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o Matt. xvi. 16.
ch, iv. 4: vi. 14, 69.
8 never die Believest thou this? 27 She saith unto him,
& or, not die for evermore,
died, shall live:" in the second, that he replies another.” Euthymius. I-em“ living and believing, shall never die.” phatic : I for my part: and the word Olshausen's remark, that living and dying, believe is in the original in the perfect in the second clause, must both be physical, tense, “have believed and continue to if one is, is wrong; the antithesis consists believe :" i. e. “have convinced myself, ing, in both clauses, in the reciprocation and firmly believe. 28.] Her calling of the two senses, physical and spiritual; her sister is characteristic of one who (as in and serving in the latter clause, as a key Luke x. 40) had not been much habituated hereafter to the condition of Lazarus, herself to listen to his instructions, but when raised from the dead. There knew this to be the delight of Mary. can hardly be any reference in ver. 26 to Besides this, she evidently has hopes the state of the living faithful at the raised, though of a very faint and indefi. Lord's coming (1 Cor. xv. 51),- fornite kind. secretly] “ Lest the Jews although the Apostle there, speaking of who were present should know it, and believers primarily and especially, uses the should perhaps give information against first person,--the saying would be equally Him to those who were conspiring against true of unbelievers, on whose bodies tho His life.” Euthymius. This fear was change from the corruptible to the incor realized (ver. 46). calleth thee ruptible will equally pass, and of whom the This is not recorded. Stier thinks that “shall never die” here would be equally the Lord had not actually asked for her, true,—whereas the saying is one setting but that Martha sees such an especial fit. forth an exclusive privilege of the man ness for her hearing in the words of vv. that liveth and believeth on me. Besides, 25, 26, that she uses this expression. But such an interpretation would set aside all is it not somewhat too plainly asserted, to reference to Lazarus, or to present cir- mean only calling by inference? Surely, cumstances.
27.) Her confession, we must regard Martha's words as proving though embracing the great central point it to have been a fact. 31.] to weep of the truth in the last verse, does not there—as is the custom even now in the cnter fully into it. Nor does she (ver. 40) East: see an affecting account in Lamarseem to have adequately apprehended its tine’s Pilgrimage to the Holy Land, Engmeaning. " That He spoke great things lish translation, vol. ii. pp. 76—78. about Himself, she knew : but in what 32.] The words of Mary are fewer, and her sense He spoke them, she did not know': action more impassioned, than those of her and therefore when asked one thing, she sister : she was perhaps interrupted by the
my brother had not died. 33 When Jesus therefore saw her weeping, and the Jews also weeping which came with her, he ogroaned in the spirit, and was troubled, 34 and said,
Where have ye laid him ? They said unto him, Lord, r Luke xix. 41. come and see. 35 ? Jesus wept. 36 P Then said the Jews,
Behold how he loved him! 37 9 And some of them said, Could not this man, s which opened the eyes of r the blind, have caused s that even this man should not have died ?
38 Jesus therefore again t groaning in himself cometh to the o render, was greatly moved in spirit, and troubled himself. P render, The Jews therefore said.
a render, But. r render, the blind man.
& render, also that. t render, greatly moved within himself. arrival of the Jews : cf. ver. 33.
hypocritical tears with the true ones of the 33.] In explaining this difficult verse, two bereaved sister. But, not to say how things must be borne in mind : (1) that unworthy this seems of the Person and the word rendered by the A. V. “groaned” occasion, the explanation will find no can bear but one meaning,- the expres place in ver. 38: for surely the question sion of indignation and rebuke, not of sor of the Jews in ver. 37 is not enough to row. This has been here acknowledged justify it. Still perhaps, any contribution by all the expositors who have paid any to the solution of this difficult word is not attention to the usage of the word. (2) to be summarily rejected in spirit, That both from the words, “ When Jesus here, corresponds to “ within himself,” ver. saw her weeping," &c.,- from the expres- 38. Indignation over unbelief, and sion " he troubled himself," and from ver sin, and death the fruit of sin, doubtless 35,- the feeling in the Lord was clearly lay in the background; but to see it in one of rising sympathy, which vented itself the words (with Olsh., Stier, and Trench) at last in tears. These two things being seems unnatural. troubled himself premised, I think the meaning to be, that is understood by Meyer, and perhaps Jesus, with the tears of sympathy already rightly, as describing an outward motion rising and overcoming His speech, checked of the body,–He shuddered : and so them, so as to be able to speak the words Euthymius, “ He trembled, as is usual following. I would understand the words with those who are thus affected.” Cyril's as expressing the temporary check given comment is to the same effect: that it was to the flow of His tears, ---the effort used to His divinity, rebuking, and in conflict utter the following question. And I would with, His human feelings, which caused thus divest the self-restraint of all stoical His frame to shudder. 35-38.] It is and unworthy character, and consider it as probable that the second set of Jews (ver. merely physical, requiring indeed an act 37) spoke with a scoffing and hostile purof the will, and a self-troubling,-a com- port: for St. John seldom uses but as a plication of feeling,—but implying no de mere copula, but generally as expressing liberate disapproval of the rising emotion, a contrast : see vv. 46, 49, 51. which indeed immediately after is suffered It is (as Trench remarks) a point of acto prevail. What minister has not, when curacy in the narrative, that these dwellers burying the dead in the midst of a weep- in Jerusalem should refer to a miracle so ing family, felt the emotion and made the well known among themselves, rather than effort here described ? And surely this was to the former raisings of the dead in one of the things in which He was made Galilee, of which they probably may have like unto His brethren. Thus Bengel: heard, but naturally would not thoroughly “ Jesus for the present austerely repressed believe on rumour only. Again, of raising his tears, and presently, ver. 38, they Lazarus none of them seem to have thought, broke forth. So inuch the greater was only of preventing his death. This their power, when they were shed.” second being greatly moved of our Lord Meyer's explanation deserves mention; I would refer to the same reason as the that our Lord was indignant at seeing the first. “He wept, as allowing nature to Jews, His bitter enemies, mingling their manifest herself: .... there again he re
grave. It was a cave, and a stone lay u upon it. 39 Jesus x said, Take ye away the stone. Martha, the sister of him that was dead, saith unto him, Lord, by this time he stinketh : for he hath been [5 dead] four days. 40 Jesus saith unto her, Said I not unto thee, that, if thou wouldest believe, thou shouldest see the glory of God? 41 z Then they took away the stone [a from the place where the dead was laid). And Jesus lifted up his eyes, and said, Father, I thank thee that thou hast heard me. 42 b And I knew that thou hearest me always, but to because of the people t ch. xii. xo. Brender, against.
8 render, saith. y not expressed in the original.
z render, So. & omit.
b render, Yet. C render, for the sake of the multitude.
bukes the affections.” Euthymius. Only entrances to these vaults were not built he assigns a didactic purpose, to teach us up,-merely defended, by a stone being moderation in our tears ; I should rather rolled to them, from the jackals and beasts believe the self-restraint to have been ex of prey. 40.] I can hardly think she ercised as a preparation for what followed. supposed merely that Jesus desired to
The caves were generally horizontal, look on the face of the dead ;-she ex. natural or artificial, with recesses in the pected something was about to be done, sides, where the bodies were laid. There but in her anxiety for decorum (Luke x. is no necessity here for supposing the 40) she was willing to avoid the conseentrance to have been otherwise than quence of opening the cave. This feeling horizontal, as the word cave would lead Jesus here rebukes, by referring her to the us to believe. Graves were of both kinds: plain duty of simple faith, insisted on by we have the vertically sunk mentioned Him before (in verses 25, 26 ? or in some Luke xi. 44. Compare Isa. xxii. 16; 2 other teaching ?) as the condition of beChron. xvi. 14; 2 Kings xxiii. 16.
holding the glory of God (not merely in Probably, from this circumstance, as from the event about to follow,-for that was *the Jews' coming to condole,-and the seen by many who did not believe,- but costly ointment (ch. xii. 3),—the family in a deeper sense,—that of the unfolding was wealthy. 39.] The corpse had of the Resurrection and the Life in the not been embalmed, but merely wrapped personal being). 41, 42.] In the filial in linen clothes with spices, as the manner relation of the Lord Jesus to the Father, of the Jews is to bury,'—see ch. xix. 40, all power is given to Him : the Son can and ver. 44 below. The expression, the do nothing of Himself :-and during His sister of him that was dead, as Meyer humiliation on earth, these acts of power remarks, notes the natural horror of the were done by Him, not by that glory of sister's heart at what was about to be His own which He had laid aside, but by done. There is no reason to avoid the the mighty working of the Father in Him, assumption of the plain fact (see below) and in answer to His prayer: the difstated in by this time he stinketh. I can- ference between Him and us in this respect not see that any monstrous character (as being, that His prayer was always heard, asserted by Olshausen and Trench) is given - even (Heb. v. 7) that in Gethsemane. to the miracle by it; any more than such And this, Thou hast heard me, He states a character can be predicated of restoring here for the benefit of the standers-by, the withered hand. In fact, the very act that they might know the truth of His of death is the beginning of decomposition. repeated assertions of His mission from I have no hesitation, with almost all the the Father. At the same time He guards ancient, and many of the best modern this, ver. 42, from future inisconstruction, Commentators, in assuming her words as as though He had no more power than expressing a fact, and indeed with Stier, men who pray, by I knew that Thou believing them to be spoken not as a sup- hearest me always; - because Thou and I position, but as a (sensible) fact. The are One. When He prayed, does not
uch. xx. 7.
x ch. ii. 23:
X. 42: xii. 11, 18.
which stand by I said it, that they d may believe that thou hast sent me. 43 And when he thus had spoken, he e cried with a loud voice, Lazarus, come forth. H+ And f he that was dead came forth, bound hand and foot with graveclothes : and u his face was bound about with a napkin. Jesus saith unto them, Loose him, and let him go. 45 g Then many of the Jews, h which came to Mary, *and had seen the things which i Jesus did, believed on him.
46 But some of them went their ways to the Pharisees, y Posili. 2. and told them what things Jesus had done. 47 y k Then
Siv Markuke gathered the chief priests and the Pharisees a council, zey, ki:10. and said, 2 What I do we? for this man doeth many
miracles. 48 If we let him thus alone, all men will believe
on him: and the Romans shall come and take away both d render, might.
e better, cried out. f better, the dead man.
& render, Many therefore. h render, those which had come. i read, he. k render, Therefore.
l render, are we doing, seeing that.
Acts iv. 16.
appcar. Probably in Peræa, before the the miracle. Meeting of the Sanhedrim ; declaration in ver. 4. 43.] Some sup- and final determination, on the prophetic pose that the revivification had taken place intimation of the High Priest, to put Jesus before the previous thanksgiving of our to death. He retires to Ephraim. Lord, and that these words were merely 46.] We must take care rightly to undera summoning forth. But this is highly stand this. In the last verse, it is not improbable. The comparison of ch. v. 25, many of the Jews which had come, but 28, which are analogically applicable, many of the Jews, viz. those which had makes it clear that they who have heard, come, “ many ... to wit, those that came.” shall live, is the physical, as well as the All these believed on Him (see a similar spiritual order of things. To cry out, case in ch. viii. 30 ff.). Then, some of shout aloud, was not His wont; see Matt. them, viz. of those which had come, and xii. 19. This cry signified that greater believed, went, &c. The but (see on ver. one, which all shall hear, ch. v. 28.
37) certainly shews that this was done with 44.] The word rendered grave-clothes is a hostile intent: not in doubt as to the explained to mean a sort of band, of rush miracle, any more than in the case of the or tow, used to swathe infants, and to bind blind man, ch. ix., but with a view to stir up the dead. It does not appear whether up the rulers yet more against Him. This the bands were wound about each limb, as Evangelist is very simple, and at the same in the Egyptian mummies, so as merely to time very consistent, in his use of par. impede motion-or were loosely wrapped ticles : almost throughout his Gospel the round both feet and both hands, so as to great subject, the manifestation of the hinder any free movement altogether. The Glory of Christ, is carried onward by then, latter seems most probable, and has been or therefore, whereas but as generally presupposed by many. Basil speaks of the faces the development of the antagonist bound man coming forth from the sepul- manifestation of hatred and rejection of chre, as a miracle in a miracle : and Himn. If it seem strange that this hostile ancient pictures represent Lazarus gliding step should be taken by persons who beforth from the tomb, not stepping ; which lieved on Jesus, we at least find a parallel apparently is right. The napkin, or in the passage above cited, ch. vii. 30 ff. handkerchief, appears to have tied up his 48.] They evidently regarded the chin. let him go, probably, to his result of all believing on Him,' as likely home.
to be, that He would be set up as king : 45--57.] THE DEATH OF JESUS THE which would soon bring about the ruin LIFE OF THE WORLD. Consequences of bere mentioned. Augustine understands
a Luke iii, 2. , ch. xviii. 14.
Acts iv. 6. 1-bch. xviii. 14.
our place and nation. 49 And one of them, [m named]
m not expressed in the original.
P render, the. 9 render, might.
r render, are.
S render, Therefore.
c Isa. xlix. 6.
Eph. ii. 14,
it differently: that, allmen being per. tion to 'that (remarkable) year,' without suaded by Him to peaceful lives, they any reference to time past or to come. would have no one to join them in revolt THAT YEAR of great events had Caiaphas against the Romans; but this seems forced: as its High Priest. See on ver. 57. for no coming of the Romans would in that Ye know nothing at all] Probably various case be provoked. our place] not, the methods of action had been suggested. temple (the holy place, Acts vi. 13), but
Observe people here, the usual term our place, as in reff. : i. e. our local habic for the chosen people, and then nation, tation, and our national existence. Both when it is regarded as a nation among the these literally came to pass. Whether nations: compare also ver. 52. this fear was earnestly expressed, or only not of himself] i.e. not merely of him. as a covert for their enmity, does not self, but under the influence of the Spirit, appear. The word our is emphatic, de- who cansed him to utter words, of the full tecting the real cause of their anxiety. meaning of which he had no conception. Respecting this man's pretensions, they being high priest ... he prophesied] do not pretend to decide : all they know is There certainly was a belief, probably that if he is to go on thus, THEIR standing arising originally from the use of the Urim is gone. 49–52.] The counsel is and Thummim, that the High Priest, and given in subtilty, and was intended by indeed every priest, had some knowledge Caiaphas in the sense of political expe- of dreams and utterance of prophecy. diency only. But it pleased God to make Philo the Jew says, “ A true priest is ipso him, 'as High Priest, the special though facto a prophet.” That this belief existed, involuntary organ of the Holy Spirit, may account for the expression here; and thus to utter by him a prophecy of which however does not confirm it in all the death of Christ and its effects. That cases, but asserts the fact that the Spirit this is the only sense to be given, appears in this case made use of him as High from the consideration that the whole of Priest, for this purpose. This confirms verses 51, 52 cannot for a moment be the above view of the words that year, supposed to have been in the mind of here again repeated. See on ver. 49. Caiaphas; and to divide it, and suppose that Jesus was about to die ...] the the latter part to be the addition of the purport (unknown to himself) of his proEvangelist, is quite unjustifiable.
phecy. And the term the nation, is high priest that year] repeated again, ch. guarded from misunderstanding by what xviii, 13. He was High Priest during follows the children of God) are the whole Procuratorship of Pontius Pilate, those who are called by the same name in eleven years. In the words that year, ch. i. 12, the “ordained to cternal life" there is no intimation conveyed that the of Acts xii. 48 (where see note), among High Priesthood was changed every year, all nations ; compare ch. x. 16. which it was not : but we must un- 53.] The decision, to put Him to death, derstand the words as directing atten- is understood : and from that day they