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These are the simple primary postures of the whole arm, which, with the latitude allowed, will be found sufficient to represent most of the ordinary gestures. Bythe latitude allowed, the reader is to understand that deflexion from the true point in reference to which the posture

is named:since

near approach to the proper point is sufficient to give the posture the name of that point.

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The colloquial elevations of the arm (Fig. 42, 43, 44), are

less bold than the primary postures. The fore arm, in the horizontal elevation, instead of being raised to the

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height of the shoulder, points about as high as the middle of the breast; the hand, in the elevated position, is not raised above the eyes; and in the position downwards, it is held but little below the waist.

In delineating the primary postures, the boldest and most decided action has been chosen, which is suited to the epic style; because, in this style, the different postures are the most strongly discriminated. The colloquial

elevations are similar, but In them the distinctive character is, that the

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arm, at the elbow, is bent, and the upper arm held closer to the side.

The degree of energy proceeding from the sentiment of desire, or aversion, with which a passage is delivered, influences much the character of the gesture, in the same manner that it does the tones and expressions of the voice; the language still remaining unaltered. If the passage to be delivered may properly be illustrated by the arm in the posture horizontal extended (hx), the degree of that extension should vary with the spirit of

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46

the passage. If an object is simply pointed to in the horizon, the arm should be moderately extended (Fig. 45), and slightly bent at the shoulder, the elbow, and the wrist. If the object is highly interesting, and supposed to be in the same situation as if a general pointed to those troops which he required to be instantly sustained, the arm should be extended the utmost, the wrist thrown up, and the fingers down, whilst the whole body should be projected forwards. (Fig.

47

46.) The arm, in this posture, as in the last, is considered still to be horizontal extended, but in the extreme degree, and is marked with an additional x (hxx). If the object in the same situation as before be supposed something producing disappointment, or horror, the arm should be contracted, and the whole person should recoil. (Fig. 47.) And this also is considered horizontal extended ; horizontal, because the hand is directed towards the horizon; and extended, because the arm continues in the same plane as in the former instances. But the eharacter of this gesture differs ; and, in order to express it by the notation letters, a c is added, thus, hxc. This notation is read, horizontal extended contracted.

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There are other postures of the arm, which require a separate consideration. These postures are named from the manner of holding the arm, or resting it upon the body. They admit of considerable variety; but the description of the following, will suffice to explain the class to which they are to be referred.

Encumbered, or folded, noted en.* (Fig. 48.) When the arms are crossed, and enclose each other, the left hand holding the upper right arm, and the right hand passing under the upper left arm.

* With arms encumbered, thus. - Hamlet.

Kimbo, k. The posture into which the arm is thrown by resting the hand upon the hip, as in Fig. 49.

Reposed, pd. When one fore arm rests upon the other, as in Fig. 50. This posture is peculiar to ladies.

CHAPTER V.

POSTURES AND MOTIONS OF THE HANDS.

THE Roman critics and orators attributed considerable importance to the manner of disposing the fingers, in delivery, ascribing to each particular disposition of them, a significancy, or suitableness for certain expressions, of which we do not always see the force. Several of these dispositions of the fingers are employed by our speakers, but without attaching to them any particular significancy. Either they are natural gestures, or they are imitations, of which the origin is not remembered, or regarded, as many of our apparently original actions are.

The postures of the hand are determined by four different circumstances :

1. By the disposition of the fingers.
2. By the manner of presenting the palm.
3. By the combined disposition of both hands.

4. By the part of the body on which they are occasionally placed.

First Class of the Postures of the Hands, depending on

the Disposition of the Fingers. The natural state, noted n., Fig. 51. The hand, when unconstrained, in its natural, and relaxed state, either hanging down at rest, or raised moderately up, has all the fingers a little bent inwards towards the

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