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Ejus, qui domita nomen ab Africa

Lucratus rediit, clarius indicant
Laudes quam Calabrae Pierides : neque,
Si chartae sileant, quod bene feceris,
Mercedem tuleris. Quid foret Iliae

Mavortisque puer, si taciturnitas
Obstaret meritis invida Romuli?
Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus Aeacum
Virtus et favor et lingua potentium

Vatum divitibus consecrat insulis.
Dignum laude virum Musa vetat mori.
Coelo Musa beat. Sic Jovis interest
Optatis epulis impiger Hercules;

Clarum Tyndaridae sidus ab infimis
Quassas eripiunt aequoribus rates;
Ornatus viridi tempora pampino
Liber vota bonos ducit ad exitus.

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17. This line is for two strong reasons supposed to be spurious: first, because the caesura, which should fall within the word Car. thaginis, is neglected; and secondly, because, as line 22 shows, the poet is speaking of the elder P. Scipio Africanus, who did not de. stroy, but only conquered Carthage. Moreover, it is highly prohable that after line 17 two lines are wanting, which are required to complete the four-line stanza, preserved by Horace most accurately in all his odes. Consequently, if line 17 be spurious, we may suppose a gap of three lines here.—21. Lucralus." He gained for himself from his conquests nothing but the name of Africanus, not, as many generals of later times did, great wealth.-22. Calabrae Pierides, the muse of the poet Ennius, who was a native of Rudiae in Calabria.-23. Chartae ; that is, litterae, the poets and their writings. - 25. Puer, Romulus, the son of Mars and Ilia or Rea Silvia.—27. Ereptum Stygiis fluctibus, a poetical expression for • rescued from oblivion.'-28. Virtus, 'genius, excellence.' The poets are called potentes, simply because they can do what no one else can do; namely, confer immortality. - 29. Divitibus insulis. These are usually called beatorum insulae ; but beatus and dives are synony

- 31. Sic, thus it has been brought about that,' &c.-33. Clarum sidus, in apposition to Tyndaridae (nominative plural), the two Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux. See i. 3, 2.-35. Pampino. Com. pare iii. 25, 20.

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CARMEN IX.

AD LOLLIUM.

This ode is addressed to M. Lollius, consul in 21 B. C., a man who

at one time possessed in a high degree the confidence of Augustus, but lost it by his ingratitude and insatiable avarice. In the first part of this ode Horace treats of a subject similar to that of the preceding; namely, the power of poets to confer immortality : in the second part he praises Lollius, saying much-perhaps not without special design--of temperance and inaccessibility to bribes.

Ne forte credas interitura, quae
Longe sonantem natus ad Aufidum
Non ante vulgatas per artes
Verba loquor socianda chordis:
Non, si priores Maeonius tenet

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Sedes Homerus, Pindaricae latent
Ceaeque et Alcaei minaces
Stesichorique graves Camenae;

Nec, si quid olim lusit Anacreon,
Delevit aetas; spirat adhuc amor

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Vivuntque commissi calores
Aeoliae fidibus puellae.

1. Ne forte credas. The apodosis begins with line 5.-- 2. Ad longe sonantem Aufidum. See iii. 30, 10. .-3. Non ante vulgatas per artes ; namely, lyric poetry. See iii. 30, 13. This ars is more particularly defined, as verba socianda chordis, words to be con. nected with the strings,' songs which are intended and ought to be sung to the lyre. — 5. Priores sedes. He might also have said primas sedes, but, strictly speaking, there is only a comparison be. tween two parties — Homer on the one side, and all other poets on the other: hence the comparative. Homer is called Maeonius, from Maeon, which was said to be the name of his father. - 6. Pindari

Camenae, 'the poems of Pindar:' see iv. 2, 1. Ceae refers to the poems of Simonides, a renowned elegist, who was a native of the island of Ceos. The songs of Alcaeus are called minaces, because they were partly war-songs, partly calls to expel the tyrants Pittacus and Myrsilus from Lesbos. Stesichorus, too, wrote warsongs, and was, as it were, an epic poet in lyric dress: hence gravis.

9. Si quid = quidquid, Anacreon had written love-songs, of which light kind of poetry lusit is properly used. — 10. Spirat, used figuratively, as in the next line vivunt.-11. Construe thus: calores Aeoliae puellae commissi fidibus. This construction seems better

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Non sola comptos arsit adulteri
Crines et aurum vestibus illitum,
Mirata regalesque cultus
Et comites, Helene Lacaena ;

Primusve Teucer tela Cydonio
Direxit arcu; non semel Ilios
Vexata; non pugnavit ingens
Idomeneus Sthenelusve solus

Dicenda Musis proelia; non ferox
Hector vel acer Deiphobus graves
Excepit ictus pro pudicis
Conjugibus puerisque primus.

Vixere fortes ante Agamemnona
Multi; sed omnes illacrimabiles
Urgentur ignotique longa
Nocte, carent quia vate sacro.

Paulum sepultae distat inertiae
Celata virtus. Non ego te meis
Chartis inornatum silebo,
Totve tuos patiar labores

Impune, Lolli, carpere lividas

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than making Aeoliae puellae be governed by fidibus, or a dative for ab Aeolia puella.,, Calores are warm feelings,' especially of love. The • Aeolian girl' is Sappho, a native of Lesbos, whose inhabitants belonged to the Aeolic race. - - 13. The poet introduces a new idea, the illustration of which is concluded in line 30, and which brings him to the praises of Lollius. Many besides Helen, both before and after her, had admired the beauty of gallants, but they were unknown, because their fates had not been recorded by poets or historians. Arsit comptos crines. Ardere aliquid or aliquem is said by the poets for ama The ablative may also be used, according to Gram. D 291. - 14. Aurum vestibus illitum. Clothes embroi. dered with gold were and still are much worn by Orientals. — 15. Construe thus: mirata et (for which we have poetically que) regales cultus (“his kingly bearing and apparel) et comites. - 17. Teucer, son of Oileus, a Cretan, and, like all his countrymen, an excellent archer. Cydonius, from Cydon, a town in Crete. – 18. Ilios. This form (teminine) is the only one in Homer. llium is more common in Latin. — 20. Idomeneus, leader of the Cretans. Sthenelus, son of Capaneus, charioteer of Diomede. — 21. Dicenda Musis proelia. Compare iv. 4, 68: proelia conjugibus loquenda. - 22. Deiphobus, the bravest of the Trojans next to Hector. He is said to have married Helen after the death of Paris. 26. Illacrima. biles, passively, “unwept for.' In ii. 14, 6, Pluto is called illacri. mabilis, actively. - 27. Longa nocte, oblivion. - 28. Sacro, a stand. ing epithet of poets, being priests of the muses. See iii. 1, 3.-29. Sepultae inertiae, dative, for ab sepulla inertia. See Gram. 0 267, noie 2, extr.-31. Inornatum ; namely, as thou wouldst be, unless praised in poetry.-33. Impune, 'with impunity :' I shall drive away

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Obliviones. Est animus tibi
Rerumque prudens et secundis
Temporibus dubiisque rectus,

Vindex avarae fraudis et abstinens
Ducentis ad se cuncta pecuniae,
Consulque, non unius anni,
Sed quoties bonus atque fidus

Judex honestum praetulit utili,
Rejecit alto dona nocentium
Vultu, et per obstantes catervas
Explicuit sua victor arma.

Non possidentem multa vocaveris
Recte beatum; rectius occupat
Nomen beati, qui deorum
Muneribus sapienter uti

Duramque callet pauperiem pati,
Pejusque leto flagitium timet,
Non ille pro caris amicis
Aut patria timidus perire.

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oblivion. Oblivio has here the words carpere and lividus connected with it, which are generally used of envy:--- 35. Rerum prudens. Prudens here has its original sense = providens. Horace ascribes to Lollius sagacity as a statesman.-36. Rectus, 'upright, steady.' -37. Vindex fraudis, in allusion to the conduct of Lollius in the provinces.38. Ducentis ad se cuncta, 'which draws all things, men, to it, after it.' — 39. Consulque non unius anni. This seems to indicate that Lollius had been consul before the ode was written. The sense is : thy mind is -- that is (compare Zumpt, 8 678), thou thyself art - not like others who merely strive to hold the highest office in the state for one year, but thou hast the qualities which should belong to every consul, which make thee, as it were, a consul among men. The opposition to non unius anni is, in the next line, sed quoties, etc.: thou art consul not for a year merely, but as often as, in the choice between right and wrong (for to this generally, not to any particular office, judex refers), thou hast prelerred the right, as often as thou hast rejected bribes, and hast come off victorious from the contest with vice. -44. Explicuit, in prose expedivit, 'has prepared, made ready' its (thy) weapons, with which, in spite of all opposition, thou wilt punish the wicked. – 45. Vocaveris, the potential subjunctive, thou couldst call.'- 49. Callet; that is, intelligit, understands.'— 50. Pejus leto, 'worsethat is, more-than death.' Flagitium was a word particularly used in the Stoic philosophy, an immoral act.'-51, Ille, added superfluously, as is regularly done with quidem. Zumpt, $801. – 52. Timidus (est) perire ='timet perire, a Greek construction.

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A PLATFUL invitation addressed to Virgil. He is to bring with him

a box of ointment, whilst Horace will supply a pitcher of wine.
Whether the poet Virgil be meant, to whom the third ode of the
first book refers, or some other Virgilius to us unknown, we have
no means of ascertaining. If we believe the poet to be meant,
then we must suppose the ode to have been written earlier than
the others in this book, for Virgil died in 19 B.C. As to the date
of the publication of this book, see the introduction,

Jam veris comites, quae mare temperant,
Impellunt animae lintea Thraciae;
Jam nec prata rigent, nec fluvii strepunt
Hiberna nive turgidi:
Nidum ponit Ityn flebiliter gemens

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Infelix avis et Cecropiae domus
Aeternum opprobrium, quod male barbaras
Regum est ulta libidines.

Dicunt in tenero gramine pinguium
Custodes ovium carmina fistula,

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Delectantque deum, cui pecus et nigri
Colles Arcadiae placent.

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1. Temperant = tranquillant, quiet, reduce to a slight motion ;' hence they impellunt lintea. Thracian (here used for northerly,') winds were favourable to ships sailing from Italy to Greece.- 4. Hiberna nive. This must be understood as comprehending rain as well as snow. -5. Nidum ponit, etc. The sense is : already is the swallow building her nest, a sign of opening spring. Compare Epist. i. 7, 13. The story to which the poet alludes of Procne, daughter of Pandion, king of Attica, and sister of Philomela, who, being inflamed by jealousy against her husband Tereus, king of Thrace, slew her son Itys, and put him down at table before his father; and who when Tereus, in his indignation, attempted to kill her, was changed into a swallow, whilst Philomela became a night. ingale, is well known. Cecropia domus in line 6 is the house of the ķings of Attica, of whom Cecrops was the first. To it the atrocious deed of Procne was an eternal disgrace. Other kings as well as Tereus are devoted to the gratification of their passions: hence the plural regum, giving libidines a more general reference; confined, however, to barbarians (for the Thracians were barbarians.) - 9. Dicunt = canunt. 11. Deum ; namely, who invented the shepherd's pipe, and whose worship came from Arcadia.-12. Colles Arcadiae, Maenalus, Lycaeus, Cyllene, which are called nigri, partly because thickly covered with woods, and partly from the dark

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