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through which he sailed; and sixteen days afterward arrived in 1612. England.

Peter Easton, a noted pirate, went to Newfoundland with several ships, and took 100 men out of the fishing vessels in land. Conception Bay.The English colony at that island now consisted of 54 men, 6 women, and 2 children.3

Newfound

1613. This year is memorable for the first hostilities between the DestrucEnglish and French colonists in America. Madame de Guerche- tion of the ville, a pious lady in France, who was zealous for the conversion tlements in of the American natives, having procured from De Monts a sur- Acadie, render of his patent, and obtained a charter from the reigning king for all the lands of New France from the St. Lawrence to Florida, with the exception of Port Royal, sent out Saussaye with two Jesuits, father Quentin, and father Gilbert de Thet, as missionaries. Saussaye sailed from Honfleur on the 12th of March, in a vessel of '100 tons, and on the 16th of May arrived at le Heve in Acadie, where he set up the arms of Madame de Guercheville, in token of possession. Proceeding thence to Port Royal, he found there five persons only, two of whom were Jesuit missionaries, who had been previously sent over, but who had fallen under the displeasure of M. Biencourt, at that time governor of Port Royal. On producing the credentials, by which he was authorized to take these fathers into the service of the new mission, as well as to take possession of the Acadian territory, the two Jesuits were permitted to go where they pleased. They accordingly left Port Royal, and went with Saussaye to Monts Deserts, an island, that had been thus named by Champlain, lying at the entrance of the river Pentagoet. The pilot conducted the vessel to the east end of the island, where the Jesuits fixed their settlement; and, setting up a cross, celebrated mass, and called the place St. Saviour.5

1 Forster, Voy. 314—347. Dobbs' Hudson's Bay, 79. Anderson puts the voyage in 1611. Button was afterward created a knight; Nelson was his mate in this voyage.

2 Prince, A. D. 1612. 3 Purchas, i. 748.

4 It appears by Champlain (Voy. 101.], with whom agrees Charlevoix (Nouv. France, i. 123.], that these two Jesuits, Biart and Masse, arrived at Port Royal on the 12th of June, 1611. Had Dr. Belknap seen Champlain, he would not have placed their arrival in 1604.

5 This island, now called Mount Desert, Champlain says, is in 44° 20' lat. The legislature of Massachusetts granted it to governor Bernard, in the early part of his administration. It was afterwards reclaimed by Madame Gregoire, in right of her ancestors ; but as governor Bernard's property in America had never been confiscated, the general assembly of Massachusetts afterwards granted to his son, Sir John Bernard, two townships of land near the river Kennebeck, in lieu of the valuable island recovered by Madame Gregoire. Warren's Hist: Amer. Revolution, i. 76, 77.

tures the French at

1613. Scarcely had they begun to provide themselves with accom

modations in this retreat, before they were surprised by an enemy. Argal cap- Captain Samuel Argal of Virginia, arriving at this juncture off

the island of Monts Deserts for the purpose of fishing, was cast St. Saviour. ashore in a storm at Pentagoet, where he received notice from

the natives, that the French were at St. Saviour. Such was the account of their number and state, that he resolved to attack them without hesitation or delay. The French made some resistance ; but were soon obliged to yield to the superior force of the English. In this action Gilbert de Thet, one of the Jesuit fathers, was killed by a musket shot; some others were wounded; and the rest, excepting four or five, were taken prisoners. The English seized the French vessel which lay there, and pillaged it. The French people, being furnished with a fishing vessel by the English, principally returned to France; but Argal took 15

of them, beside the Jesuits, to Virginia. Completes The Virginia governor, after advising with his council, resolved the ruin of their settle

to despatch an armed force to the coast of Acadie, and to raze all ments in the settlements and forts to the 46th degree of latitude. No Acadie.

time was lost. An armament of three vessels was immediately committed to Argal, who sailed to St. Saviour, where, on his arrival, he broke in pieces the cross which the Jesuits had erected, and set up another, inscribed with the name of the king of Great Britain, for whom possession was now taken. He next sailed to St. Croix, and destroyed all the remains of De Monts' settlement. He then sailed to Port Royal, where he found not a single person, and in two hours he reduced that entire settle

ment to ashes. Having thus effectually executed the business of Nov.9. his commission, he returned to Virginia.?

The only pretext for the hostile expedition of Argal, in a time of profound peace, was an encroachment of the French on the

i The French had a small entrenchment, but no cannon. Charlevoix, Nouv. France, i. 131. Argal had 60 soldiers, and 14 pieces of cannon ; the number of his vessels was 11. Champlain, 106. The equipment of these fishing vessels might give occasion to the belief, that they were “sent ostensibly on a trading and fishing voyage, but with orders to seek for and dispossess intruders.” See Belknap, Biog. ii. 52. It is certain, however, that this very respectable writer, in common with Prince and other English historians, has confounded the two voyages of Argal, made to Acadie this year.

3 Champlain, les Voyages de la Nouv. France, 103–109. Memoires de l'Amérique, i. Art. Memoire des Commissaires du Roi sur les limites de l'Acadie. English authorities are, Purchas, v. 1764–1768, 1808; Smith, Virg. 115; Beverly, 51–55; Stith, 133; Hubbard, Ind. War, 201; Prince, 1613 ; Univ. Hist. xxxix. 255 ; Stow, Chron. 1018; Chalmers, b. 1. c. 4; Brit. Emp. i. 165, 166 ; ii. 10; Belknap, Biog. ii. Art. ARGAL. The settlement of Port Royal had cost the French more than 100,000 crowns. Charlevoix, Nouv. France, i. 137. It has been said that father Biart, to be revenged on Biencourt, offered to pilot the vessel to Port Royal ; but Champlain says, the French refused that service, and that the English obliged an Indian to pilot them: “Conduit d'un Sauvage qu'il print par force, les François ne le voulant enseigner.”

rights of the English, founded on the discovery by the Cabots. 1613. The Virginia charter of 1606, unless considered as founded on that discovery, was not trespassed by the French settlements in English & Acadie. That charter granted, indeed, to the Plymouth com- Claims. pany so far north, as to the 45th degree of north latitude ; but De Monts had previously received a patent of the territory from the 40th to the 46th degree of latitude, by virtue of which the French had actually commenced settlements below the 45th degree, in the year 1604. Neither England, nor any European nation, appears so early to have asserted or allowed a right, derived from occupancy. Had that right been settled by the law of nations, the act of Argal would have furnished just ground of war. It does not appear, that this transaction was either approved by the court of England, or resented by the crown of France; it prepared the way, however, for a patent of the territory of Acadie, which was granted eight years afterward by king James.?

Argal, on his return to Virginia, visited the Dutch settlement at Dutch subHudson's river; and, alleging that Hudson, an English subject, it to the could not alienate from the English crown what was properly a part of Virginia, demanded possession. The Dutch governor, Hendrick Christiaens, incapable of resistance, peaceably submitted himself and his colony to the king of England; and, under him, to the governor of Virginia.?

These conquests abroad were succeeded by proportionate suc- J. Rolfe cesses at home. John Rolfe, an Englishman, married Pocahon- marries Potas, the celebrated daughter of Powhatan; and this alliance secured peace to Virginia many years. Having been carefully instructed in the Christian religion, she not long after openly renounced the idolatry of her country, made profession of Christianity, and was baptized by the name of Rebecca.3

Sir Thomas Dale, accompanied by captain Argal and fifty Treaty with men, went to Chickahominy, and held a treaty with an Indian the Chickauibe of that name, a bold and free people, who now voluntarily Indians. relinquished their name, for that of Tassantessus, or Englishmen; and solemnly engaged to be faithful subjects to king James.4

cahontas.

i Purchas, v. 1828. Brit. Dominions in North America, b. 14. p. 246. Belknap, Biog. ii. 55. Stith, 133. Yates' & Moulton's Hist. N York, P. 1. $ 55.

2 Smith, Hist. New Jersey, 26. Chalmers, b. 1. c. 19. Stith, 133. Dr. Belknap (Biog. ii. 55.) says, the settlement which Argal then visited, was “near the spot where Albany is now built ;” and it appears to have been the princi. pal establishment of the Dutch on Hudson's river, at that time. They had, however, taken possession of the mouth of the river, and it seems to have been here, where New York now stands, that their governor resided. Smith says, that Argal “ found at Manhattas isle, 4 houses built, and a pretended Dutch governor;" but, according to Chalmers, there was nothing more than “a trading house," which the Hollanders had built near the confluence of the river Manhattan. The fort was wisely built here the next year.

3 Smith, Virg. 113, 122. Siith, 136. Beverly, 39. Brit. Emp. iii. 61, 62.
4 Stith, 130. They had no werowance, or single ruler, but were governed in
VOL. I.

19

1613.

Policy to promote industry.

1

To prevent idleness, and other evils, resulting from the prohibition of private property, and from the subsistence of the Virginia people on a public store, Dale now allotted to each man three acres of cleared ground, in the nature of farms; requiring him to work eleven months for the store, out of which he was to have two bushels of corn ; and allowing him one month to make the rest of his provisions.

In the course of the year, 540 persons arrived from England at Bermudas; and the island now became settled.2

Sixty two persons from England, having received a grant of lands in Newfoundland, wintered on that island; but, soon becoming weary of their attempts for settlement, they transferred their grant to other adventurers.3

Bermulas.

Newfoundland.

1614. Virginia.

EARLY in this year Sir Thomas Gates returned to England, leaving in Virginia scarcely 400 men. The administration of the government of the colony again devolved on Sir Thomas Dale, who, “by war upon enemies and kindness to friends,

brought the affairs of the settlement into good order.”5 Dutch claim

A new governor from Amsterdam, arriving at the settlement on Hudson's river with a reinforcement, asserted the right of Holland to the country; refused the tribute and acknowledgment,

stipulated with the English by his predecessor ; and put himself Build a fort into a posture of defence.6 He built a fort on the south end of at Manhat- the island Manhattan, where the city of New York now stands;

and held the country many years, under a grant from the States General, by the name of the New Netherlands. A fort and trading house were erected near the place where Albany now stands and called Fort Orange.?

Hudson's river.

tan.

a republican form by their elders, consisting of their priests, and some of the wisest of their old men, as assistants. Smith [Virg. 114.] says, that they submitted to the English, “ for feare," lest Powhatan and the English united would bring them again to his subjection. They did rather chuse to be protected by us, than tormented by him, whom they held a tyrant.” Keith (127.] puts this submission in 1612.

1 Stith, 132. Chalmers, b. 1. c. 2. 2 Smith, Virg. Bermudas, b. 5. Prince, 1613. See A. D. 1612. 3 Anderson, 1613. See A. D. 1615. 4 Stow, Chron. 1018. Encyc. Methodique, Geog. Art. VIRGINIA. 5 Chalmers, b. 1. c. 36. Smith, Virg. 1614. 6 Stith, 133. 7 Josselyn, Voy. 153. Smith, N. York, 2. Smith, N. Jersey, 19. Belknap, Biog. i. 56. It is affirmed (Univ. Hist. xxxix. 346.), that the Dutch now applied to king James for a confirmation of Hudson's conveyance; but that all they could obtain, was leave to build soine cottages for the convenience of their ships, touching for water on their way to Brazil. A writer in 1656 (Hazard, Coll. i. 604, 605, from Thurloe.] says, that the plantations, then by the Dutch called the Netherlands, were “ until of very late years better known and commonly called by them the New Virginia, as a place dependent upon or a relative to the Old Virginia ;” and that this appellation renders still more credible the

John Smith, distinguished in Virginia history, was now sent 1614. out with two ships from England to North Virginia, at the charge of four Englishmen, with instructions to remain in the country, First voyand to keep possession. Leaving the Downs on the 3d of March, mento he arrived on the last of April at the island of Monahigon, in N. Virginia; latitude 43° 4'. Aster building seven boats, he in one of them, with eight men, ranged the coast east and west from Penobscot to Cape Cod, and bartered with the natives for beaver and other furs. By this voyage he made a profit of nearly £1500. From the observations which he now made on shores, islands, harbours, and headlands, he, on his return home, formed a map, which is and presented it to prince Charles, who, in the warmth of ad- now called

New Eng miration, declared, that the country should be called New Eng- land. land.1

Smith, in his late voyage to this country, made several dis- Discoveries coveries, and distinguished them by peculiar names.

N. England. northern promontory of Massachusetts Bay, forming the eastern entrance into the bay, he named Tragabigzanda, in honour of a Turkish lady, to whom he had been formerly a slave at Constantinople. Prince Charles, however, in filial respect to his mother, called it Cape Ann; a name which it still retains. The three Cape Ann, small islands, lying at the head of the promontory, Smith called the Three Turks Heads, in memory of his victory over three Three Turkish champions; but this name was also changed. Another Turks?

. cluster of islands, to which the discoverer gave his own name, Smith's Isles, were afterward denominated the Isles of Shoals, I. of Shoals. and still retain that name.

The base and perfidious action of one man subjected English Hunt caradventurers to present inconvenience, and to future dangers. Of the naSmith had left behind him one of his ships to complete her tives.

The of Smith in

common report, that “ by the permission of king James they had granted from him to their States, only a certain island, called therefore by them States Island [Staten Island), at a watery place for their West India fleets; although as they have incroached upon, so they have given it a new Dutch name, .... wiping out the old English names in those parts in America in their old Sea Charts, and have new Dutchified them.”—The name Manhattan appears to have been the name of the Indian tribe that was settled in that region. "They deeply mistake themselves who interprett the General name of Manhattans unto the particular towne built upon a little Island, because it signified the whole countrey and Province." “ The Dutch Plantations-then [time of king James) called by the generall name of Manhattans, after the name of the Indians they were first settled by.” Declaration delivered to the Governor and Council of Maryland by the agents of the Dutch Governor Stuyvesant, 1659, in the Collections of N. York Hist. Society, iii. 375. See A. D. 1623.

1 Smith, Virg. New England, b. 6. Purchas, v. 1838. I. Mather, N. Eng. 1. Hubbard, N. Eng. c. 2. Mather, Magnal, b. 1. c. 1. Harris' Voy. i. 850. Chalmers, b. 1. c. 4. Belknap, Biog. Art. Smith, i. 305. Robertson, b. 10. I. Mather says, this country had been known several years before, by the name of the Northern Plantations. “ I was to have staid there,” says Smith, “with but sixteen men.” This whole company consisted of 45 men and boys;

« 37 of the company fished.”

2 Hubbard, c. 18. “Neither of them glorying in these Mahometan titles,"

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