A Treatise on the Nature of Trees, and the Pruning of Timber Trees: Showing the Impossibility of Increasing the Quantity, Or Improving the Quality of Timber by Pruning

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Thomas Ward, 1833 - 67 páginas
 

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Página 19 - Roots are for the double purpose of nourishment and strength ; nourishment to support a mass of such magnitude, and strength to contend with the fury of the blast. Such are the obvious purposes, for which these unvarying characteristics of Trees in open exposures are conferred upon them. Nor are they conferred equally and indiscriminately on all Trees so situated.
Página 12 - Their development is most luxuriant in ground that is neither too loose nor too dense. In stiff and poor soils, they are spare and scraggy ; whereas, in such as are at once deep and loose, the minutest fibres both expand and elongate with facility...
Página 11 - ... or of time. Thus, in an animal, the digestive and the absorbent, the sanguineous, the respiratory, and the nervous systems are at once relative and correlative. In like manner, in a plant, the same reciprocal proportion is found to hold between the roots and the stem, the branches and the leaves : Each modifies and determines the existence of all the others, and is equally affected by all, in its turn. And as their several parts, by means of their union, constitute the organic whole ; and as...
Página 18 - ... roots. Secondly, their larger heads, with spreading Branches, in consequence of the free access of light, are formed as plainly for the nourishment, as well as the balancing of so large a Trunk, and also for furnishing a cover, to shield it from the elements. Thirdly, their superior thickness and induration of Bark is, in like manner, bestowed for the protection of the sap vessels, that lie immediately under it, and which, without such defence from cold, could not perform their functions.
Página 18 - Branches, in consequence of the free access of light, are formed as plainly for the nourishment, as well as the balancing of so large a Trunk, and also for furnishing a cover, to shield it from the elements. Thirdly, their superior thickness and induration of Bark is, in like manner, bestowed for the protection of the sap-vessels, that lie immediately under it, and which, without such defence from cold, could not perform their functions. Fourthly, their greater number and variety of Roots are for...
Página 18 - ... the characteristics of trees above mentioned, we should always bear in mind, that every production of nature is an end to itself, and that every part of it is, at once, end and mean. Of trees in open exposures we find, that their peculiar properties contribute, in a remarkable manner, to their health and prosperity. In the first place, their shortness and greater girth of stem, in contradistinction to others in the interior of woods, are obviously intended to give to the former greater strength...
Página 31 - ... The general effects of pruning I have already stated to be of a corresponding nature with those of culture, that is, to increase the quantity of timber produce. The particular manner, in which it does this, is by directing the greater part of the sap, which generally spreads itself in side-branches, into the principal stem. This must consequently enlarge that stem, in a more than ordinary degree, by increasing the annual circles of the wood.
Página 13 - But while every organic creation tends to full development, that is, to absolute energy, or perfect life, still we find, that the organs of which it is composed are each reciprocally dependent on every other, for the possibility and degree of their peculiar action. At the same time, as these internal conditions of animated existence are severally dependent on certain external conditions, which, again, are not always fully and equally supplied ; so it follows, that the life of every organized being...
Página 47 - ... For this reason we see, that every animal, and every plant is dependent for its existence, and also for its perfect existence, on conditions both internal and external. From this reasoning it may be conceived, how the several parts of the living whole reciprocally act and react. They are, in fact, cause and effect mutually ; and no one can precede another, either in the order of nature, or of time.
Página 24 - ... leading shoot remains, and that enlarged to such a size, that it bears not the slightest resemblance to what it was in its youth. Some imagine that whenever a stem is free from branches, it is owing to pruning or to the browsing of cattle; but this is not the case, it is natural to a timber-tree, be its situation what it may, to have a certain portion of its stem clear of branches.

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