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aid to that great chief, and stood by his side when he fell at the battle of the Thames. At the time of the Winnebago war, in 1827, he visited almost every village among the Pottawatomies, and by his persuasive arguments prevented them from taking part in the war. By request of the citizens of Chicago, Shabbona, accompanied by Billy Caldwell (Sauganaslı), visited Big Foot's village at Geneva Lake, in order to pacify the warriors, as fears were entertained that they were about to raise the tomahawk against the whites. Here Shabbona was taken prisoner by Big Foot, and his life threatened, but on the following day was set at ļiberty. From that time the Indians (through reproach) styled him “ the white man's friend,” and many times his life was endangered.

Before the Black Hawk war, Shabbona met in council at two different times, and by his influence prevented his people from taking part with the Sacs and Foxes. After the death of Black Partridge and Senachwine, no chief among the Pottawatomies exerted so much influence as Shabbona. Black Hawk, aware of this influence, visited hint at two different tinies, in order to enlist him in his cause, but was unsuccessful. While Black Hawk was a prisoner at Jefferson Barracks, he said, had it not been for Shabbona the whole Pottawatomie nation would have joined his standard, and he could have continued the war for

years. To Shabbona many of the early settlers of Illinois owe the preservation of their lives, for it is a well-known fact, had he not notified the people of their danger, a large portion of them would have fallen victims to the tomahawk of sayages. By saving the lives of whites he endangered his own, for the Sacs and Foxes threatened to kill him, and made two attempts to execute their threats. They killed Pypeogee, his son, and Pyps, his nephew, and hunted him down as though he was a wild beast.

Shabbona had a reservation of two sections of land at his Grove, but by leaving it and going west for a short time, the Government declared the reservation forfeited, and sold it the same as other vacant land. On Shabbona's return, and finding his possessions gone, he was very sad and broken down in spirit, and left the Grove for ever. The citizens of Ottawa raised money and bought him a tract of land on the Illinois River, above Seneca, in Grundy County, on which they built a house, and supplied him with means to live on. He lived here until his death, which occurred on the 17th of July, 1859, in the eighty-fourth year of his age, and was buried with great pomp in the cemetery at Morris. His squaw, Pokanoka, was drowned in Mazen Creek, Grundy County, on the 30th of November, 1864, and was buried by his side.

In 1861 subscriptions were taken up in many of the river towns, to erect a monument over the remains of Shabbona, but the war breaking out, the enterprise was abandoned. Only a plain marble slab marks the resting-place of this friend of the white man.

ABSTRACT OF Illinois STATE Laws.

BILLS OF EXCHANGE AND PROMISSORY NOTES.

No promissory note, check, draft, bill of exchange, order, or note, negotiable instrument payable at sight, or on demand, or on presentment, shall be entitled to days of grace. All other bills of exchange, drafts or notes are entitled to three days of grace. All the above mentioned paper falling due on Sunday, New Years' Day, the Fourth of July, Christmas, or any day appointed or recommended by the President of the United States or the Governor of the State as a day of fast or thanksgiving, shall be deemed as due on the day previous, and should two or more of these days come together, then such instrument shall be treated as due on the day previous to the first of said days. No defense can be made against a negotiable instrument (assigned before due) in the hands of the assignee without notice, except fraud was used in obtaining the same. To hold an indorser, due diligence must be used by suit, in collecting of the maker, unless suit would have been unavailing. Notes payable to person named or to order, in order to absolutely transfer title, must be indorsed by the payee. Notes payable to bearer may be transferred by delivery, and when so payable every indorser thereon is held as a guarantor of payment unless otherwise expressed.

In computing interest or discount on negotiable instruments, a month shall be considered a calendar month or twelfth of a year, and for less than a month, a day shall be figured a thirtieth part of a month. Notes only bear interest when so expressed, but after due they draw the legal interest, even if not stated.

INTEREST.

The legal rate of interest is six per cent. Parties may agree in writing on a rate not exceeding ten per cent. If a rate of interest greater than ten per cent. is contracted for, it works a forfeiture of the whole of said interest, and only the principal can be recovered.

DESCENT.

When no will is made, the property of a deceased person is distributed as follows:

First. To his or her children and their descendants in equal parts ; the descendants of the deceased child or grandchild taking the share of their deceased parents in equal parts among them.

Second. Where there is no child, nor descendant of such child, and no widow or surviving husband, then to the parents, brothers and sisters of the deceased, and their descendants, in equal parts, the surviving parent, if either be dead, taking a double portion ; and if there is no parent living, then to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their descendants.

Third. When there is a widow or surviving husband, and no child or children, or descendants of the same, then one-half of the real estate and the whole of the personal estate shall descend to such widow or surviving husband, absolutely, and the other half of the real estate shall descend as in other cases where there is no child or children or descendants of the

same.

Fourth. When there is a widow or surviving husband and also a child * or children, or descendants of the latter, then one third of all the personal estate to the widow or surviving husband absolutely.

Fifth. If there is no child, parent, brother or sister, or descendants of either of them, and no widow or surviving husband, then in equal parts to the next of kin to the intestate in equal degree. Collaterals shall not be represented except with the descendants of brothers and sisters of the intestate, and there shall be no distinction between kindred of the whole and the half blood.

Sixth. If any intestate leaves a widow or surviving husband and no kindred, then to such widow or surviving husband; and if there is no such widow or surviving husband, it shall escheat to and vest in the county where the same, or the greater portion thereof, is situated.

WILLS AND ESTATES OF DECEASED PERSONS.

No exact form of words are necessary in order to make a will good at law. Every male person of the age of twenty-one years, and every female of the age of eighteen years, of sound mind and memory, can make a valid will; it must be in writing, signed by the testator or by some one in his or her presence and by his or her direction, and attested by two or more credible witnesses. Care should be taken that the witnesses are not interested in the will. Persons knowing themselves to have been named in the will or appointed executor, must within thirty days of the death of deceased cause the will to be proved and recorded in the proper county, or present it, and refuse to accept; on failure to do so are liable to forfeit the sum of twenty dollars per month. Inventory to be made by executor or administraior within three months from date of letters testamentary or of administration. Executors' and administrators' compensation not to exceed six per cent. on amount of personal estate, and three per cent. on money realized from real estate, with such additional allowance a: shall be reasonable for extra services. Appraisers' compensation $2 pei day.

Notice requiring all claims to be presented against the estate shall be given by the executor or administrator within six months of being quali. fied. Any person having a claim and not presenting it at the time fixed by said notice is required to have summons issued notifying the executor or administrator of his having filed his claim in court; in such cases the costs have to be paid by the claimant. Claims should be filed within two years from the time administration is granted on an estate, as after that time they are forever barred, unless other estate is found that was not inventoried. Married women, infants, persons insane, imprisoned or without the United States, in the employment of the United States, or of this State, have two years after their disabilities are removed to file claims.

Claims are classified and paid out of the estate in the following manner: First. Funeral expenses.

Second. The widow's award, if there is a widow; or children if there are children, and no widow.

Third. Expenses attending the last illness, not inciuding physician's bill.

Fourth Debts due the common school or township fund.

Fifth. All expenses of proving the will and taking out letters testamentary or administration, and settlement of the estate, and the physician's bill in the last illness of deceased.

Sirth. Where the deceased has received money in trust for any purpose, his executor or administrator shall pay out of his estate the amount received and not accounted for.

Seventh. All other debts and demands of whatsoever kind, without regard to quality or dignity, which shall be exhibited to the court within two years from the granting of letters.

Award to Widow and Children, exclusive of debts and legacies or bequests, except funeral expenses :

First. The family pictures and wearing apparel, jewels and ornaments of herself and minor children.

Second. School books and the family library of the value of $100.
Third. One sewing machine.
Fourth. Necessary beds, bedsteads and bedding for herself and family.

Fifth. The stoves and pipe used in the family, with the necessary cooking utensils, or in case they have none, $50 in money.

Sixth. Household and kitchen furniture to the value of $100.
Seventh. One milch cow and calf for every four members of her family.

Eighth. Two sheep for each member of her family, and the fleeces taken from the same, and one horse, saddle and bridle.

Ninth. Provisions for herself and family for one year.
Tenth. Food for the stock above specified for six months.
Eleventh. Fuel for herself and family for three months.

Twelfth. One hundred dollars worth of other property suited to her condition in life, to be selected by the widow.

The widow if she elects may have in lieu of the said award, the same personal property or money in place thereof as is or may be exempt from execution or attachment against the head of a family.

TAXES. The owners of real and personal property, on the first day of May in each year, are liable for the taxes thereon.

Assessments should be completed before the fourth Monday in June, at which time the town board of review meets to examine assessments, hear objections, and make such changes as ought to be made. The county board have also power to correct or change assessments.

The tax books are placed in the hands of the town collector on or before the tenth day of December, who retains them until the tenth day of March following, when he is required to return them to the county treasurer, who then collects all delinquent taxes.

No costs accrue on real estate taxes till advertised, which takes place the first day of April, when three weeks' notice is required before judg

Cost of advertising, twenty cents each tract of land, and ten cents each lot.

Judgment is usually obtained at May term of County Court. Costs six cents each tract of land, and five cents each lot. Sale takes place in June. Costs in addition to those before mentioned, twenty-eight cents each tract of land, and twenty-seven cents each town lot.

Real estate sold for taxes may be redeemed any time before the erpiration of two years from the date of sale, by payment to the County Clerk of the amount for which it was sold and twenty-five per cent. thereon if redeemed within six months, fifty per cent. if between six and twelve months, if between twelve and eighteen months seventy-five per cent., and if between eighteen months and two years one hundred per cent., and in addition, all subsequent taxes paid by the purchaser, with ten per cent. interest thereon, also one dollar each tract if notice is given by the purchaser of the sale, and a fee of twenty-five cents to the clerk for his certificate.

JURISDICTION OF COURTS. Justices have jurisdiction in all civil cases on contracts for the recovery of moneys for damages for injury to real property, or taking, detaining, or

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