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remained till 1865, when he went to Bloomington, where he died in 1871. He came to the county in 1831, and studied medicine with his uncle and at Bloomington. He came to Le Roy to enter a partnership with Dr. Cheney. He was several times President of the County Medical Society, and once of the State Society.

The first goods brought here were purchased at St. Louis and brought up the river to Pekin, which was the sea-port for all this country till 1855, when the building of railroads changed all trade to Chicago. Farmers hauled their wheat to Pekin (corn could not be sold at any price), and sometimes went to Chicago with loads to get salt, which was one of the articles of prime necessity among so many cattle, and could not be got at St. Louis without paying too much for it.

At first, the people had to go to the Wabash and to the Illinois River to get grinding done. They had small horse-mills along the timber. The first good mill built here was by Elisha Gibbs, about 1841, on the south side of town. It was about 40x46, two and a half stories high, and had one set of three-foot stones, a saw-mill, and two sets of carding machinery. It was run by steam, and cost about $4,000. It was in all respects . a good mill for the times. It was burned in 1844.

Buckles & Farmer built a steam grist and saw mill about 1853, on the east side of town. It came into the hands of Morehouse, and burned about 1856.

Hobert & Dickerson built the large steam mill near the railroad depot, three blocks west of the public square, in 1859, at an expense of about $30,000. Dickerson sold to Bruner & Barnum, and Bruner to Keenan. Barnum & Keenan now run it strong-handed, and, in connection with it, their large grain and lumber trade. It is a first-class mill, and, probably, the best one in the eastern part of the county.

The Le Roy races were the standard Saturday sport of the old town, long before circuses and other ways of spending money had come into vogue. The race-track ran entirely around the town, which was then confined to the few blocks lying around the hotel. Every Saturday that the weather was suitable, the crack runners from the surrounding country showed their speed and tried their mettle on this track. Dr. Winn, from Waynesville, the Funks, who always had good horses, old Sammy Ogden, from upon the Mackinaw, with his “Clear the Kitchen " and "Juliet;" Yazel, from Saybrook, and other old sports who never could see any fun in trotting, were generally here. The Bloomington boys used to come down and leave their tracks on the sand and their money with the boys. Betting ran bigh, and men were drawn to the place whose presence gave rise to many well-founded rumors of more objectionable vocations than horse-racing An impression got abroad that, under the cover of "the races,” gambling, counterfeiting and kindred crimes were not unknown in Le Roy. How much truth there was in these surmises is not our province to decide, but racing, betting and drinking were common, and from these it is fair to presume that men with criminal intent were drawn there.

The growth of the town was slow, and for a long time there was not much to encourage, but there are now many substantial and good buildings, which reflect credit on the builders. S. D. Baker, of the firm of Greenman & Baker, who now resides in Bloomington, built, in 1819, a nice two-story frame house on the north side of the public square, in which he lived twenty-five years. In 1850, Mr. Green man built the house now owned and occupied by Rev. D. R. Taylor. In 1855, he built the house now occupied by John Young. Dr. S. W. Noble built a good residence, now occupied by T. J. Barnett. M. E. Ferguson built the house now occupied by Mrs. Arnold as the Cottage Hotel, in 1862, and J. H. Arnold built the one now occupied by Mr. Murray in 1865.

Dr. Fisher built and occupies the finest brick residence in town, in the northeast corner of the city. It is a neat and tasty building. John Kline, the present Supervisor of Empire, built, about the same time, a frame residence of the same style of architecture, near by Dr. Fisher's. Dr. Cheney and A. C. King put up nice residences about 1860, in the north part of town.

P. P. Watt and Dr. Cheney put up a fine brick block of three two-story-and-basement stores on Center street. B. F. Brinley built a similar store, and L. H. Park and the Odd Fellows a similar one. J. Keenan built the two-story brick on the corner of Chestnut and Center streets, now occupied by his store and bank. G. W. Potts built the brick store now occupied by him and owned by Keenan.

Mr. Joseph Keenan has been for some years one of most energetic business men of Le Roy. Besides his store and bank, he is interested in the mill, the lumber and grain trade, and alive to every interest which is vital to Le Roy.

NEWSPAPERS. The first newspaper ever issued in Le Roy was the Exchange, published by J. W. Wolfe September 29, 1870. It contained an account of the excursion train, the first one run over the I., B. & W. R. R., from Urbana through Bloomington to Peoria on the 13th of September, containing seven coaches, filled with the guests of the road, participating in this opening. The paper was well conducted and showed a healthy amount of advertising patronage. He continued it about two years. He is now publishing the Citizen at Mt. Pulaski.

While the Exchange was still being published, Mr. J. S. Harper, the great newspaper “starter,” who has started more papers and run fewer beyond the first six months than any other man in the State, commenced, in 1871, the publication of the Sucker State. Harper had a kind of pre-emption on "starting papers" in this State. Most any newspaper man can count up about three dozen of his various enterprises, without much effort of memory.

It never made a particle of difference to him whether there was an opening or not—whether the location had all the papers it could support—if he could find a vacant loft, he just moved in and went to work. This lived as long as any of his papers, and then he struck Saybrook, where his reception was no more encouraging, and he came back to Le Roy.

In November, 1874, C. M. Davis commenced the publication of the Enterprise, a five-column quarto, independent in politics. It is a neatly-printed, well-conducted sheet, devoted to the local interests of Le Roy, and apparently receiving an encouraging support.

CHURCHES, SCHOOLS AND SOCIETIES. The first intelligent account of stated preaching and church organization comes from Father Silas Waters, who, for nearly fifty years has been a soldier of the Cross here fighting in the M. E. division of the church militant. The year he came to Buckles' Grove, Rev. James Latta was a missionary here, and held his meetings in William Conaway's house. A class was organized, of which Mr. Waters was leader, composed of eleven members, by Rev. S. R. Begg in 1831. William, Nancy and Chalton Conaway,

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Matilda Barnett, James Merrifield and wife, Jane and Rachel Conaway, Silas and Christiana Waters and Catharine Barnett were members of this first class. Preaching service was held every four weeks by Mr. Begg. The circuit embraced Hurley's Grove (Farmer City), Old Town, Bloomington, Randolph's Grove and Hidell's Grove (Clinton), larger than a Presiding Elder's district now. William Crissey and William Royal followed Begg on this field. The Clearwater schoolhouse was built in 1834, and they began to have the service there. Rev. Z. Hall, Mr. Cummings, J. E. French and Mr. Mozier served the little church when it met in the schoolhouse. The church was commenced in 1838. Edgar Conkling gave the lot, which was about sixty rods north of the present church. The building was 30x45, and it was no easy matter in those discouraging times to get the church built, and thus a renewed effort was made to get it seated. It was completed in all its necessary appointments in 1840. The seats were good, but oot very comfortable. The pulpit was a three-story affair. Some years later, a bell was put in. The names of those who acted as pastors during the occupancy of this church, as recollected by Mr. Waters, were Richard Bird, Mr. Gentry, James Rucker, Mr. Hendal, Sam. Martin, Sampson Shinn, Preston Wood, Mr. Norton, Ira Emerson, B. Barthlow, Mr. Aymold, Harker Smith and Amos Garner.

One of the ministers created a considerable feeling during the Black Hawk war, by saying in a sermon that if the Indians should come to his house in his absence and murder and scalp his family he would not be justified in killing them. These peace doctrines were not very popular.

This old church was sold in 1867 to Elias Wall for a barn, and the present brick edifice erected. It is 40x60, with spire, and cost about $10,000, free of debt. D. L. Morehouse and Silas Waters were the leading spirits in the building. Rev. Amos Garder was Pastor. , It was then Le Roy circuit. The following year it was divided. The following pastors have served no church since: Greenbury Garner, James Seymour, Mr. Bates, C. B. Obinchane, W. C. Lacey, P. De Clark, S. H. Whittock, J. Seymour, Mr. McCoy, J. D. Fry. A Sabbath school is maintained, averaging about two hundred members, largely through the instrumentality of Mr. Waters, Mr. Davison, T. F. Hamand, Mr. Barley and Mr. Fry. The official brethren are Silas Waters, D. L. Morehouse, Henry Long, James Kimler and B. F. Brinley. It belongs to the Bloomington district.

The Cumberland Presbyterians were among the first to establish regular religious services here. The Rev. R. D. Taylor (an imperfect sketch of whose life and services in this part of the State will be found in “Downs”), the Revs. Archer and Neal Johnson, and the Rev. James Davis were believed to be the earliest Christian ministers of that denomination working in the field. The Buckles family were attached to that Church, and naturally took an interest in getting a house of worship and regular preaching. Mr. Taylor still resides in Le Roy. Mr. Johnson went to Kansas and died there three years ago.

Mr. Davis lives on the Mackinaw. This belonged to the Mackinaw Presbytery as early as 1838, for in that year Mr. Taylor was ordained to the Christian ministry by that body, he having been licensed to preach before leaving Kentucky, in 1836.

Just when the Church was organized seems to be involved in obscurity. Thomas Buckles and James Rutledge were the first Elders; and with J. D. Baker and Peter Buckles, were the leaders in getting up the first house of worship. Elisha Gibbs put


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