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too frequently; if a speaker attempt to render every thing which he says of high importance, by a multitude of strong emphases, they will soon fail to excite the attention of his hearers.

Next to emphasis, pauses demand attention. They are of two kinds; first, emphatical pauses; and secondly, such as mark the distinctions of

An emphatical pause is inade after something has been said of peculiar moment, on which we wish to fix the hearer's attention. Sometimes a matter of importance is preceded by a pause of this nature. Such pauses have the same effect with strong emphases, and are subject to the same rules; especially to the caution just now give en, of not repeating them too frequently. For, as they excite uncommon attention, and consequently raise expectation, if this be not fully answered, they occasion disappointment and disgust.

But the most frequent and the principal use of pauses is, to mark the division of the sense, and at the same time, to permit the speaker to draw his breath; and the proper management of such pauses is one of the most nice and difficult articles in delivery. A proper command of the breath is peculiarly requisite. To obtain this, every speaker should be very careful to provide a full supply of breath for what he is to utter. It is a great mistake to suppose that the breath must be drawn only at the end of a period, when the yoice is allowed to fall. It may easily be gathered at the intervals of a period, when the voice suffers only a momentary suspension. By this management, a sufficient supply may be oblained for carrying on the longest period, without in proper interruptions.

Pauses in public discourse must be formed upon the manner in which we express ourselves in sensible conversation, and not upon the stiff, artificial manner, which we acquire from perusing books according to commop punctuation. Punctuation in general is very arbitrary; often capricious and false ; dictating a unifortnity of tone in the pauses, which is extremely unpleasing. For it must be observed, that to render pauses graceful and expressive, they must not only be made in the right places, but also be accompanied by proper tones of voice; by which the nature of these pauses is intimated much more than by their length, which can never be exactly measured. Sometimes, only a slight and simple suspension of the voice is proper; sometimes a degree of cadence is requisite; and sometimes that peculiar tone and cadence, which mark the conclusion of a period. In all these cases, a speaker is to regulate himself by the manner in wbich he speaks, when engaged in earnest discourse with others.

In reading or reciting verse, there is a peculiar difficulty in making the pauses with propriety. There are two kinds of pauses, which belong to the music of verse; one at the end of a line, and the other in the middle of it. Rhyme always renders the former sensible, and compels observance of it in prounciation. In blank verse it is less perceivable ; and, when there is no suspension of the sense, it has been doubted, whether in reading such verse, any regard should be paid to the close of a line. On the stage, indeed, where the appearance of speaking in verse should be avoided, the closé of such lines as make no pause in the sense, should not be rendered perceptible to the ear. On other occasions, we ought, for the sake of melody, to read blank verse in such a manner, as to make each line sensible to the ear.

In attempting this, however, every appearance of singsong and tone must be cautiously avoided. The close of a live, where there is no pause in the meaning, should be marked only by so slight a suspension of sound, as may distinguish the passage from one line to another, without injuring the sense.

The pause in the middle of the line falls after the fourth, fifth, sixth, or seventh syllable, and no other. When this pause coincides with the slightest division in the sense, the line may be read with ease; as in the two first verses of Pope's Messiah :

Ye nymphs of Solyma, begin the song,

To heavenly themes sublimer strains belong. But if words, that have so intimate a connexion, as not to admit even a momentary separation, be divided from each other by this cæsural pause; we then perceive a conflict between the sense and sound, which renders it difficult to read such lines gracefully. In such cases it is best to sacrifice sound to sense. For instance, in the following lines of Milton:

-What in me is dark, Illumine; what is low, raise and support. The sense clearly dictates the pause after “illumine," which ought to be observed; though, Sf melody only were to be regarded, “illumine" should be connected with what follows, and do pause made before the fourth or sixth syllable.

So also in the following line of Pope's Epistle to Arbuthnot:

I sit ; with sad civility I read, The ear points out the pause as falling after 6 sad,” the fourth syllable. But to separate e sad" and "civility” would be very bad reading, The sense allows no other pause than after the second syllable, "sit;" which, therefore, is the only one to be observed.

We proceed to treat of tones in pronunciation which are different both from emphases and pauses; consisting in the modulation of the voice, the notes or variations of sound which are employed in public speaking. The most material instruction which can be given on this subject, is to form the tones of public speaking upon the tones of animated conversation. Every one, who is engaged in speaking on a subject which interests him nearly, has an eloquent, or persuasive tone and manper. But, when a speaker departs from his natural tone of expression, he becomes frigid and unpersuasive. Nothing is more absurd than to suppose, that as soon as a speaker ascends a pulpit, or rises in a public assembly, he is instantly to lay aside the voice with which he expresses himself in private, and to assume a new, studied tone, and a cadence, altogether different from his natural manner. This has vitiated all delivery, and has given rise to cant and tedious monotony. Let every public speaker guard against this error. Whether he speak in private, or in a great assembly, let him remember that he still speaks. Let him take nature for his guide, and she will teach him to express his senti

ments and feelings, in such manner, as to make the most forcible and pleasing impression upon the minds of his hearers.

It now remains to treat of gesture, or what is called action, in public discourse. The best rule is, attend to the looks and gestures, in which earne estness, indignation, compassion, orany other emotion, discovers itself to most advantage in the common intercourse of men; and let these be your model. A public speaker must, however, adopt that manner which is most natural to himself. His inotions and gestures ought all to exhibit that kind of expression which nature has dictated to him; and, unless this be the case, no study can prevent their appearing stiff and forced. But, though nature is the basis on which every grace of gesture must be founded, yet there is room for some improvements of art. The study of action consists, chiefly in guarding against awkward and disagreeable motions, and in learning to perform such as are natural to the speaker, in the most graceful manner. Numerous are the rules which writers have laid down for the attainment of a proper gesticulation. But written instructions on this subject can be of little service. To become useful, they must be exemplified. A few of the simplest precepts, however, may be observed with advantage. Every speaker should study to preserve as much dignity as possible in the attitude of his body. He should generally prefer an erect posture; his position should be firm, that he may have the fullest and freest command of all his motions, If any inclination be used, it should be toward the hearers, which is a natural expression of eamest

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