,528 pounds, respectively, during the year 1895, and 47,524,961 pounds and 66,139,009 pounds, respectively, during the year 1894. The receipts of flaxseed during the year aggregated 10,299,525 bushels, and shipments 5,734,654 bushels, as against 8,525,237 bushels and 4,726,818 bushels, respectively, during the year 1895, and 5,102,668 bushels and 2,353,757 bushels during the year 1894.

The receipts of lumber during the year aggregated 1,286,613,000 feet and the shipments 509,920,000 feet, as against 1,638,130,000 feet and 773,983,000 feet, respectively, during the year 1895, and 1,562,527,000 feet and 632,069,000 feet during the year 1894; of shingles, were received 265,205,000 feet and shipped 509,920,000 feet. Detailed statements showing receipts and shipments for a series of years, may be examined on page 96 of this volume.

The receipts of butter during the year aggregated 237,795,243 pounds, and shipments 222,004, 126 pounds, as against 185,452,991 pounds and 176,816,168 pounds, respectively, during the year 1895, and 144,868,216 pounds and 155,062,053 pounds, respectively, during the year 1894. The quantity of butter exported from the United States during the calendar year shows a large increase over that exported during the year preceding. During 1896 there were exported 26,999,158 pounds valued at $3,866, 720, as against 13,935,617 pounds, valued at $2,162,243, exported during 1895. The principal countries to which exported were the Coited Kingdom, Denmark, Germany, West Indies and South America.

The receipts of cheese during the year aggregated 72,011,661 pounds, and shipments 53,639,937 pounds, as against 59,012,937 and 52,226,151 pounds, respectively, during the year 1895, and 53,622,983 pounds and 56,062,563 pounds, respectively, during the year 1894. During the calendar year there were exported from the United States 44,444,392 pounds valued at $3,836,885, as against 10,610,242 pounds valued at $3,382,230 exported during the corresponding period in 1895. The principal countries to which this product was exported were the United Kingdom, the Dominion of Canada, the West Indies, South America, China, Japan and the Hawaiian Islands.

Our receipts of lard during the year aggregated, 67,191,567 pounds, and shipments 413,447,968 pounds, as against 53,936,324 pounds and 387,437,699 pounds, respectively, during the year immediately preceding. The volume of business transacted in this article in this city is not even approached by that transacted in any other place or market in the world. This product is no inconsiderable part of our national exports. During the calendar year ended December 31, 1896, we exported 186,723,804 pounds valued at $27,610, 230, as against 501,880, 718 pounds, valued at $36, 247,796 exported during the year 1895. Last year the tariff policy of the chief continental countries was unfavorable to the exportation of American hog products. I have set forth on page 169 a statement of exports of bacon and ham, lard and of pork to France and Germany from America, for a series of years, as interesting in connection with foreign legislation regarding hog products. Of meats, other than barreled pork, we received 159,931, 671 pounds and shipped 714,667,394 pounds, as against 172,203,523 pounds and 698,210,341 pounds, respectively, during the year 1895. These meats found an extensive market throughout the soutb, 103,600,000 pounds being shipped via Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St. Louis Railway.

The receipts of dressed beef during the year aggregated 111,746,930 pounds and the shipments 980,930,688 pounds, as against

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