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10, where he still resides, the north balf and southeast quarter of Section 12, and the southwest quarter and west half of northwest quarter of Section 7, in Belleflower.

The home farm he works; the other is rented to four tenants, who raise corn mostly. For several years Mr. Moon ran a butter dairy of twenty cows, and for awhile fed cattle largely. He had been a business man for several years before he tried farming. He has a good farm with fair buildings, and is reckoned a successful farmer. He has recently laid a mile of tile drain on his home farm, and believes if they are properly laid, by applying the level to every three pieces when laid, that it cannot fail to be of great advantage to the wet lands. He says he has cut more than thirty miles of open ditch with machines. He is a man of intelligence and good business qualifications. He has tried raising flax somewhat, and thinks it promises to be a success. He prefers mixed farming to any one branch alone.

George W. Snook, one of the best farmers, and universally considered one of the best citizens in West, came here from Maryland in 1868. He owned a section of land in the northern part of the township for a number of years. He now lives on and owns a fine farm in Section 23, where he has fine buildings and a well-managed farm, a railroad depot and a store, and is extensively engaged in the grain trade. He has

practiced grain raising, never having invested in the cattle business much.

I. M. Hoffman has a good farm of 120 acres in Section 35. He is a good farmer, a careful manager, and has things looking nice around him.

William Biggs has a good farm on Section 2, is a good farmer, and keeps matters in good shape; a good citizen and public-spirited man.

W. J. Kimler came here from Bloomington in 1867. He was a grandson of Mr. Orendorff, one of the earliest settlers in the county. He has a fine farm of 200 acres, with good buildings, hedges, etc.

Rev. John Kumler owns a considerable farm in Section 36, and in 1 and 12, (21-5). He is now at Bloomington, at the Wesleyan University, where he has an appointment by the Conference of the M. E. Church. His farm is in charge of renters. Kumler Station is on his farm. There are two good houses and a fine barn.

I. K. Orendorff entered land in Sections 36 and in 1 (21-5), and about 1858, his son Perry came onto it to make a farm. He is good farmer, has good buildings, and considerable fruit. He has 240 acres close by Kumler Station.

Stephen E. Clarno, an old resident of Logan County, who came across the Sangamon River with his father in 1819, when there were only three families between there and Fort Clark, purchased 400 acres of Mr. Ball, in 1875, along Salt Creek, just north of John Wedman's residence, paying for it $40 per acre, cash. He built a large barn, and, after living there a year to see whether he liked it, he sold his farm in Logan and bought 280 acres more, and built a large two-story house—large enough to entertain a good many friends at once. He had been a great traveler ; had gone all over all the Western States and most of the Territories, trying to find the best place he could find, and, when he found this one, he believed he had got about as good a farm as could be found. It lies for a mile along both sides of the stream, which here has water enough at all seasons of the year, is clear, with gravelly bottom. Here he and his family feel, as well they may, content to work out their time earning a living and laying up a trifle against a time of need. The old gentleman was laid hold of by the citizens of West, after he had been here one year, and elected Supervisor. One year satisfied him, however, and he retired on his laurels. He is a good farmer, and calculates he has got enough for his four children (he has buried nine), so that each can have a good farm. The land lies in Sections 2 and 11.

Cary Buford, Vice President of the First National Bank of Farmer City, owns Section 3, a splendid tract of land. His children live on it.

Thomas Warton has a good farm in Section 33—240 acres. James Kincaid, 160 acres in Section 32; Henry Grizzell, 240 in Section 33 ; and William Scott, 80 in Section 28. These men have been here since about 1853, and have good improvements and are good farmers. Corn-raising and stock-grazing and feeding have been the principal lines of farming. Some years since, considerable broom-corn was raised, but this crop bas been discontinued. Some are now raising flax, but as there is no sale for the straw, it is not very largely grown. Some small fields of wheat are seen, and oats receive more attention. Corn and stock remain the staples.

RAILROADS AND STATIONS.

ship line.

The Indianapolis, Bloomington & Western Railroad was built by large local township stock subscriptions, in 1870. This township voted $20,000 subscription, and 10 per cent bonds were issued. The road only runs across the southwestern corner,

about three-fourths of a mile, with no station in it. Empire Station is just west of the town

Half of the bonds have been paid, and the balance come due in three and eight years from now. West has never gone into any contest of the legality of these bonds, and makes the best of what seems to have been a rather one-sided bargain. It never has objected to paying whatever it agreed to, though a case may arise soon wherein it may try titles with the railroads. She pays her taxes closer than any township in the county. There are no delinquent taxes to be fought over in the Courts.

The stock of the town in this railroad has been wiped out by the recent sale of the road, under a decree of foreclosure, for $1,000,000, which, it is believed, is just about enough to pay the lawyers for wrecking it and the enormous legal (and illegal) expenses which follow such a proceeding in Court, and the back taxes due. By a timely motion on the part of the Board of Supervisors, an order was entered of record that no deed should issue for the road until taxes were paid.

The Springfield Division of the Illinois Central Railroad-formerly the Gilman, Clinton & Springfield-runs across the southeastern corner about two miles. No bonds were voted for this road. It was built in 1871 and 1872. The stations are Weedman, near the southern line of the township, and Kumler, near the eastern. At the former, Lee Watt is station agent. R. M. Ewing has a grocery store, and Mr. Bumerots a blacksmith-shop.

Capt. James Steele, from Menard County, is buying grain. He had been teaching school for eighteen years, and came here two years ago to work up the grain-trade. He has bought about 100,000 bushels per year. The most of this grain is sold on track. Halliday Brothers, of Cairo, have been large buyers, taking the white corn to Cairo and the yellow and mixed to Chicago.

The M. E. Church was organized here some years ago. This spring, Messrs. Kissack, Hellor, Weedman, Steele and Reed were elected Trustees, and will build s church on land procured from Mrs. Dodson this summer.

At Kumler Station, C. D. Belleville has a store, Frank Rawlings a blacksmithshop, and Mr. Thrashor buys grain. This station is of recent origin, and not so much grain is bought in here.

The Havana, Rantoul & Eastern Railroad, narrow-gauge, was built in 1878 (see Empire for its history). About $7,000 were subscribed to the stock in this town. It runs straight across the town from west to east on the half-section line, half a mile north of the center of the township. Two stations are on it—Sabina, on the line between Sections 20 and 21, and Delana, on the line between 23 and 24. No depots have yet been put up.

Keenan & Barnum, two grain-dealers at Le Roy, buy grain and have a grocery store at the former, and G. W. Snook at the latter. About one hundred thousand bushels of grain have been purchased at the two stations this winter.

This road was built as a matter of self-preservation to get lower freights and less hauling. There seems to be a difference of opinion whether it has accomplished all that was claimed, some asserting that grain has been from 2 to 4 cents higher in consequence of it, while others say it is a great convenience, yet it has not increased the price of grain to the farmer one cent. Of course, the men who put their money into it only expect to get the return indirectly, and there seems to be little reason to doubt that it will result in an increase of the value of the farms in the central part of the township more than the $7,000 invested in it. Very little but grain or lumber is carried by this road, passenger traffic is light, and, as yet, no stock shipments. The grain is carried to the eastern end of the route, where it is reshipped on to Wabash cars at a point fifteen miles east of the Indiana State line.

In 1870, a vote was taken in West Township, which resulted in donation of $25,000 to the Decatur and State Line R. R. This road has not been built for reasons very fully set forth in the Anchor Township article, and the time for issuing the bonds expired by the terms of the act under which the aid was voted July, 1877, and it was generally supposed that the subscriptions made in this and other counties had fallen by these terms. An act of the Legislature, passed in 1877, extended the time for issue three years. The plan for building this road has been revived, and it may yet transpire that the towns which voted bonds will have to stand it or fight the matter in the courts. The temper of the people of West is to contest it, and it is likely the chance will be afforded within a twelvemonth.

CHURCHES, ETC. The United Brethren Church, on Section 2, was built in 1871. It is 34x40. The men who were, in a great measure, instrumental in accomplishing the work were Samuel Bright, Daniel Barnhart, Daniel Bean, J. P. Roby, Mr. Slingoff and Mr. Morris. Service is maintained every alternate Sabbath. Messrs. Morris, Fisher, Mitchell and J. W. Gilbert have officiated in turn since the chapel was built.

Mount Olive M. E. Church was built about 1869, west of the center of the township, through the active aid of the Clarks, Hamands, Grizzell and others of that denomination who live in that vicinity. A Methodist Church is to be built at Weedman the present summer. The town still owns its school section, and has it leased and under cultivation, waiting for higher prices than the present. Until Township organization, residents here used to go to Le Roy to vote.

Below will be found a list of the township officers elected since township organization. It will be seen that Henry West was continuously elected Supervisor until his removal from town, and that his son, S. H. West, has been retained in that position much of the time since, though not usually in political sympathy with the majority in the township, a tribute alike to the yood judgment of the citizens and the wise and valuable services of the Supervisor. Mr. J. B. Lewis, also, during the early years of the township history, was almost continually in the official service of the town until he removed to Farmer City to engage in banking pursuits :

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1858 38 Henry West.... John Hamilton..... Rev. T. E. Wamsley.. John Weedman. 1859 32 Henry West.

J. B. Lewis.

H. Croskey.

John Weedman. 1860 27 Henry West

J. B. Lewis.

H. Croskey..

John Clark. 1862 37 Henry West .J. B. Lewis...... J. Hamilton

Wm. Rosencrans. 1863 48 Henry West..

.J. T. Crumbaugh

Louis Barnett....... D, Barnhart 1864 25 Henry West.

. J. T. Crumbaugh

S. H. West ... Wm. Rosencrans. 1865 29 Henry West J. B. Lewis.

John Weedman.. J. Hamand. 1866 52 Henry West. .J. B. Lewis.

John Weedman... .J. B. Lewis. 1867 123 Henry West. J. B. Lewis...

William Rosencrans.. J. B. Lewis. 1868 92 Henry West. W. J. Kimler..

L. A. Crumbaugh J. B. Lewis. 1869 72 J. B. Lewis.

W. J. Kimler...

G. W. Snook... J. B. Lewis. 1870 90 J. M. Moon..

D. M. Dickinson G. W. Snook...... J. B. Lewis. 1871

84 William Biggs. H. E. Wentworth..... E. Barnhart....... J. B. Lewis. 1872 140 J. B. Lewis

W. J. Kimler....... Samuel Healea........ John Clark. 1873 126 S. JI. West....... W. W. Hammond.... G. W. Snook....... .John Clark. 1874 108 S. H. West..

D. M. Dickinson... John Hamilton........ James Kincaid. 1875 52 S. H. West..

D. M. Dickinson.... R. Robertson. James Kincaid. 1876 105 S. E, Clarno

D. M. Dickinson. R. Robertson. James Kincaid. 1877 178 S. H. West..

W. J. Kimler..... R. Robertson, James Kincaid. 1878 108 S. H. West.

W. J. Kimler.

S. Healea........ Alex. Daniels. 1879 98 S. H. West.. W. J. Kimler........ S. Healea...

Alex. Daniels. The Justices of the Peace who have been elected are H. R. Coleman, M. H. Cawby, William Rosencrans, George Hedrick, L. T. Delaplain, E. Dickinson, R. Robertson.

Commissioners of Highways elected are M. H. Cawby, S. M. McFarland, Isaiah Weedman, H. Barnett, J. T. Crumbaugh, J. Hamilton, R. J. Rutledge, J. Oliver, James Love, J. B. Lewis, D. Barnhart, H. Williams, John Clark, W. L. Drybread, G. W. Snook, I. Beckelhammer, L. T. Crumbaugh, S. Healea, J. B. Savage, J. M. Hoffman, David Hart.

Some pages back, the confusion in regard to the Indian tribes was alluded to, and the statement was made that that confusion was a very natural one, and that the mistake which so annoyed Mr. Simeon H. West, in his attempt to rescue the name of the primeval inhabitants of this town from oblivion, was not so much of a mistake, after all.

The statements following are given on the authority of Hon. Perry A. Armstrong, of Morris, Grundy Co., who is the highest authority in all matters pertaining to Indian history and tribal complications in this part of the State.

The Kickapoos, Pottawatomies and Miamis, more than a century ago, formed an alliance, offensive and defensive, against the Illini, who were the first inhabitants of this region of which history gives any authentic account. The Illini-meaning superior men—were a confederation of the Peorias, Moinguienas, Kas-Kaskias, Tamaroas and Cahokias. In 1700, their great Chief, Chicago, went to France, and was received

with the distinguished consideration which the French always showed the Indians, and which was the secret of their success in dealing with them.

Against this confederation the allies first-named above began a war of extermination,-probably coming here from the east, which was long and eventful, and ended in the tragedy of “Starved Rock,” in La Salle County, in 1774, a year before the beginning of the American Revolution.

This defeat of the Illini, who had held the prairie State so long, left the allies in undisputed possession of a large portion of the eastern half of the State ; but, true to their robber-like instincts, they immediately fell to quarreling over the conquest. In this latter struggle, the Kickapoos and Pottawatomies were united against the Miamis. To settle the whole matter, it was agreed that each contending party should select three hundred picked men, who should meet each other in mortal combat, the contest to determine on the result of the combat. The opposing bands met on the banks of Sugar Creek, less than a year after the affair at Starved Rock, and by the terms agreed on, the duel opened at sunrise and lasted till the going down thereof. When the sun set on this exciting day, only twelve warriors remained able to do battle, seven of which belonged to the Kickapoo and Pottawatomie side, and five to the Miamis; and the latter retired to their old homes east of the Wabash, which left this portion of the country in undisputed possession of the two tribes, who amicably divided the country on the line of the old Indian trail running near Oliver's Grove. This trail was distinctly visible until the land came into cultivation. When this boundary line was established, the Pottawatomies retired to the Fox River, and the Kickapoos occupied this region. The amicable relations of the two tribes were never broken, the former never coming south of Rook's Creek, in Livingston County, which was not quite the southern limits of their possessions. It will be seen that the two tribes were not only on very friendly terms with each other, but were frequently together; and, in all probability, the Pottawatomie tribe has occupied the very ground which the people of West now cultivate. The township might well have borne the name first suggested twenty-one years ago.

ARROWSMITH TOWNSHIP.

Arrowsmith Township was named by the Supervisors after Ezekiel Arrowsmith, who was the first Supervisor and one of the early settlers. It contains thirty-six sections, being a full Congressional township, and is known of record as Town 23 north, Range 5 cast of the Third Principal Meridian. It is almost entirely prairie, having originally about one square mile of timber in Sections 31 and 32, where the eastern extremity of Old Town Timber lies along the line of Arrowsmith and West, giving to eich a little patch of woodland, which was so highly prized by those who first commenced settlement here. There was in addition a small bunch on Section 24, “Smith's Grove,” which hardly grew to the importance of being called timber-land. In its general topographical appearance it is not unlike Padua, which is upon its western border, having the same high ridges along its northern and southern sides, a trifle more elevated and uneven, the well-rounded hills being a somewhat more prominent feature in its landscape, and the level of its valley being somewhat more undulating than in the former. Uuder the head of Padua (which see), a fuller description of the peculiarities of the

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