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The sections are all numbered 1 to 36, commencing at the north-east corner.

The sections are divided into quarters, which are named by the cardinal points. The quarters are divided in the same way. The description of a forty acre lot would read: The south half of the west half of the south-west quarter of section 1 in township 21, north of range 7 west, or as the case might be; and sometimes will fall short and sometimes overrun the number of acres it is supposed to contain.

The nautical mile is 795 4-5 feet longer than the common mile.

SURVEYORS' MEASURE. 7 92-100 inches....

make 1 link. 25 links......

1 rod. 4 rods....

1 chain. 80 chains..

1 mile. NOTE.—A chain is 100 links, equal to 4 rods or 66 feet.

Shoemakers formerly used a subdivision of the inch called a barleycorn ; three of which made an inch.

Horses are measured directly over the fore feet, and the standard of measure is four inches-called a hand.

In Biblical and other old measurements, the term span is sometimes used, which is a lergth of nine inches.

The sacred cubit of the Jews was 24.024 inches in length.
The common cubit of the Jews was 21.704 inches in length.
A pace is equal to a yard or 36 inches.
A fathom is equal to 6 feet.

A league is three miles, but its length is variable, for it is strictly speaking a nautical term, and should be three geographical miles, equal to 3.45 statute miles, but when used on land, three statute miles are said to be a league.

In cloth measure an aune is equal to 11 yards, or 45 inches.
An Amsterdam ell is equal to 26.796 inches.
A Trieste ell is equal to 25.284 inches.
A Brabant ell is equal to 27.116 inches.

HOW TO KEEP ACCOUNTS. Every farmer and mechanic, whether he does much or little business, should keep a record of his transactions in a clear and systematic manner. For the benefit of those who have not had the opportunity of acquiring a primary knowledge of the principles of book-keeping, we here present a simple form of keeping accounts which is easily comprehended, and well adapted to record the business transactions of farmers, mechanics and laborers.

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INTEREST TABLE. A SIMPLE RULZ Fox ACCURATELY COMPUTING INTEREST AT ANT GIVEY PER CENT. FOR ANY

LENGTH OF TIME. Multiply the principal (amount of money at interest) by the time reduced to duys; then divide this product by the quotient obtained by dividing 360 (the number of days in the Interest year) by the per cent of interest, and the quotient thus obtained will be the required interest. ILLUSTRATION,

Solution. Require the interest of $462.50 for one month and eighteen days at 6 per cent. An

$462.50 interest month is 30 days; one month and eighteen days equal 48 days. $462.50 multi

.48 plier by .48 gives $222 0000; 360 divided by 6 (the per cent. of interest) gives 60, and $2.22.0000 divided by 60 will give you the exact interest, which is $3.70. the rate of

370000 luterest in the above example were 12 per cent., we would divide the $222.0000 by 30 6360 185000 (because 360 divided by 12 gives 30); if 4 per cent., we wouid divide by 90; if 8 per cent., by 45: and in like manner for any other per cent.

60 / $222.0000( 3.70

180

420
420

00
MISCELLANEOUS TABLE,
12 units, or things, 1 Dozen. 196 pounds, 1 Barrel of Flour. | 24 sheets of paper, 1 Quire.
12 dozen, 1 Gross.

200 pounds, i Barrel of Pork. 20 quires paper i Ream. 20 things, 1 Score.

56 pounds, i Firkin of Butter. \ 4 ft. wide, 4 ft. high, and 8 ft. long, 1 Cord Wooci.

NAMES OF THE STATES OF THE UNION, AND THEIR SIGNIFICATIONS,

Virginia.—The oldest of the States, was so called in honor of Queen Elizabeth, the “Virgin Queen," in whose reign Sir Walter Raleigh made his first attempt to colonize that region.

Florida.-Ponce de Leon landed on the coast of Florida on Easter Sunday, and called the country in commemoration of the day, which was the Pasqua Florida of the Spaniards, or “ Feast of Flowers.”

Louisiana was called after Louis the Fourteenth, who at one time owned that section of the country.

Alabama was so named by the Indians, and signifies “ Here we Rest.”
Mississippi is likewise an Indian name, meaning “ Long River.”

Arkansas, from Kansas, the Indian word for “smoky water.” Its prefix was really arc, the French word for “ bow.”

The Carolinas were originally one tract, and were called "Carolana,” after Charles the Ninth of France.

Georgia owes its name to George the Second of England, who first established a colony there in 1732.

Tennessee is the Indian name for the “River of the Bend," i.e., the Mississippi which forms its western boundary.

Kentucky is the Indian name for "at the head of the river.”

Ohio means “ beautiful;” Iowa, “ drowsy ones;” Minnesota, “ cloudy water,” and Wisconsin, “wild-rushing channel.”

Illinois is derived from the Indian word illini, men, and the French suffix ois, together signifying “ tribe of men.”

Michigan was called by the name given the lake, fish-weir, which was so styled from its fancied resemblance to a fish trap.

Missouri is from the Indian word “muddy,” which more properly applies to the river that flows through it.

Oregon owes its Indian name also to its principal river.
Cortes named California.
Massachusetts is the Indian for " The country around the great hills."

Connecticut, from the Indian Quon-ch-ta-Cut, signifying “ Long River."

Maryland, after Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles the First, of England.

New York was named by the Duke of York.

Pennsylvania means “ Penn's woods,” and was so called after William Penn, its orignal owner.

Delaware after Lord De La Ware.

New Jersey, so called in honor of Sir George Carteret, who was Governor of the Island of Jersey, in the British Channel.

Maine was called after the province of Maine in France, in compliment of Queen Henrietta of England, who owned that province.

Vermont, from the French word Vert Mont, signifying Green Mountain.

New Hampshire, from Hampshire county in England. It was formerly called Laconia.

The little State of Rhode Island owes its name to the Island of Rhodes in the Mediterranean, which domain it is said to greatly resemble.

Texas is the American word for the Mexican name by which all that section of the country was called before it was ceded to the United States.

POPULATION OF THE

UNITED STATES.

POPULATION OF FIFTY

PRINCIPAL CITIES.

STATES AND TERRITORIES.

Total
Population.

CITIES.

Aggregate
Population.

Alabama..
Arkansas.
California
Connecticut
Delaware..
Florida..
Georgia..
Illinois..
Indiana..
lowa.....
Kansas.
Kentucky.
Louisiana
Maine..
Maryland.
Massachusetts.....
Michigan...
Minnesota.
Mississippi..
Missouri.
Nebraska..
Nevada
New Hampshire..
New Jersey..
New York
North Carolina
Ohio...
Oregon..
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Island
South Carolina..
Tennessee.
Texas
Vermont.
Virginia.
West Virginia..
Wisconsin..

996.992
484,471
560,247
537,454
125,015

187.748
1,184,109
2,539,891
1,680,637
1,191,792

364,399 1,321,011 726,915 626,915

780,894 1,457,351 1,184.059

439.706

827.922 1,721.295 122,993

42.491 318.300

906.096 4,382.759 1,071,361 2,665,260

90,923 3,521,791 217.353

705,606 1,258,520

818,579

330,551 1,225,163

442,014
1,054,670

New York, N. Y.
Philadelphia, Pa.
Brooklyn, N.'Y.
St. Louis, Mo..
Chicago, Ul..
Baltimore, Md.
Boston, Mass.
Cincinnati, Ohio.
New Orleans, La.
San Francisco, Cal.
Butfalo, N. Y...
Washington, D. C..
Newark, NJ
Louisville, Ky.
Cleveland, Ohio,
Pittsburg, Pa.
Jersey City, N. J
Detroit, Mich..
Milwaukee, Wis.
Albany, N. Y....
Providence, R. I.
Rochester, N. Y.
Allegheny, Pa...
Richmond, Va.....
New Haven, Conn.
Charleston, S. C.
Indianapolis, Ind..
Troy, N. Y..
Syracuse, N. Y.
Worcester, Mass..
Lowell, Mass.
Memphis, Tenn...
Cambridge, Mass..
Hartford, Conn..
Scranton, Pa.....
Reading, Pa..
Paterson, N.J.
Kansas City, Mo.
Mobile, Ala...
Toledo, Ohio.
Portland, Me.
Columbus, Ohio.
Wilmington, Del..
Dayton, Ohio.
Lawrence, Mass..
Utica, N. Y.
Charlestown, Mass.
Savannah, Ga..
Lynn, Mass.
Fall River, Mass..

942,292 674,022 396,099 310.864 298.977 267.354 250,526 216,239 191,418 149.473 117.714 109,199 105.059 100, 753 92.829 86,076 82,546 79.577 71.440 69,422 68.904 62.386 53,180 51.038 50.810 48.936 48.244 46. 165 43,051 41,105 40.923 40,226 39,634 37. 180 35,092 33,930 33,579 32,260 32,034 31.584 31,413 31,274 30.841 30,473 28,921 28.804 28, 323 28,235 28,233 26.766

Total States..

38,113,253

Arizona..
Colorada..
Dakota..
District of Columbia.
(daho
Montana.
New Mexico..
Utah
Washington.
Wyoming..

Total Territories.
Total United States.....

9,658
39.864
14,181
131.700

14,999 20,595 91.874 86.786 23,955 9,118

442,730

38.555,983

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States.

States. Alabama 50,722 996,992 1,671 Pennsylvania... 46,000 3,521,791

5,113 Arkansas.. 52,198 484,471

25 Rhode Island.... 1,306 217,353 258,239 136 California. 188.981 560,247

1,013 South Carolina... 29,385 705, 606 925,145 1.201 Connecticut. 4.674 537,154 820 Tennessee. 45,600 1,258,520

1,520 Delaware.. 2,120 125.015

227 Texas..
237.504 818.579

865 Florida. 59,268 187,748 466 Vermont 10,212 330,551

675 Georgia.. 58.000 1.184,1091 2.108 Virginia 40,904 1,225,163

1,490 Illinois 55,410 2,539,891 5,904 West Virginia.. 23,000 442,014

485 Indlana. 33,809 1,680.637 3.529 Wisconsin

53,924 1,054.670 1,236,729 1,725 IOk3..

55,045 1,191.792 1,350,544 3.160 Kansas.. 81,318 364,399 528,349 1,760 Total States...... 1,950,171 38,113,253

59.587 Kentucky 37,600 1,321,011

1,123 Louisiana

41.346 726,915 857,039 539 Territories. Maine... 31,776 626,915

871 Arizona ..

113.916 9.658 Maryland 11,184 780,894

820 Colorado..

104,500
39,864

392 Massachusetts. 7,800 1,457.351 1.651,912 1,606 Dakota

147,490 14,181 Michigan. 56,451 1.184,059 1,334,031 2,235 Dist. of Columbia.

60 131,700 Minnesota. 83.531 439,706 598,429 1,612 Idaho..

90,932 14,999 Mississippi. 47,156 827,922

990
Montana..

143,776 20,595
Missouri...
65.350 1,721.295
2,580 New Mexico

121,201 91.874
Nebraska..
75.995 123.993 246,280

828
Utah
80,056 86,786

375 Nevada. 112,090 42. 191 52,540

593
Washington.

69,944 23,955
New
Hampshire. 9,280 318.300

790 Wyoming
93,107 9,118

498 New Jersey

8.320 906,096 1,026,502 1.265 Sew York. 47,000 4,382, 759 4,705,208 4,470 Total Territories. 965,032 442,730

1,265 North Carolina.. 50,704 1,071,361

1,190 Obio. 39.964 2,665, 260

3,740 Oregon 95,2441 90,9231 109 Aggregate of U. S.. 2,915,20338,555,983

60.852 * Last Census of Michigan taken in 1874.

* Included in the Railroad Mileage of Maryland.

PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD;

POPULATION AND AREA.

COUNTRIES.

Date of
Population. Census.

Area in
Square
Miles.

Inhabitants
to Square

Mile.

CAPITALS.

Population.

119.3
48.6
10.2
7.78
178.7
149.4
232.8
262.3
187.
230.9
85.

3.07
24.4

China
British Empire.
Russia,
Cnited States with Alaska..
France.
Austria and Hungary
Japan..
Great Britain and Ireland,
German Empire.
Italy
Spain
Brazil..
Turkey
Mexico..
Sweden and Norway.
Persia...
Belgium
Bavaria..
Portugal.
Holland
new Grenada
Chili
Switzerland.
Peru.
Bolivia..
Argentine Republic.
Würtemburg
Denmark.
Venezuela.
Baden....
Greece..
Guatemala
Ecuador.
Paraguay.
Hesse
Liberia
San Salvador.
Hayti..
Nicaragua..
Uruguay...
Honduras
San Domingo.
Costa Rica.
Hawaii.

446,500,000
226,817.108
81,925,400
38.925,600
36,469.800
35,904,400
34,785,300
31.817.100
29.906.092
27,439.921
16.642.000
10,000.000
16, 463,000
9,173.000
5,921.500
5,000,000
5.021.300
4,861,400
3,995, 200
3,688.800
3,000,000
2,000,000
2,669,100
2.500.000
2.000.000
1,812,000
1,818,500
1,784,700
1,500,000
1,461,400
1,457.900
1,180,000
1,300,000
1,000,000

823,138
718,000
600,000
572.000
350.000
300,000
350,000
136,000
165.000
62.950

1871 3.741.846
1871 4,677,432
1871 8.003.778
1870 2,603,884
1866 204,091
1869 240.348
1871 149.399
1871 121,315
1871 160,207
1871 118,847
1867 195,775

3,253,029

672,621 1869 761.526 1870 292,871 1870 635,964 1869 11,373 1871 29,292 1868 84,494 1870 12,680 1870 357,157 1869 132, 616 1870 15,992 1871 471.838

497,321 1869 871,848 1871

7,533 1870 14.753

368,238 1871 5,912 1870 19,353 1871 40,879

218,923 187i 63,787

2,969 *187i 9,576 1871 7,335

10,205 1871 58,171 1871 66,722 1871 47.092

17.827
1870

21,505
7.633

20.

7.8 441.5 165.9 115.8 290.9

8.4 15.1 166.9

5.3 4.

2.1 241.4 120.9

4.2
247.
75.3
28.9

5.9
15.6
277.
74.9
81.8
56.
6.
6.5
7.4
7.6

Pekin....
London.....
St. Petersburg.
Washington
Paris...
Vienna ..
Yeddo..
London..
Berlin
Rome..
Madrid
Rio Janeiro.
Constantinople
Mexico
Stockholm..
Teheran.
Brussels.
Munich.
Lisbon..
Hague..
Bogota.
Santiago.
Berue.
Lima....
Chuquisaca.
Buenos Ayres.
Stuttgart.
Copenhagen...
Caraccas
Carlsruhe
Athens..
Guatemala
Quito
Asuncion..
Darmstadt
Monrovia
Sal Salvador.
Port au Prince.
Managua.
Monte Video..
Comayagua
San Domingo..
San Jose..
Honolulu.

1,648.800
3,251,800
667,000

109, 199 1,825, 300

833,900 1,554,900 3,251,800

825,400 244,484 332,000

420,000 1.075,000

210.300 136,900 120,000 314,100 169,500 224,063 90,100 45,000 115,400

36.000 160,100 25.000 177.800

91.600 162,042 47,000 36,600 43,400 40,000 70.000 48,000 30.000

3,000 15,000 20,000 10,000 44,500 12,000 20.000

2.000 7.633

80.

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