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Sensere, quid mens rite, quid indoles
Nutrita faustis sub penetralibus
Posset, quid Augusti paternus
In pueros animus Nerones.

Fortes creantur fortibus et bonis ;
Est in juvencis, est in equis patrum
Virtus, neque imbellem feroces
Progenerant aquilae columbam;

Doctrina sed vim promovet insitam,
Rectique cultus pectora roborant:
Utcunque defecere mores,
Indecorant bene nata culpae.

Quid debeas, O Roma, Neronibus,
Testis Metaurum flumen et Hasdrubal
Devictus et pulcher fugatis
Ille dies Latio tenebris,

Qui primus alma risit adorea,
Dirus per urbes Afer ut Italas
Ceu flamma per taedas vel Eurus
Per Siculas equitavit undas.

Post hoc secundis usque laboribus

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liect more closely) dextras obarmet. In translating we must break up the sentence: "I will not inquire whence the custom is derived, which arms,' &c. The Amazons are represented on ancient mon uments holding a two-edged sword in their hand, and the Vindeli. cians used a weapon of the same kind (here called by the poet an axe); for which reason some looked upon them as descendants of the Amazons.--23. Mens rite. Supply from nutrita a similar verb, such as formata. 26. Faustis sub penetralibus. Faustus is fa. voured by the gods.'. Hence the house of Augustus is here intimated to be beloved by the gods. — 27. Paternus animus in pueros Nerones. Tiberius and Drusus were merely the stepsons of Augus. tus, but he displayed towards them all the kindness of an actual father.—29. Fortibus et bonis, ablative, according to the principle stated in Gram. » 303.-34. Cullus, Training.'-35. Mores, character,' or here rather education,' which forms character.-36. Indecorant, equivalent to the more common dedecorant; culpae = vitia ; and bene nata = bonam indolem, bonam naturam.--38. Testis, scil. est, equivalent to testatur. An allusion to the well-known victory which the consul C. Claudius Nero, in conjunction with his colleague M. Livius, gained on the river Metaurus, in the year 207 B.C., over Hasdrubal, brother of Hannibal, who was bringing auxiliaries from Spain. Horace does not over-estimate the importance of this victory, when he dates from it Hannibal's despair of conquering Italy. Netaurum is used adjectively. Compare Carm. ii. 9, 21, and Ars Poëtica, 18.-39. Fugatis tenebris gives the reason why the day was beautiful, since it chased away darkness, calamity.

- 41. Risit ; that is, laetus fuit. -42. Ut = ex quo, since.' - 43. Taedas here does not mean torches,' but the wood out of which

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Romana pubes crevit, et impio
Vastata Poenorum tumultu
Fana deos habuere rectos,

Dixitque tandem perfidus Hannibal:
Cervi, luporum praeda rapacium,
Sectamur ultro, quos opimus
Fallere et effugere est triumphus.

Gens, quae cremato fortis ab Ilio
Jactata Tuscis aequoribus, sacra
Natosque maturosque patres
Pertulit Ausonias ad urbes,

Duris ut ilex tonsa bipennibus
Nigrae feraci frondis in Algido,
Per damna, per caedes ab ipso
Ducit opes animumque ferro.

Non Hydra secto corpore firmior
Vinci dolentem crevit in Herculem
Monstrumve sumrnisere Colchi
Majus Echioniaeve Thebae.

Merses profundo, pulchrior exiet;
Luctere, multa proruet integrum

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torches are made,' pines.' — 48. Fana deos habuere rectos. The statues of the gods, which the Carthaginian had overthrown, were set up again, and remained from that time forward upright. 49. Perfidus Hannibal. Treacherous' was their great foe's usual epithet among the Romans, applied with much the same justice as the French perfide Albion to England. — 50. Cervi. Hannibal com. pares the Carthaginians to deer, the Romans to wolves. — 51. Opi.

amplus, magnificus, a rare and only poetical use of the word. -53. Ab Ilio, 'going forth from Ilium.' - 54. In regard to Tuscis. aequoribus, compare Virgil's Aeneid, i. 71, and following. Sacra, the penates which Aeneas carried with him from burning Troy:56. "Pertulit, a strengthened attulit. 57. Tonsa, shorn' of its uppermost branches, an operation which makes the tree grow stronger. – 58. Algidus, a hill in Latium, sacred to Diana. It was thickly wooded. Nigrae, black, dark, dusky.'-59. Per, here in spite of.'—61. Hydra, the celebrated Lernaean snake, which, whenever Hercules cut off one of its heads, received two in its place. Hence it is called here firmior corpore secto, stronger because its head was cut from its body.' — 62. Vinci dolentem, who grieved 10 be conquered.' The simple infinitive here is a poetical construction for the accusative with the infinitive.-63. Colchi. In their country Jason sowed the dragon's teeth, and thus produced monsters. Hence summisere, which is properly

said of the earth’s ‘sending up, producing' fruits. — 64. Echioniae Thebae. Echion was one of the men who sprang from the dragon's teeth sown by Cadmus. He alone survived the fight between the brothers, and assisted Cadmus in the building of Thebes. -- 65. Merses, subjunctive of merso, = si merses, -as in the next line luctere = si luctere. Exiet, an ancient

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Cum laude victorem geretque
Proelia conjugibus loquenda.

Carthagini jam non ego nuntios
Mittam superbos: occidit, occidit

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Spes omnis et fortuna nostri
Nominis, Hasdrubale interempto.'

Nil Claudiae non perficient manus,
Quas et benigno numine Jupiter
Defendit et curae sagaces

75 Expediunt per acuta belli. form for exibit, not used in the prose of the Augustan age.-68. Con. jugibus loquenda; hence 'bloody.' 70. Superbos nuntios ; such, namely, as he had sent after the battle of Cannae. 72. Nominis here = gentis, the Carthaginians.—75. Curae sagaces, the prudence of Augustus. This brings the Claudii safely out of dangerous positions in war.

For expedire is strictly used of deliverance from dangers, and acuta belli are cases which demand a speedy decision, critical circumstances.'

CARMEN V.

AD AUGUST UM.

A EULOGIUM on Augustus, written shortly before 13 B.C., in which

year the emperor, after a long absence, returned from Gaul to Rome, and was received by the wholc Roman people with the highest tokens of honour.

Divis orte bonis, optime Romulae
Custos gentis, abes jam nimium diu :
Maturum reditum pollicitus Patrum
Sancto concilio redi.

Lucem redde tuae, dux bone, patriae :
Instar veris enim vultus ubi tuus
Affuisit populo, gratior it dies
Et soles melius nitent.
Ut mater juvenem, quem Notus invido

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1. Divis bonis; that is, propitiis, 'who hast been born,' or 'hast risen as it were, (like a star) by the grace of the gods, who wished well to the Roman people.' Romulae Romuleae, as in Carm. Saec. 47.5. Lucem, .light, life, joy.' The poet, as we see from what follows, takes the word literally, and fancies that the day is brighter in Rome when Augustus is there. – 7. It, passes, passes away.' Compare ii. 14, 5. – 8. Melius magis.-9. Invido. " It envies the

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Flatu, Carpathii trans maris aequora
Cunctantem, spatio longius annuo
Dulci distinet a domo,

Votis ominibusque et precibus vocat,
Curvo nec faciem litore dimovet;
Sic desideriis icta fidelibus
Quaerit patria Caesarem.

Tutus bos etenim rura perambulat,
Nutrit rura Ceres almaque Faustitas,
Pacatum volitant per mare navitae,
Culpari metuit Fides.

Nullis polluitur casta domus stupris,
Mos et lex maculosum edomuit nefas,
Laudantur simili prole puerperae,
Culpam Poena premit comes.

Quis Parthum paveat ? quis gelidum Scythen ?
Quis Germania quos horrida parturit
Fetus, incolumi Caesare? Quis ferae
Bellum curet Hiberiae ?

Condit quisque diem collibus suis,
Et vitem viduas ducit ad arbores;
Hinc ad vina redit laetus, et alteris
Te mensis adhibet deum.

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mother the possession of her son. - 10. Carpathii maris : compare i. 35, 8. The expression aequora Carpathii maris is somewhat peculiar in Latin, though its translation, the waters of the Carpathian sea,' is quite familiar in English. – 11. The journey to Asia and return used generally to occupy at most only a year. - 13. Ominibus. She not only prays and makes vows to the gods, but also seeks in all occurrences omens either of her son's return or of his continued absence.-15. Icta, a strong expression, generally confined to sorrow or fear, = percussa commota.-18. Nutrit, makes fertile.' Faustitas, an äraš deyouevov, formed by poetical license, and equivalent to Fe. licitas or Copia, the goddess of abundance. 20. Culpari metuit, • fears (and therefore takes care not) to be blamed;' that is, non cul. patur, because she is held in respect and honour by all.–22. Mos et 1er. Compare what the poet says in iii. 24, 35: leges sine moribus vanae. Edomare=domando expellere.—23. Simili prole, on account of the children, who are like the father.'-24. Premit, ' presses hard after, treads close upon.' — 25. Scythen. Compare iii. 8, 23. - 26. Horrida, 'rough,' on account of the rough customs and character of its inhabitants. — 27. Fetus, with reference to the large size and fierce appearance of the ancient Germans, who were regarded by the Romans as monsters. — 29. Condit diem, spends, passes the day. The order, quisque in collibus suis, is contrary to ihe rule of good prose style (Zumpt, \ 800), which requires in suis quisque cob. libus, ' every one in his own vineyard.'—30. Viduas. The trees are viduae till the vine is trained up them; then they become marilae. Compare Epodes, 2, 9.-32. Te adhibet deum, he invokes thee as a

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Te multa prece, te prosequitur mero
Diffuso pateris, et Laribus tuum
Miscet numen, uti Graecia Castoris
Et magni memor Herculis.

Longas O utinam, dux bone, ferias
Praestes Hesperiae: dicimus integro
Sicci mane die, dicimus uvidi,
Cum Sal Oceano subest.

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god;' that is, at the second course, dessert (alteris or secundis mensis), he makes an offering to thee, as well as to the other gods whose favour he is desirous to conciliate. - 33. Te prosequitur, he accompanies thee;' that is, throughout thy whole life, in all thy proceedings, he accompanies thee with his prayers and offerings. 37. Ferias, holidays,' here days of rest,' 'in which no war or civil dissension shall take from Hesperia (Italy) the peace which she now enjoys. — 39. Sicci, sober,' the opposite of uvidi or madidi. Integro die, when the day is yet unbroken, when we have the whole day before us: hence simply an explanation or expansion of mane.

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