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French Protestants, and, together with its trade, put into the hands of 100 persons, called the Company of a hundred Associates, at the head of which was the cardinal himself, with the mareschal Defiat, and other persons of eminence.

setts sold to


1628. This

year was laid the foundation of the colony of Massachu- March 19. setts. The council for New England, on the 19th of March, Patent for sold to Sir Henry Roswell, Sir John Young, and four other associates in the vicinity of Dorchester in England, a patent for Sir H. Rosall that part of New England lying between three miles to the northward of Merrimack river and three miles to the southward of Charles river, and in length within the described breadth from the Atlantic ocean to the South Sea. Mr. White, minister in Dorchester, being engaged at that juncture in projecting an asylum for silenced Nonconformist ministers, the grantees, by his means, became acquainted with several religious persons in Lon- Their rights don and its vicinity, who at first associated with them, and after- purchased ward bought rights in their patent. They next projected a by others ; settlement for the express purpose of providing for Nonconformists a safe retreat, where they might enjoy religious liberty in matters of worship and discipline. The company soon after chose Matthew Cradock governor, and Thomas Goffe, deputy governor, with 18 assistants; and sent over a few people under the who send government of John Endicot, to carry on the plantation at Naum- Endicot keak, and prepare for settling a colony. Endicot, on his arrival, with a few laid the foundation of Salem, the first permanent town in Massa- Naumkoak, chusetts. Several servants were soon sent over from England, wohind a on the joint stock of the company ; but upon their arrival at town.

1 Univ. Hist. xxxix. 422. Charlevoix, Nouv. France, i. 161--165; where is an account of this project for the settlement of Canada. Charlevoix (ibid.) thinks nothing could have been better imagined ; and that France would have been the most powerful colony in America, had the execution been answerable to the design. The full number of the Associates was 107.

2 Prince, 249. Hubbard, N. Eng. c. 18. The Associates were John Winthrop, Isaac Johnson, Matthew Cradock, Thomas Goff, and Sir Richard Saltonstall. They are said to be persons “ of like quality,” as the first purchasers of the patent. Hubbard says, they bought of them all their right and interest in New England; but Prince [247.) from the Massachusetts colony Charter and Records concluded, that three only of the six original grantees wholly sold their rights ; and that the other three retained theirs in equal partnership with the new associates. “ The Planters Plea,” London, 1630, is ascribed to Mr. White.

3 Beside the 18 assistants, there were 20 or 30, who subscribed £1035, to be a common stock to carry on the plantation. The next year £745 more were lent on the same account by several gentlemen. They generally ventured but £25 a piece; some, £50; a few, £75; and the governor, £100. Hubbard, c. 22. Johnson says, that Endicot, who came with the colonists “to govem," was “ a fit instrument to begin this wilderness work; of courage hold, undaunted, yet sociable, and of a cheerful spirit, loving, or austere, as occasion served.” Wonderworking Providence, 19. VOL I.


A few per


1628. Naumkeak, an uncultivated desert, many of them, for want of

wholesome diet and convenient lodgings, died of the scurvy and other distempers.

Six or seven persons, with the consent of governor Endicot, sons settle travelled from Naumkeak through the woods about 12 miles

westward, and came to a neck of land, between Mystic and Charles rivers, called Mishawum. It was full of Indians, called Aberginians; and, with the unconstrained consent of their chief,

they settled there. Patent for The Plymouth colonists obtained a patent for Kennebeck; Kennebeck. and up this river, in a place convenient for trade, erected a house,

and furnished it with corn, and other commodities. While the trade of their infant colony was thus commencing toward the

east, it was becoming gradually extended toward the west. A The Dutch Dutch bark from Manhattan arriving at the trading house at

Monamet, with sugar, linen, stuffs, and various other commodithe people of Plyo ties; a boat was sent from Plymouth for Razier, who conducted

this commercial enterprise ; and he, with most of his company, was entertained at Plymouth several days. On his return to the bark, some of the people of Plymouth acconipanied him, and bought various goods. After this commencement of trade, the Dutch often sent goods to the same place; and a traffic was continued several years. The Plymouth colonists sold much tobacco for linens, stuffs, and other articles; and derived great advantage from this commerce, until the Virginians found out the

Dutch colony.3 Endicot vi.

Mr. Endicot, who had arrived at Naumkeak, as an agent to sits Mount

carry on the plantation there, and manage all the affairs of the Massachusetts patentees, visited the people at Merry Mount; caused their May pole to be cut down ; rebuked them for their

profaneness; and admonished them to reform. Morton, their Morton principal, was incorrigible. Hearing what gain the French and teaches the the fishermen made by selling guns, powder and shot, to the use of fire natives, he began the same trade in his neighbourhood, and




1 Hubbard, New England, c. 18. Prince, 1628. Mather, Magnal. b. 1. 16. Chalmers, b. 1. 136. Bentley (Hist. Salem, Mass. Coll. Hist. Soc. vi. 230.] says, “ The natives had forsaken this spot (Naumkeak] before the English had reached it. On the soil they found no natives, of whom we have any record. No natives ever claimed it, and the possession was uninterrupted.”

2 Prince, 250. This chief was called by the English, John Sagamore. He was the oldest son of the old Aberginian chief, who was then dead. The few Englishmen, who now settled at Mishawum, found but one English house there, “ thatched and palisadoed, possessed by Thomas Walford, a smith.”

3 Prince, 246—248. The Dutch, on this visit, acquainting the people of Plymouth with the trade of wampum, they were induced to purchase that article of the Indians, to the value of about £50. For the two first years it was unsaleable ; but it became afterward a very important article of trade, especially with the inland Indians, who did not make it. See A. D. 1627. Letters then passed; and messengers came to Plymouth; but “ this year the Dutch send to us again-their secretary Rasier comes with them.” Bradford, in Prince.

taught the natives the use of fire arms. The English, meeting 1628. them in the woods, armed in this manner, were greatly intimidated. The chief persons, in the scattered plantations at Pascataqua, Naumkeak, Winisimet, Wessagusset, Nantasket, and other places, met, and agreed to solicit the people of Plymouth, who were stronger than all the other New England colonists combined, to unite with them in the suppression of the alarming evil. The Plymouth colonists, after repeatedly sending friendly messages to Morton, advising him to forbear his injurious courses, and receiving insolent replies, prevailed with the governor of their colony to send Standish, with some aid, to apprehend him. This gallant officer successfully performed the enterprise. Dis- and sent to persing the worst of the company, he brought Morton to Ply- England. mouth, whence he was soon after sent to England.'

Sir Thomas Warner took possession of all the Caribbee islands, Caribbee in the name and for the proper use of the king and crown of England ;2 and again planted the island of Nevis.3

He is seized


1629. On the petition of the Massachusetts company, seconded by March 4. the solicitation of lord Dorchester, king Charles, by charter, Massachuconfirmed the patent of Massachusetts colony. By this patent, setts conthe company was incoporated by the name of “The Governor firmed by and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in New England,” to have perpetual succession ; empowered to elect forever, out of the freemen of said company, a governor, deputy governor, and 18 assistants, to be newly chosen on the last Wednesday in easter term yearly, by the greater part of the company; and to make laws, not repugnant to the laws of England. Matthew Cradock was constituted the first governor; and Thomas Goffe, the deputy governor.

Sir Richard Saltonstall and 17 other persons were constituted assistants. 4

A court of the Massachusetts company was soon after holden April 30. at London, and settled a form of government for the new colony. It ordained, that 13 persons, such as should be reputed the most settled for


1 Hubbard, N. Eng. c. 18. Prince, 251, 252. Josselyn, 251. Morton, 1628. 2 Memoires de l'Amerique, iii. 238.

3 Anderson, 1628. Nevis was settled with about 100 people, many of whom were old planters of St. Christopher's.

4 Mather, Magnalia, b. 1. 16. Prince, 180. Chalmers, b. 1, 136, from the N. England papers, bundle 5. Univ. Hist. xxxix. 277. This first charter of Massachusetts was first printed in Hutchinson's Collection of Papers, 1—23. It is in Hazard's Collection, i. 239—255, and in Charters and General Laws of the Colony and Province of Massachusetts Bay. By some historians this patent is placed in 1628 ; but, beginning the year in January, according to New Style, it was in 1629. Chalmers, from the New England Entry in the Plantation office, has it correctly, “1628–9.” The king's attestation was : " Witnes ourself, at Westminster, the fourth day of Marche in the fourth yeare of our raigne.” The accession of Charles was 27 March, 1625.

setts co

Officers chosen.

1629. wise, honest, expert, and discreet, resident on the colonial planta

tion, should, from time to time, bave the sole management of the Massachu- government and affairs of the colony ; and they, to the best of lony.

their judgment, were to "endeavour to so settle the same,” as
might “ make most to the glory of God, the furtherance and
advancement of this hopeful plantation, the comfort, encourage-
ment, and future benefit” of the company, and of others, con-
cerned in the commencement or prosecution of the work. The
persons, thus appointed, were to be entitled “ The Governor
and Council of London's Plantation in Massachusetts Bay, in
New England."1
The same court elected John Endicot to be governor

of the colony; and Francis Higginson with six others to be the council. These seven counsellors were empowered to choose three others; and such of the former planters, as were willing to live within the limits of the plantation, were empowered to choose two more, to make the council to consist of 12; one of whom was by the governor and council, or the major part of them, to be chosen deputy to the governor for the time being. These persons were to continue in office for a year, or until the court of the company in London should appoint others; and the governor, or in his absence the deputy governor, might call courts at dis

cretion. Encourage- At a court of the company holden at London in May, it was ment to set- agreed, that every adventurer, who had advanced £50, should

have 200 acres of land allowed him; and that 50 acres a piece should be allowed them, who went over at their own charge. Several persons, of considerable importance in the English nation, were now enlisted among the adventurers, who, for the unmolested enjoyment of their religion, were resolved to remove into Massachusetts. Foreseeing, however, and dreading the inconvenience of being governed by laws made for them without their own consent, they judged it more reasonable, that the colony should be ruled by men residing in the plantation, than by those dwelling at the distance of 3000 miles, and over whom they should have no controul. At the same time, therefore, that they proposed to transport themselves, their families, and estates to this country, they insisted that the charter should be transmitted

with them, and that the corporate powers, conferred by it, should Aug. 26.

be executed in future in New England. An agreement was Agreement accordingly made at Cambridge in England between Sir Richard bridge in Saltonstall, Thomas Dudley, Isaac Johnson, John Winthrop, and England. a few others, that, on those conditions, they would be ready the

ensuing March, with their persons and families, to embark for

at Cam

1 This act for settling the government is in Hazard, Coll. i. 268—271.

New England, for the purpose of settling in the country. The 1629. governor and company, entirely disposed to promote the measure, called a general court; at which the deputy governor stated, that several gentlemen, intending to go to New England, were desirous to know, whether the chief government with the patent would be settled in Old or New England. This question caused a serious debate. The court was adjourned to the next day, Aug. 29. when it was decreed, that the government and the patent of the Governplantation should be transferred from London to Massachusetts ment of the

colony Bay. An order was drawn up for that purpose, in pursuance transferred of which, a court was holden for a new election of officers, who

to N. Eng.

land. would be willing to remove with their families; and John Winthrop was chosen governor ; John Humfrey, deputy governor ; and Sir Richard Saltonstall, Isaac Johnson, Thomas Dudley and others, were chosen assistants.? The infant colony at Naumkeak had, in the mean time, been

Progress of making progress. In the lord treasurer's warrant for the colonists Naumkeak. to go to New England, dated the 16th of April, liberty was given to 60 women and maids, 26 children, 300 men with victuals, arms, apparel, tools, 140 head of cattle, some horses, sheep, and goats; which were transported in six ships in the summer of this year. Three of the ships sailed from the Isle of Wight in May, carrying about 200 persons, with an abundance of all things necessary to form a settlement; and in June arrived at Naumkeak. This aboriginal name was exchanged by these settlers for one, expressive of the peaceful asylum which they found in the American wilderness. They called the place Salem. Now called It contained, at the time of their arrival, but six houses, beside Salem. that of governor Endicot; and there were in the whole colony but 100 planters.3

1 « We will so really endeavour the execution of this worke, as by God's assistance we will be ready in our persons, and with such of our severall familyes as are to go with us—to embarke for the said plantation by the first of March next-to passe the seas (under God's protection) to inhabite and continue in New England. Provided always that before the last of September next the whole government together with the patent for the said plantation be first legally transferred,” &c. Hutchinson, Coll. 25, 26, where is The true coppie of the agreement at Cambridge, August 26, 1629.”

2 Hubbard, N. Eng. c. 22. Prince, 262-267. Chalmers, b. 1. 150, 151.

3 Chalmers [b. 1. 142, 143.) says, there were then at Salem eight miserable hovels. Mather, Magnalia, b. 1. 10. Univ. Hist. xxxix. 278. Prince, 257--261. Higginson's MS. Journal says, they arrived at Naumkeak June 29. In Hazard's Coll. [i. 277—285.] there is a letter from the company to “ Captain Jo. Endycott, and the Councell in New England,” dated London 28 May, and Gravesend 3 June, 1629, giving notice of the establishment of Endicot as * present governor," and subjoining instructions for the management of the colony, The governor and council were desired to “ appoint a carefull and dilligent Overseer to each familie," to see that the servants, sent over for the company, were employed in their proper business. Blank books were sent, to be distributed

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