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Sub divom rapiam. Saeva tene cum Berecyntio Cornu tym pana, quae subsequitur caecus amor sui, Et tollens vacuum plus nimio gloria verticem, Arcanique fides prodiga perlucidior vitro.

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sacred furniture, covered with leaves, particularly with ivy. The sense is, “I will worship thee, beautiful Bacchus, just as thou hast decreed, and will not profane thy holy service ;' that is, will keep within the bounds of inoderation, as thou commandest. – 13. An exhortation to Bacchus himself not to excite the soul overmuch:

curb, restrain thy dreadful drums and the Berecynthian horn'- s0 called from Berecyntus, a mountain in Phrygia, where particular festivals used to be celebrated in honour of Bacchus. The horn and the kettle.drum were the instruments of the Bacchantes. - 15. Gloria, 'boastfulness, vaingloriousness,' which exalts itself too high. - 16. Arcani fides prodiga, 'the faith which squanders (that is, tells to every one) secrets. A man intoxicated iells what has been given to him as a secret without restraint: in vino veritus. Hence the faith of a drunkard is truly •more transparent than glass.'

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CARMEN XX.

AD MAECENATEM.

The poet invites Maecenas to a modest and simple entertainment.

Vile potabis modicis Sabinum
Cantharis, Graeca quod ego ipse testa
Conditum levi, datus in theatro
Cum tibi plausus,

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1. Vile - Sabinum, 'common Sabine wine,' which Horace him self has. Maecenas, at his own house, drinks noble kinds of Italian wine, which are mentioned in the ninth and following lines; namely, Caecuban, so called from the ager Caecubus, near Fundi, on the Appian Road; the Calenian, named from the town of Cales; the Falernian, grown in Campania, at the foot of Mount Massicus; and the Formian, so called from the town of Formiae. - 2. Can. tharis. The cantharus is a somewhat large kind of goblet, with a handle; so called from Cantharus, its inventor. Graeca testa, &c. The ancients usually did not draw their wine into casks, but kept it in two-handled jars of earthenware, which stood round the chamber beside the walls. Such a jar is here called testa ; and the epithet Graeca is applied to it, because it had formerly con. tained Greek, noble wine. Horace had chosen such a vessel, in order to dignify his country wine.-3. Levi, perfect of lino, I clos up with wax, &c. seal up.'. The wine-jars were closed with wax, and then sealed. Datus, scil. est ; that is, eo anno, quo tibi plausus datus est in theatro, when you were greeted with applause (clap

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Clare Maecenas eques, ut paterni
Fluminis ripae-simul et jocosa
Redderet laudes tibi Vaticani
Montis imago.

Caecubum et prelo domitam Caleno
Tu bibes uvam : mea nec Falernae
Temperant vites neque Formiani
Pocula colles.

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ping of hands) as you entered the theatre.'-,5. Maecenas eques. Maecenas rested his pride on this-hat, though of a very ancient family (Carm. i. 1, 1), rich, and, as the trusted favourite of Augustus, influential, he yet took no state office, but remained a simple Ro. man eques. Paterni fluminis ; namely, Tiberis, which is called * paternal,' because it flowed past Etruria, from whose kings Maecenas claimed descent. It was in the theatrum Pompeii, not far from the bank of the Tiber, that Maecenas had been received with enthusiasm. The mons Vaticanus is on the north side of the river. --6. Jocosamimago, 'echo.' See i. 12, 3. – 10. Uvam— prelo domitam Caleno ; that is, •Colenian wine.' Construe thus : nec Falernae vites nec Formiani colles (for · Falernian and Formian wine') temperant mea pocula, 'mix my goblets;' that is, are mixed in the goblets which I have. The Romans never drank their wine un. mixed, but always weakened with water.

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CARMEN XXI.

IN DIANAM ET APOLLINEM.

PRAYER to Diana and Apollo. Horace calls upon the maidens and

youths of Rome to celebrate the praises of these deities, and to beseech them to avert all danger. Written about the year 28 B.C.

Dianam tenerae dicite virgines,
Intonsum, pueri, dicite Cynthium
Latonamque supremo.
Dilectam penitus Jovi.
Vos laeiam fluviis et nemorum coma,

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2. Intorsum - Cynthium, Apollo, called Cynthius from Cynthus, a hill in Delos. He is said to be intonsus, because he is represented as a youthful or beardless god, and consequently unshaven.-3. La. tona was the mother of Diana and Apollo, whoin she bore in Delos 10 Jupiter. Her praises were sung by the two choirs, the youths and maidens, united. – 5. Pos; namely, puellae. Laetam fluviis, Diana, the goddess of hunting and of the woods, and who conse. quently delighted in streams, without which her woods could not exist. Coma nemorum is, by a common poetical figure, the leaves

Quaecunque aut gelido prominet Algido,
Nigris aui Erymanthi
Silvis aut viridis Cragi.

Vos Tempe totidem tollite laudibus
Natalemque, mares, Delon Apollinis,

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Insignemque pharetra
Fraternaque humerum lyra.

Hic bellum lacrimosum, hic miseram famem
Pestemque a populo et principe Caesare in
Persas atque Britannos

15 Vestra motus aget prece. of the forest.-6. Algidus was a hill in Latium, between Tusculum and the Alban range, now Monte Compatri. It is celebrated for the numerous batiles which the Romans fought near it in the early periods of their history. Erymanthus, a mountain in Arcadia; Cragus, in Lycia. — 9. Vos. To this word belongs mares -=pueri. Tempe is the celebrated valley between the Olympus and Ossa, in which Apollo was said to have been purified after slaying the Py. thian dragon.–12. Humerum insignem pharetra, &c. A pollo was the god of archery and music. He received the lyre from Mercury, who was likewise a son of Jupiter, and therefore Apollo's brother. See Carm. i. 10, 6.–13. Hic; namely, Apollo, who was believed to be the deus averruncus, the god who averted from men all evils, particularly war, famine, and pestilence.-15. Persas, that is, Par. thos atque Britannos. Augustus had at this time the intention of making war against both of these nations. The poet wishes that all the evil which would otherwise befall the Romans may be turned upon the poor Parthians and Britons.

CARMEN XXI I.

AD ARISTIUM FUSCUM.

DESCRIPTION of the external independence and safety which man

gains by uprightness and moral purity. The poet sees even the wild beasts fleeing before the good man.

INTEGER vitae scelerisque purus
Non eget Mauris jaculis neque arcu
Nec venenatis gravida sagittis,
Fusce, pharetra,
Sive per Syrtes iter aestuosas

5 1. Integer vitae. The genitive vitae means 'in, in regard to,' properly expressed by the ablative. Gram. $ 277, 6, note 2.-2. Mauris jaculis, * javelins such as the Mauri (Moors, inhabitants of Mauritania) have. -4. Pharetra gravida sagittis venenatis, a quiver heavy (that is, filled) with poisoned arrows.'-5. Construc thus : sive iter

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quae, &c.

Sive facturus per inhospitalem
Caucasum vel quae loca fabulosus
Lambit Hydaspes.

Namque me silva lupus in Sabina,
Dum meam canto Lalagen et ultra

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Terminum curis vagor expeditis,
Fugit inermem :

Quale portentum neque militaris
Daunias latis alit aesculetis,
Nec Jubae tellus generat, leonum

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Pone me, pigris ubi nulla campis
Arbor aestiva recreatur aura,
Quod latus mundi nebulae malusque
Jupiter urget:

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Pone sub curru nimium propinqui
Solis in terra domibus negata :
Dulce ridentem Lalagen amabo,

Dulce loquentem. facturus (est) per Syrtes, sive per Caucasum, sive (or vel) per ea loca,

8. Hydaspes, a river of India, a tributary of the Indus, celebrated in many fabulous stories (fabulosus) after Alexander the Great's campaigns. Lambit, poetically used for alluit, “washes.'9. An instance is adduced, in proof that the virtuous man has nothing to fear. The example is the poet himself. – 10. Ultra terminum, beyond the boundary of my property,' within which there are no wild beasts. 11. Curis expeditis, poetical for curis expeditus or solutus, “free from care.' - 13. Quale portentum, connected with lupus in line 9; 'such a monster as,' &c. 14. Daunias. Daunus, an ancient hero, came from Illyricum to Apulia, and settled on Mount Garganus: hence the whole of Apulia is called Daunia, or, with a Greek termination, Daunias. This district was celebrated for the strength and military spirit of the tribes which inhabited it; hence the epithet militaris, warlike.' There were in the district extensive oak forests, filled with game and wild beasts. Aesculetum, an äraš neyouevov, 'a wood of aesculus, the winter oak.' — 15. Jubae tellus ; that is, Mauritania and Numidia. - 17. Connect ubi nulla arbor pigris campis recreatur aura aestiva, where in the desert plains no tree is refreshed by the summer breeze.' According to ihe notions of the ancients, the middle region or zone of the earth was alone habitable - the northern being barren, and enveloped in eternal mist, and the southern so hot that no human being could live within it. Pigri campi, lazy, unproductive, barren plains.' 19. Quod latus mundi = quam plagam, quam zonam. Malus Jupiter, “bad weather,' Jupiter, the god of the sky, being often put for the weather:-22. Domibus negata, denied or refused to the dwellings of men;' that is, .uninhabitable.' - 23. The sense is, I shall always and everywhere live with the same geniality and freedom from care as now, and shall consequently be happy and secure.' Dulce ridentem, smiling sweetly,' ihe neuter of the adjective being poetically used for the adverb suaviter ridentem.

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CARMEN XXIV.

AD VIRGILIUM.

ODE on the death of Quintilius Varus, who is mentioned in the 18th

Ode. It is addressed to the poet Virgil. Horace exhorts him to bear pat

tly the loss of their mutual friend, since man can do nothing against the fates.

Quis desiderio sit pudor aut modus
Tam cari capitis? Praecipe lugubres
Cantus, Melpomene, cui liquidam pater
Vocem cum cithara dedit.
Ergo Quintilium perpetuus sopor

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Urget ? cui Pudor et, Justitiae soror,
Incorrupta Fides, nudaque Veritas
Quando ullum inveniet parem ?

Multis ille bonis flebilis occidit,
Nulli flebilior quam tibi, Virgili.

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Tu frustra plus heu non ita creditum
Poscis Quintilium deos.

Quod si Threicio blandius Orpheo
Auditam moderere arboribus fidem,
Non vanae redeat sanguis imagini,

15 Quam virga semel horrida, 1. Quis sit pudor ant modus ? What end or limit can the longing for so dear a friend have ?' A question implying the answer, that there can scarcely be a limit. Pudor ; properly, shame, modesty ;' here, “an end, termination,' which is fixed by the feeling of what is right and becoming. — 2. Praecipe, teach me.' Melpomene, the muse of tragedy, is here, 10 suit the character of the ode, represented as the goddess of elegy: -3. Liquidam, clear.' Pater; namely, Jupiter, who was the father of the Muses by Mnemosyne. — 5. Sopor = somnus, death being represented as an eternal sleep. The answer to the question here introduced by, ergo is given in line 9, occidit, “yes, he has fallen.' - 6. Con. strue thus : cui quando Pudor, etc., ullum (or quemquam) inve. niet parem? When shall the goddess of modesty, &c. find any one equal to him ?'—7. Nuda, naked;' that is, unadorned, simple.' - 11. Tu.... deos, “Thou vainly demandest in thy love (pius) Quintilius from the gods, for he was not intrusted to thee upon such terms that, when he had died according to fate, thou shouldst be able to recall him.' – 13. Quod si, 'Nay, if thou,' or

even if thou.' Threicio = Thracio. - 14. Moderere fidem auditam arboribus (dative for ab arboribus), though thou shouldst wield the lyre once listened to by trees.' Comp. Carm. i. 12, 7. 15. Vanae -imagini, 'to the empty, bodiless, incorporeal shade ;' an allusion to the state of the inhabitants of the lower world, as described by Homer and Virgil. - 16. Virga-horrida. Comp. Carm. i. 10, 17.

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