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DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.
(JEFFERSON.) When, in the course of human events, I it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among
of the earth | the separate and equal station | to which the laws of nature and of nature's God entitle them, I a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. I
We hold these truths to be self-ev'ident: that all men are created equal ; | that they are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights'; that among these are life', lib'erty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are insti
The Declaration of Independence was publicly read from the steps of the State-House, July 4th, 1776.
Tråths; not trůthż. bIn-dl'yền-å-bl. • Gdvan-ments.
tuted among meni, / deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; I that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or abol'ish it, / and to institute new government, I laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, I as to them shall seem most likely | to effect their safety and happiness. | Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes ; , and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer | while evils are sufferable, | than to right themselves / by abolishing the forms to which they are accus,tomed. | But when a long train of abuses and usurpationsI pursuing invariably the same object, I evinces a design to reduce them under absolute děspotism, I it is their right', \ it is their duty i to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. / Such has been the patient sufferance of these colonies ;d | and such is now the necessity | which constrains them to alter their former systems of gov.ernment. | The history of the present king of Great Britain | is a history of repeated injuries and usurpa'tions,b | all having in direct object | the establishment of an absolute tyranny over these states. To prove this, | let facts be submitted to a candid world, 1
He has refused his assent to laws | the most wholesome and necessary for the public good. |
He has forbidden his governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, I unless suspended in their operation till his assent' should be obtained ; and, when so suspended, I he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other laws | for the accommodation of large districts of people, I unless those people |
* Trån’shë-ént. Yủ-zúr-på'shủng. De-sin. Kol'o-nė .
would relinquish the right of representation in the leg islature,"i a right inestimable to them, and formi. dable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unu'sual, I uncom'fortable, I and distant from the depository of their public records, |.for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures. |
He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people. I
He has refused for a long time after such dissolutions to cause others to be elected, whereby the legislative powers, / incapable of annihilation, Ï have returned to the people at large for their exercise, | the state remaining, in the mean time, I exposed dangers of invasion from without and convulsions within. 1
He has endeavoured to prevent the popula'tion of these states ; | for that purpose I obstructing the laws for naturalization of foreigners, refusing to pass others 1 to encourage their migrations hither, I and raising the conditions of new appropriations of lands. !
He has obstructed the administration of justice l by refusing his assent to laws | for establishing judiciary powers. 1
He has made judges dependent on his will alone' | for the tenure of their offices, I and the amount, and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of new offices, / and sent hither swarms of new officers | to harasse our people and eat out their substance. I
He has kept among us in times of peace' standing ar mies without the consent of our legislatures. 1
He has affected to render the military | independent of, and superior to the civil power. I
He has combined with others | to subject us to a
· Ledi'is-là-tshủr. De-poż'é-tůr-é. An-nl-he-la'shủn. Nåttshů-rål-e-zå'shún. e Džu-dish'å-ré. i Te'nür. & Hår'rås.
jurisdiction | foreign to our constitutions | and unacknowledged by our laws', 1 giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation, for quartering large bodies of armed troops among us; for protecting them by a mock tri'al | from punishment | for any murders which they should commit ) on the inhabitants of these states ; | for cutting off our trade with all parts of the worldı ; I for imposing tax'es on us without our consent ; ! for depriving us in many cases of the benefits of trial by ju'ry; | for transporting us beyond seas' to be tried for pretend ed offences; I for abolishing the free system of English laws | in a neighbouring province, I establishing therein an arbitrary governinent, I and enlarging its boundaries, I so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument ) for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies; for taking away our char'ters, abolishing our most valuable laws', / and altering fundamentally I the forms of our governments;| for suspending our own legislatures, I and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. |
He has ab'dicated government here | by declaring us out of his protection I and waging war against us. I
He has plundered our seas', i ravaged our coasts', burnt our towns', / and destroyed the lives of our people. 1
He is at this time' | transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries | to complete the works of death', | desola'tion, and tyr'anny | already begun | with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy / scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages | and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation. /
He has constrained our fellow-citizens | taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, | to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands. | He has excited domestic insurrections among us, | and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers | the merciless Indian sav'ages, / whose known rule of warfare is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sex'es, and conditions.
In every stage of these oppressions, we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms, :I our repeated petitions have been answered only by repeated in juries.
A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant | is unfit to be the ruler of a free people. ]
Nor have we been wanting in attentions to our British brethren. | We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. | We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here: | we have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, / and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred, I to disavow'a these usurpations | which would inevitably interrupt our connexion and correspondence. | They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. I We must therefore acquiesce in the necessity I which denounces our separa'tion! | and hold them as we hold the rest of mankind, I enemies in war, Jin peace friends. . 1
We therefore the representatives of the United States of America / in General Congress assembled, | 'appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world | for the rectitude of our intentions, 1 do in the name, and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare', that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, I free and independent states. ; | that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain / is, and ought to be, I totally dissolved; I and that as free and