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Indians sue for peace.
1607. and ambuscades, the fort was now palisaded; the ordnance was
mounted ; and the men were armed and exercised. On the June 15. 15th of June the Indians voluntarily sued for peace; and New
port set sail for England, leaving 100 men, with provisions, arms,
ammunition, and other necessaries for a settlement." March. On the prayer of the colonists, king James issued an ordiOrdinance
nance for enlarging the number and authority of his commission
ers for directing the affairs of the colonies. Encouraged by for the
favourable reports, and invigorated by this increase of power, the colonies.
Virginia treasurer and council in England exerted themselves with laudable diligence, to transmit proper supplies to the planta
tion. Captain Nelson was sent to James Town with an additional Virginia
supply of men; and, before the close of the year, Newport colony in- arrived with 70 more, making 200 in all in the colony. These
accessions consisted of many gentlemen, a few labourers, several refiners, goldsmiths, and jewellers. “The various denominations of these men,” says Chalmers, “evince the views of the whole.” The ships were at length sent back; the one, loaded by the miners with a glittering earth, which, they vainly hoped,
contained golden metal; the other, loaded with cedar. These First remit- are recorded as the first Virginia products, as constituting the England.
first remittance, and as indicating the earliest pursuits of an infant people.
In the course of the year, the colony met with various calamiJames town ties. The store house at James Town accidentally taking fire,
the town, thatched with reeds, burned with such violence, that
the fortifications, arms, apparel, bedding, and a great quantity of Great mor
private goods and provision, were consumed. From May to tality. September, 50 persons died, of which number was Bartholomew
Gosnold, a member of the council. The extreme heat of the
summer, and the extreme cold of the succeeding winter, were Ratcliffe
alike fatal to the colonists. Captain Wingfield, becoming ob
noxious to the company, was deposed from the presidency; and president.
captain Ratcliffe was elected in his place.3
1 Stith, 46, 47. Other authorities for this and the preceding articles are, Purchas, i. 756, 757 ; v. 1706, 1707 ; Smith, Virg. 43-45; Keith, 59 ; Neal, N. Eng. i. 18. Most of the names of these first colonists are preserved in Smith's Virginia.
2 Smith, Virg. 54. Purchas, v. 1709. Chalmers, i. 21. Prince, 1607.
3 Smith, Virg. 44. Purchas, v. 1690, 1706, 1707. Newes from Virginia. Belknap, Biog. Art. Gosnold. B. Gosnold died 22 August, and, being one of the council, was honourably buried, “having all the ordnance in the fort shot off, with many volleys of small shot.” It was this honoured man, who made the memorable voyage to the northern parts of Virginia (now New England) five years before. See a. d. 1602.—The mortality, in the first instance, was ascribed to excessive toil“ in the extremity of the heat," wretched lodgings, and scanty, unwholesome food. “Had we been as free from all sinnes as gluttony and drunkennesse,” says Smith, “we might have been canonized for saints." The subsequent mortality was ascribed to the severity of the winter : " By the bitter
In November, captain Smith went in a barge with a party of 1607. 15 men for the discovery of the Chickahominy. He made several excursions, and returned to the fort with corn which he had Smith taken purchased of the Indians. In further prosecuting his discoveries,
prisoner. he hired a boat, and two Indians for his guides. Leaving seven of the men with the care of the barge, he proceeded still higher up the river with his Indian guides and two of his own company. At length, leaving one Indian with his two men, he took the other Indian with him; and, while exploring the head of the river, he heard the cry of Indians, which was succeeded by an arrow that struck him in the thigh. Indians soon appeared. After firing his pistol at them, and binding the Indian to his arm with his garters and using him as a buckler, he was encompassed by 200 of them, and taken prisoner. On his asking for their captain, they showed him Opechancanough (a brother of Powhatan), king of Pamaunkee, to whom he gave a round ivory double compass dial, which excited their admiration. This procured him a respite ; but, within half an hour afterward, they tied him to a tree with the intention of shooting him. When they were assembled around him with their deadly weapons, Opechancanough holding up the compass, they all instantly laid down their bows and arrows. Having conducted their prisoner in triumph to numerous Indian tribes, they at last brought him to Werowo
Brought be comoco, where Powhatan resided in state, with a strong guard of Indians around him. When the prisoner entered the apart- hatan.
ness of that great frost, above half the Virginia colony took their deaths.” This frost " was recompensed with as mild a winter with them the next year." Purchas, i. 757, 760. The winters of this and the following year were extremely severe in the more northerly parts of America. Lescarbot, who was in Canada about this time, remarks, that “ these last winters of 1607, 1608, have been the hardest that ever was seene. Many savages died through the rigour of the weather; in these our parts many poore people and travellers have bene killed through the same hardnesse of winter weather." Purchas, v. 1637.
1 In the triumphal march,“ their order was this : Drawing themselves all in file, the King in the midst had all their peeces and swords borne before him : Captaine Smith was led after him by three great lubbers, holding him fast; on each side went six in file, with their arrows nocked.” On their arrival at the residence of the Indian emperor, above 200 of “ his courtiers stood wondering at the prisoner, "until Powhatan and his train had put themselves in their greatest bravery. Before a fire he sat on a seate like a bedsted, covered with a great robe of Rarowcun [racoon) skinnes, all the tailes hanging by: on each hand did set a young wench of sixteene or eighteene yeeres of age; along on each side the house two rowes of men, and behind them as many women, with all their heads and shoulders painted red, many of their heads bedecked with the white downe of birds, every one adorned with something; a great chaine also of white beades about their neckes.” Powhatan was ordinarily attended by a guard of 40 or 50 of the tallest men in his country. “Every night upon the foure quarters of his house (says Smith) are four sentinels, each standing from other a flight shoot, and at every halfe houre one from the corps du guard doth hollow, shaking his lips with his finger betweene them, unto whom every sentinel doth answer round from his stand: if any faile, they presently send forth an officer that beateth him extreamely.” Smith, Virginia, 37, 47. Purchas, v. 1708.
1607. ment of the sovereign, all the people gave a shout. The queen
of Appamatuck was appointed to bring him water, to wash his hands; and another person brought a bunch of feathers, instead of a towel, to dry them. Having feasted him in their best manner, they held a long consultation, at the conclusion of which, two great stones were brought before Powhatan. As many of the Indians as could, laying liands on the devoted prisoner, dragged him to the stones, and placed his head on them,
with the intention of beating out his brains with clubs. At this His life sa. moment Pocahontas, the king's favourite daughter, her entreaties ved by Po- and tears not availing to rescue the captive from execution, rush
ed in between him and the executioner, took bis head into her arms, and laid her own upon it, to ward off the blow. The father was subdued; and the victim was spared. Two days afterward Powhatan sent Smith, accompanied by 12 guides, to James Town.
The number of Indians, at this time, within 60 miles of James Town, was supposed to be about 7000; nearly 2000 of whom
were warriors. Settlement
On the recent encouragement for settling North Virginia, Sir of an Eng. John Popham and others sent out two ships under the command lish colony of George Popham and Raleigh Gilbert, with 100 men, with
ordnance and all provisions necessary until they might receive farther supplies. They sailed from Plymouth the last of May; and, falling in with the island of Monahigon on the 11th of August, landed on a peninsula, at the mouth of Sagadabock, or Kennebeck river.4 Here, after a sermon was delivered, and their patent and laws were read, they built a store house, and fortified it, and gave it the name of Fort St. George. On the 5th of
He is sent to James Town
1 Smith, Virginia, 46–49, 52. Stith, 50, 56, 59. Purchas, i. 757. Smith had been a prisoner with the Indians seven weeks. He “ thought they intended to fat him to eat him.”—At the fire of James Town, Smith says, that Mr. Hunt, the preacher, lost all his library, and all that he had, yet none ever saw him repine.
2. Smith, in Purchas, v. 1697. The most, seen together by the English, were 700 or 800.
3 He was a nephew of Sir Walter Raleigh. Biog: Britan. (Art. GILBERT.] says, he made a voyage to Virginia this year in behalf of his uncle.
4 Purchas, i. 756. Smith describes it as “a faire navigable river, but the coast all thereabouts most extreme stony and rocky.” Hist. Virginia, and New England, b.6. Joselyn, Voy. 244. Hubbard, N. Eng. c. 2. It was “ northward of 43o.”
5 Belknap, Biog. i. 350. What Dr. Belknap calls a peninsula, is called in the Collections of Mass. Historical Society (i. 252.) Parker's island; and is there said to be formed by the waters of Kennebeck on the west, by the sea on the south, by the waters called Jeremysquam Bay on the east, and by a small strait of waters, which divides it from Arrowsick Island, on the north. “ The island is now called Parker's Island, because it was purchased of the natives in the year 1650, by one John Parker, who was the first occupant after the Fear 1608."
December the two ships sailed for England, leaving a little colony 1607. of 45 persons; Popham being president, and Gilbert admiral.1
1608. The summer of this year is remarkable, in the Virginia an- Voyage of nals, for the first voyage toward the source of the Chesapeak. Smith 10Captain John Smith in an open barge, with 14 persons and a source of very scanty stock of provisions, explored the whole of that great the Chesaextent of water from Cape Henry, where it meets with the peak. ocean, to the river Susquehannah ; trading with some tribes of Indians, and fighting with others. He discovered and named many small islands, creeks, and inlets; sailed up many of the great rivers; and explored the inland parts of the country. During this enterprise, 60 Susquehannah Indians visited him, Is visited by and made him presents. At this early period they had hatchets, the Susqueand utensils of iron and brass, which, by their own account, dians. originally came from the French of Canada. The Susquehannah nation, at this time, could raise about 600 fighting men.
Smith, after sailing about 3000 miles, returned to James Town. Having made careful observations during this excursion of discovery, he drew a map of Chesapeak Bay and of the rivers, annexing to it a description of the countries, and of the nations inhabiting them, and sent it to the council in England; and this map was made with such admirable exactness, that it is the original from which all subsequent maps and descriptions of Virginia have been chiefly copied. His superior abilities obtained the ascendency over envy and faction. Although he had lately been refused a seat at the council board, he was now, by the election of the council and the request of the settlers, invested with the government ; and received letters patent to be president of the colony. The
Sept. 10. wisdom of his administration infused confidence ;' its vigour com- Made presimanded obedience. The military exercises, which he obliged dent of the
colony. all to perform, struck the Indians with astonishment, and inspired them with awe.3
1 Hubbard, N. Eng. c. 2. Purchas, i. 756; v. 1828. Brit. Emp. Introd. i. 24. Harris, Voy. i. 851. I. Mather, N. Eng. Brit. Emp. ii. 10. Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. i. 251, 252. “ All the fruit of this their expedition, during the long winter, and the after time of their abode there, was building a bark, which afforded them some advantage in their return." Hubbard, c. 8. See A. D. 1608.
2 Smith, Virg. b. 2. c. 21, 25; b. 3. c. 5, 6. Purchas, i. 767; v. 1690, 1715. Stith, 83, 84. Keith, 78, 79. Chalmers, b. 1. c. 2. Robertson, b. 9. In Purchas, and in some copies of Smith's History of Virginia, his own original map still to be found ; but it is very rare. President Monroe, when at Cambridge on his presidential tour, having never seen or not possessing it, I had the pleasure of presenting him a copy, which I had taken from an original in the first edition.On comparing that map with later maps of Virginia, it appeared, that the river since named York, was called Pamaunk ; Rappahannock, Toppehanock; Potomac, Patowmek; and Susquehannah, Sasquesahanough.
3 Chalmers, b. 1. c. 2. He quotes Smith's Voyages, c. 5—7.
1608. Newport arrived at Virginia with a second supply for the col
ony, bringing over 70 passengers, many of whom were persons Newport of distinction. Eight Dutchmen and Poles came over at this arrives with time, to introduce the making of tar, glass, and potashes. John supplies. First mar
Laydon was soon after married to Ann Burras; and this was the riage in first marriage in Virginia." Virgioia.
Fresh instructions, now transmitted, expressly required the State of the president and council of the colony to explore the western councolony. try, in order to procure certain intelligence of the South Sea ;
to transmit, as a token of success, a lump of gold; and to find one of the lost company, sent out by Raleigh. “ These orders demonstrate,” says Chalmers, “ that the chief object of the most active projectors was, at this time, rather discovery, than colonization.” The punishinent, threatened in case of disobedience, struck the colonists with horror : “ They shall be allowed to remain, as banished men, in Virginia.”2 On the return of New
port to England, he left about 200 persons in the colony.3 The colony Ships, now arriving with supplies for the colony at Sagadahock rea Sagada. hock, brought intelligence of the death of Sir John Popham, and
Sir John Gilbert. These misfortunes, with the death of captain England. George Popham, in whom very great confidence was reposed,
together with the loss of the stores the preceding winter by fire, so dispirited the whole plantation, that the colony unanimously resolved to return in these ships to England. The patrons of the colony, offended at this unexpected return, desisted several
years from any farther attempt toward effecting a settlement. The French Meanwhile, the English thus seeming to relinquish their pretenplant colo- sions to this country, the French availed themselves of the occathe English sion, and planted colonies in various places within the English
1 Smith, Virg. 72, 73. Chalmers, b. 1. c. 2. Keith, Virg. 80. The principal names of the passengers are preserved in Smith's History. Mrs. Forrest and Ann Burras, her maid, who were among these passengers, are said by some historians to have been the first English women, ever in this country. They were, with the exception of the devoted colony of 1587, which contained 19
The marriage, just mentioned, as the first in Virginia, must be understood with the same exception; though no mention is made by the early writers of any marriage in that first colony 20 years before. Suith, if we may rely on Smith's authority, errs, in omitting the name of Mrs. Forrest, and putung Ann Burras into the rank of a lady, in her place, attended by a maid.
2 Chalmers, b. 1. c. 2. 3 Smith, Virginia, 70.
4 Smith says, that the country was esteemed as a cold, barren, mountainous, rocky desert; and that this colony“ found nothing but extreme extremities.” Smith, Virg. New England, b. 6. See A. D. 1607.
5 Gorges, N. Eng. 19. Purchas, v. 1828. Harris' Voy. i. 851. Hubbard, N. Eng. c. 8. Prince, 1608, and authorities at the close of 1607. From the construction put by the French upon the Virginia patent of 1606, it appears, that they considered their own occupation of Acadie from 1604 as rendering that patent null and void. At a treaty, in 1750, for settling the limits of Acadie, the French commissaries say, that in the Letters patent for Virginia in 1606,