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objeet: of superstitious veneration, where second causes are unknown, and invisible agency is substituted in their places. My only object in adverting to that subject at present, is to show the influence which the instructions of the missionaries have had in this particular upon the minds of the people. 7. Till lately the missionaries have not been allowed to use manure for their gardens. It was formerly uni. versally believed that if the manure were removed from the cattle-kraals, the cattle would die of a particular disease. This prejudice is now removed, at least with Mahuri and his people, and the missionaries have at present no trouble on the subject. The RainMakers, as they are called among Mateebé's people, used to exercise great influence over them, but that profession is no longer in public estimation.

Mateebé, reasoning with Mr. Moffat, on this subject, remarked, " If God governs the world, and I am now disposed to admit that opinion,) he must be the Father of rain.” 1. In the fountains in this country, there is a species of large water-snake. The Bechuanas consider these creatures sacred, and believe that if one of them is killed, the fountain will be dried up. An immensely large one was seen basking among the reeds near the Kuruman fountain: from the description given of it, the missionaries believed it to belong to an unknown species, and wished to procure it. When it became known that they were watching for it, an alarm was excited among the people. To quiet this alarm, Mahuri collected his people, and pointed them to the ditch the missionaries had dug for leading out the water, the buildings they had erected, and the gardens they had inclosed, and then, remarking on the superior skill of the missionaries, asked them, “ If the trouble and expense they had been at was not sufficient security that they would do nothing to injure the fountain.” From the confidence the people had in the missionaries, and the progress which rational ideas had made among them, this mode of reasoning was effective.

Formerly, it was against their practice to deviate from the customs of their ancestors. When urged to plant corn, &c., they used to reply that their fathers were wiser than themselves, and yet were content to do as they did : they also regarded every innovation as an insult to the memory of their ancestors. On this visit to the Kuruman, I had the satisfaction to see Mahuri, with his people, and other Bechuanas, apply. ing to the missionaries for seed-corn to sow on the lands then under irrigation. In reference, also, to a promise of the missionaries to plough some land, and train a span of bullocks for him, he manifested considerable pleasure. Mahuri has also adopted the European dress.

The Bechuanas, and all the Caffer tribes, have no idea of any man dying except from hunger, violence, or witchcraft. If a man die, even at the age of ninety, if he do not die of hunger or by violence, his death is imputed to sorcery or to witchcraft, and blood is required to expiate or avenge it. This sometimes gives rise to indescribable scenes of slaughter and misery. Where the person who dies a natural death has no one to avenge it, or if the person supposed to have occasioned his death is powerful, the feeling, of course, is smothered ; but on the death of chiefs or great men, those at variance with them are generally suspected, and a natural death is followed by many murders.

Peclu, the heir of Mateebé, who visited Cape Town in company with Mr. Moffat, was rather an interesting young man, of an affectionate disposition, a favourite with his parents, the people, and the missionaries. On his return to Lattakoo, he became enamoured of a young woman who was engaged to a son of one of his father's chiefs. The missionaries did what they could to dissuade him from his purpose, but in vain ; and the former connexion was easily dissolved when the young chief became a suitor. A marriage followed, and Peclu died, about eight months after that event, by what is called in that country the bloody sickness. His death was the cause of great lamentation to all the people, but his parents were inconsolable. The death of Peclu was imputed to sorcery employed by the family of the chief whose son had been formerly betrothed to the young wife of Peclu. No investigation was instituted. To be suspected and found guilty amounts, under such circumstances, to the same thing; the family was to be exterminated. Mateebé consented; and Mahuri was called upon, as next brother to Mateebé, and uncle to the deceased, to become the avenger of blood. When the secret was confided to Mahuri, he expostulated with Mateebé on the cruelty and injustice of the measure ; he asked him if this was all he had gained by having the missionaries so long with him. Mateebé became ashamed, and endeavoured to oppose the queen's purpose, but she was inexorable. Mateebé, therefore, still sided with her against his own convictions. Mahuri, seeing he could neither persuade his brother to resist

the importunity of the queen, nor himself decline the office, apprized the family of their danger, and they filed to a tribe of Barolongs. He followed them with his warriors, and returned and told his brother, and the people in general, that the chief and his family had found protection ; that he was not in a condition to attack them; and that, if they persisted in pursuing the matter further, they must go to war with several tribes more powerful than themselves *. 1. Mahuri was, till lately, considered as not favourably disposed towards the missionaries, and we cannot say that he is yet converted to Christianity; but the circumstances related respecting him show a very pleasing change, and afford reason to believe that the labours of the missionaries have not been altogether in vain, and that still greater results may yet be expected from them.

* Mateebé is king, or supreme chief, of several associated clans of Bechuanas, of whom the Batclhapees are the predominating tribe.! . The name of this tribe is written by Burchell, Batchapins; by Campbell, Matchapees; and by Thompson, Matchapees. I adopt the orthography of the resident missionaries as probably the most correct.

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Visit to the deserted Town of Lattakoo. --Its desolate appearance.

-Desert of Kalleghanny.-- Visit to Mateebe's Camp.--Interview with the King and his Family.-Great difference in the appearance of the Chiefs and the Common People. --Teysho and his Family:-Standard by which the People estimate presents.Government. Public Assemblies,

AFTER spending some time at Kuruman, we paid a visit to Lattakoo. The site of this native town is elevated above the surrounding plain ; and, in a country where towns are so scarce, it presents, at a short distance, a very agreeable object to the eye of a traveller.

The construction of a Bechuana town presents an appearance of uniformity similar to that observable in an ant-hill. The houses are all of a circular form; the roof is raised on a circle of wooden pillars, terminating in a cone ; the area within the pillars is generally from twenty-five to thirty feet. A few feet within the pillars, and under the centre of the roof, is the sleeping-chamber. This apartment is fenced off by a circular wall, formed of clay; between this wall and the roof, an open space is left to admit a sufficiency of air. In the circular space, shaded by the projecting roof, between the pillars and the clay wall, the people are protected from the rays of the sun, and enjoy the benefit of the free air. Under this verandah the family receive the visits of strangers, amuse themselves, or indulge in rest, when the intensity of the heat is so great as to

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