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furnished with a month's provisions, to stay and make farther 1586. discovery of the country and coasts, and so much additional provision, as would be sufficient to carry them all into England; or, to give them a passage home in his fleet. The first proposal was gratefully accepted. A ship was accordingly selected by Drake, and delivered to the colonists; but before the provisions were entirely received on board, there arose a great storm, that continued three days, and endangered the whole feet. Many storm. cables were broken, and many anchors lost; and some of the ships, of which number was the ship destined for the use of the colonists, were compelled to put to sea. Drake now generously, making the colony an offer of another ship with provisions, or of a passage home; governor Lane and the principal persons with him, having considered what was expedient, requested the general, under their hands, that they might have a passage to England. The rest of their company were now sent for; the whole colony, consisting of 103 persons, was taken on board; and the fleet, sailing from the coast of Virginia on the 18th of June, June 18. arrived on the 28th of July at the English harbour of Portsmouth. Takes the “ Thus terminated the first English colony planted in America. England. The only acquisition made by this expensive experiment, was a better knowledge of the country and its inhabitants.” 1
The Virginia colonists had been in great danger from the Occurrenmachinations of the Indians, who at first intended to starve them ces during by abandoning them, and leaving the island unsown. The submission of Okisko, king of Weopomeok, (in March) by which Virginia. he and his people became tributaries to the queen of England, had great influence in defeating that design; for Pemisapan, who projected it, was, on that occasion, persuaded by his aged father Ensenore, an Indian king, to plant a large quantity of ground on the island and main land. Ensenore dying on the 20th of April, Pemisapan, who succeeded him in the government, next formed a conspiracy for the general massacre of the colonists.
its resience in
1 Hakluyt, iii. 263, 264, 528, 534–548, 781. Purchas, i. 755, 757. Smith, Virginia, 5—9. Beverly, 9. Stith, 47. Theodore de Bry, P.1. Prince, Introd. Univ. Hist. xxxix. 127. Brit. Empire, Itrod. i. 21. Marshall, Life of Washington, i. 16. It appears, that the colony, from 17 August 1585 to 18 June 1586, “made Roanoack their habitation;” that the extent of their discovery to the southward was Secotan, supposed to be 80 leagues from Roanoack; and that, to the northward, the extent of it “was to town of the Chesapeacks, from Roanoack 130 myles.”—More might have been known respecting this colony, during its residence in Virginia, but for the loss of its papers. The narrator in Hakluyt says, when Drake sent his vessels to a Roanoke, to fetch away a few persons who were left there with the baggage, “ the weather was so boisterous, and the pinnesses so often on ground, that the most of all we had, with all our Cards, Books, and writings were by the Sailors cast overboord.” The health of the adventurers was remarkable. « In the regiment [government] of Sir Ralph Lane, in the space of one whole yeare, not two of one hundred perished.” Estate of Virginia, printed at London, 1610.
too late for
1586. however, was frustrated by the vigilance of the English governor,
who contrived a counterplot ; in execution of which Pemisapan was slain on the 1st of June, ten days only before the arrival of Sir Francis Drake. The fears of the colonists appear now to have subsided. But the hope of finding a rich mine in the interior part of the country, which they had already made one attempt to discover, seems to have greatly influenced their wishes to continue longer in Virginia. Little did they know the true sources of wealth. They never imagined, that, at a future period, a despicable plant would enrich the inhabitants of this very territory, which they were ready to pronounce unfit to be inbabited, unless it were found to contain latent treasures of the
precious metals. Supplies Had the Virginia adventurers remained but a little time longer the colony.
at their plantation, they would have received supplies from home; for, a few days after their departure, a ship, sent by Sir Walter Raleigh to their reliel, arrived at Hatteras, and made diligent search for them, but, not finding them, returned to England. Within 14 or 15 days after this ship had left the coast, Sir Richard Grenville arrived at Virginia with three ships with provisions; but searched in vain for the colony that he had planted.
Unwilling to lose possession of the country, so long holden by Fifteen men left at Englishmen, he left 15 of his crew to keep possession of the Roanoke.
island of Roanoke, and returned to England.” Tobacco Tobacco was now carried into England by Mr. Lane; and carried into Sir Walter Raleigh, a man of gaiety and fashion, adopting the England.
Indian usage of smoking it, and by bis interest and example introducing it at court, the pipe soon became fashionable.3
Sir Walter Raleigh, intent on planting the territory within his patent, equipped three vessels, and sent another company of 150 adventurers to Virginia. He incorporated them by the
1 Hakluyt, iii. 255—263. The mine is said to be “notorious” among the Indians, and to lie up the river of Maratoc. The narrator in Hakluyt calls it "a marveilous and most strange minerall;" and adds, " there wanted no great good will from the inost to the least amongst us, to have perfitted this discoverie of the Mine : for that the discovery of a good Mine by the goodnesse of God, or a passage to the South Sea, or some way to it, and nothing else can bring this Countrey in request to be inhabited by our nation.” See Note XVI.
2 Hakluyt, iii. 265. Purchas, i. 755. Smith, Virg. 13. Beverly, 11. Belknap, Art. RALEIGH. Robertson's America, b. 9.
3 Mr. Thomas Hariot, a man of science and observation, who was with Lane in Virginia, after describing the tobacco plant, says, “ the Indians use to take the fume or sinoke thereof by sucking it through pipes made of clay. We ourselves, during the time we were there, used to sucke it after their maner, as also since our return.” Cainden [Eliz. 1585.] says, that these colonists were the first that he knows of, who brought tobacco into England; and adds : “ Certainly from that time forward it began to grow into great request, and to be sold at an high rate." See NOTE XVII.
name of, The Borough of Raleigh in Virginia; and constituted 1587. John White governor, in whom, with a council of 12 persons, the legislative power was vested ; and they were directed to April 26. plant at the Bay of Chesapeak, and to erect a fort there. They Raleigh sailed from Plymouth on the 8th of May, and about the 16th of second July, fell in with the Virginia coast. The master supposing it to be colony to the island of Croatoan, they came to anchor, and rode there two with a govor three days. Sailing afterward along the coast, they were in ernor and imminent danger of being cast away upon Cape Fear.' Arriving at Hatteras on the 22d of July, the governor with 40 of his best men went on board the pinnace, intending to pass up to Roanoke, in the hope of finding the 15 Englishmen, whom Sir Richard Grenville had left there the year before ; and, after a conference with them concerning the state of the country and of the Indians, to return to the fleet, and proceed along the coast to the Bay of Chesapeak, according to the orders of Raleigh. But no sooner had the pinnace left the ship, than a gentleman, instructed by Fernando the principal naval commander, who was destined to return soon to England, called to the sailors on board the pinnace, and charged them not to bring back any of the planters, excepting the governor and two or three others, whom he approved, but to leave them in the island; for the summer, he observed, was far spent, and therefore he would land all the planters in no other place. The sailors on board the pinnace, as well as those on board the ship, having been persuaded by the master to this measure, the governor, judging it best not to contend with them, July 22. proceeded to Roanoke. At sunset he landed with his men at Land at that place in the island where the 15 men were left; but discovered no signs of them, excepting the bones of one man, who had been slain by the savages. The next day the governor and several of his company went to the north end of the island, where governor Lane had erected his fort, and his men had built several decent dwelling houses, the preceding year; hoping to find here some signs, if not the certain knowledge, of the 15 men. But, on coming to the place, and finding the fort razed, Find Lane's
fort razed; and all the houses, though standing unhurt, overgrown with weeds and the and vines, and deer feeding within them; they returned, in place deso
latc. despair of ever seeing their looked for countrymen alive.” Orders
1 “ Finding himself deceived, he weyed, and bare along the coast, where in the night, had not Captaine Stafford bene more carefull in looking out then our Simon Ferdinando, we had bene all cast away upon the breach, called the Cape of Feare, for we were come within two cables length upon it: such was the carelessness and ignorance of our Master.” Hakluyt, iii. 247, 282.
2 About a week afterward, some of the Eng people going to Croatoan were told by the Indians, that the 15 Englishmen, left by Grenville, were surprised by 30 Indians, who, having treacherously slain one of them, compelled the rest to repair to the house, containing their provisions and weapons, which the Indians instantly set on fire ; that the English, leaving the house, skirinished VOL I.
27. Governor White returns to
1587. were given the same day for the repair of the houses, and for
the erection of new cottages. All the colony, consisting of 117 persons, soon after landed, and commenced a second plantation.
On the 13th of August, Manteo, a friendly Indian, who had been First Indian to England, was baptized in Roanoke, according to a previous baptism in Virginia. order of Sir Walter Raleigh; and, in reward of his faithful ser
vice to the English, was called lord of Roanoke, and of Dasa
monguepeuk. On the 18th, Mrs. Dare, a daughter of the First Eng govemor, and wife of one of the assistants, was delivered of a
daughter in Roanoke, who was baptized the next Lord's day by America. the name of Virginia ; because she was the first English child
born in the country. On the 27th of August, at the urgent solicitation of the whole colony, the governor sailed for England
to procure supplies: but of his countrymen, whom he left beEngland.
hind, nothing was ever afterward known. Thus terminated the exertions of Raleigh for colonizing Virginia, which proved unsuccessful, says Chalmers, “because the enterprise had been undertaken without sufficient information, because the project was new, and the means employed were not equal to the end."
John Davis, having sailed the last year to Labrador, in search of a Northwest passage, now made a third and very important voyage. Sailing from Dartmouth with three vessels, one only of which was designed for discovery, the other two, for fishing,
he proceeded again to that northern region; and on the 30th of Lat. 72° 12'. June was in 720 12' north latitude, where the sun was 50 above
the horizon at midnight, and the needle varied 280 toward the west. The whole of that coast he called London Coast. Sailing
60 leagues up Cumberland Straits, he discovered a cluster of Coast,
islands, which he called Cumberland Islands. Having, on his
passage back from the northern seas, discovered and named ands, and Lumley's Inlet, he returned in September to England. The
Spanish fleet, and the untimely death of secretary Walsingham, hindered the prosecution of these discoveries.3
J. Davis' 3d voyage.
with them above an hour; that in this skirmish, another of their number was shot into the mouth with an arrow, and died : that they retired fighting to the water side, where lay their boat, with which they fled toward Hatteras ; that they landed on a little island on the right hand of the entrance into the harbour of Hatteras, where they remained awhile, and afterward departed, whither they knew not. Hakluyt, iii. 283, 284.
1 Hakluyt, iii. 280—287, where there is an entire account of this voyage, with the names of all the 117 settlers; of whom 91 were men, 17 women, and 9 children. Smith, Virginia, 13, 14. Beverly, 13, 15. Stith, 47–50. Purchas, i. 755. Prince, 1587. Anderson, 1587. Belknap, Biog. i. 39. Stow, Chronicle, 1018. Brit. Emp. iii. 38. Harris' Voy. i. 815. Hazard, i. 40, 41. Chalmers, Political Annals, b. 1. 515. Two natives, Manteo and Towaye, who had visited England, returned with this colony to Virginia. See Note XVIII.
Two Barkes and a Clincher.” Davis, in Hakluyt. 3 Hakluyt, iii. 108–120. Forster, Voy. 302–310. Purchas, i, 742, 743.
round the earth.
Thomas CAVENDISH, an Englishman, completed the naviga- 1588. tion of the earth. On this voyage he passed through the Straits Voyage of of Magellan ; and pillaged and burned several of the Spanish Cavendish settlements in Chili, Peru, and New Spain. This was the second English voyage round the world. These warlike circumnavigations were from this time discontinued by the English nation until the reign of queen Anne.!
Governor White, though detained in England, so importunately Supplies solicited Raleigh and Grenville for the relief of the Virginia designed for
Virginia colony, as to obtain two small pinnaces, in which 15 planters, fail. with suitable supplies of provision, sailed for Virginia. More intent, however, on a profitable voyage, than on the relief of the colony, they went in chase of prizes ; until at length two men of war from Rochelle, falling in with them, disabled and rifled them, and obliged them to put back for England. 2
Univ. Hist. xli. 86, 101. Brit. Emp. i. 2. Camden, Eliz. apud 1585. Belknap, Biog. i. 38. Accounts of Davis's three voyages are preserved in Hakluyt. Forster considered the second voyage highly important; but “the great fault of it is, that in consequence of his not having named the countries he saw, it is very unintelligible.” This writer, referring to the third voyage, says, that Davis went farther to the north than any of his predecessors; and that, if the ice had not prevented him, he would certainly then have made the discovery which was afterward happily effected in 1616, by Baffin. Prince says, Davis proceeded to 83 degrees, and quotes Camden, who, I find, has it, “ad LxxxIII. Gradum;" but I apprehend there is a typographical error. “In a Traverse-Booke made by M.John Davis in his third voyage for the discoverie of the Northwest passage, Anno 1587,” preserved in Hakluyt, the highest latitude is 72° 12' : “ June. Noone the 30, Course, N. Elevation of the pole, 72 Deg. 12 Min.” In the last column of his Traverse Book, entitled “ The Discourse," is the following entry: “ The true course, &c. Since the 21 of this moneth I have continually coasted the shore of Gronland having the sea all open towards the West, and the land on ye starboord side East from me. For these last 4 dayes the weather hath bene extreame hot and very calme, the Sun being 5 degrees above the horizon at midnight. The compasse in this place varieth 28 degrees toward ye West." The account of this voyage by M. John James corresponds exactly with the traverse book.-In Purchas, “ Master Secretary Walsingham” is styled “the epitome and summarie of human worthinesse."
1 Hakluyt, iii. 803—837, where this eminent navigator is called Candish. Churchill, Voy. iii. 401. Anderson, ii. 164. Camden, Eliz. 1587. The voyage was begun at his own expense, with three ships, 21 July, 1586, and effected in two years and two months. Two of his ships were lost in the voyage. Camden says, he took and plundered 19 Spanish loaded ships, and that he returned home with great glory, as the third from Magellan (inclusive) who circumnavigated the earth. See A. D. 1520, 1578. For the particulars of this voyage Camden refers his reader to Hakluyt, of whose three volumes of Voyages, to which we are so greatly indebted, he says: “Si particularia desires, adeas Anglorum navigationes tribus voluminibus à Richardo Hacluito diligentissime descriptas." Anderson says, “ neither this nor Drake's circumnavigations were intended for making any useful settlements in those remote parts for the benefit of our commerce, as most certainly they might easily have done ; but their principal aim was privateering against and pillaging the Spaniards, together with some transient commerce.
2 Oldys, Life of Raleigh, p. 41. Naval Hist. G. Brit. i. 240. Belknap, Biog. i. 219.