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1629. Dissatisfied with the situation at Salem, Thomas Graves, with

some of the company's servants under his care, and others, to June. the number of 100 in all, removed to Mishawum, where they 100 persons laid the foundation of a town, to which, with the consent of Mishawum; governor Endicot, they gave the name of Charlestown. Mr. and found

Graves laid out the town in two acre lots, one of which he asCharles

signed to each inhabitant; and afterward he built a great house for the accommodation of those who were soon to come over to New England."

Two hundred settled at Salem, and, by general consent of the old planters, were combined with them into one body politic, under the same governor. It being early resolved to settle in a church state, 30 persons, who commenced the church, judged it

needful to enter solemnly into covenant, to walk together accordAug. 6. ing to the Word of God. Inviting the church of Plymouth to Church the solemnity, that they might have its approbation and concurgathered & ministers

rence, if not direction and assistance, they solemnly declared their ordained at assent to a confession of faith, drawn up by one of their minisSalem.

ters, and entered into a religious covenant. They then ordained their ministers, and a ruling elder, by the imposition of the hands of some of the brethren, appointed by the church; and governor Bradford and others, messengers from the church of Plymouth, gave them the right hand of fellowship. “ They aimed,” says Hubbard, " to settle a Reforined Church, accord

among the overseers, who were “ to keep a perfect Register of the dayly worke done by each person in each familie," a copy of which was to be sent once every half year to England. The instructions say, “ for the better governing and ordering of our people, especiallie such as shall be negligent and remiss in the performance of their dutyes, or otherwise exorbitant, our desire is, that a house of correccon be erected and set upp, both for the punishment of such offenders, and to deterr others by their example from such irregular courses. Caution was given against the culture of that vile weed, which was considered as the source of great evil to society : “ And as in our former, soe now againe wee espetially desire you to take care that noe tobacco bee planted by any of the new Planters under your government; unless it be some small quantitie for meere necessitie, and for phisick for preservacon of their healths, and that the same bee taken privately by auntient men and none other.” An injunction was given, “ to bee very circumspect in the infancie of the plantacon, to settle some good orders,” to promote industry, " that noe idle drone be permitted to live amongst us; which if you take care now at the first to establish, will be an undoubted meanes, through God's assistance, to prevent a world of disorders, and many grevious sinns and sinners."

1 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. i. 123, 124. Chalmers, b. 1. 143. Prince, 261.

2 Prince, 273. One of the ministers was Mr. Francis Higginson, of Leices. tershire, who had been silenced for nonconformity; the other was Mr. Skelton, of Lincolnshire, who had suffered persecution for the same cause. Both were eminent for learning and virtue, and came to New England by invitation of those who were engaged in prosecuting the settlement of Salem. “ As they had been ministers ordained by bishops in the church of England, this ordination was only to the care of this particular flock, founded on their free election.” The ruling elder was Mr. Houghton.


ing to their apprehension of the rules of the gospel, and the pat- 1629. tern of the best Reformed Churches."

Captain John Mason procured a new patent under the com- Nov. 7. mon seal of the Council of Plymouth for the territory about Patent of Pascataqua. The patent conveyed the land from the middle New Hamppart of Merrimack river, and from thence northward along the sea coast to Pascataqua river, and up the same to the farthest head thereof, and from thence northwestward until 60 miles from the first entrance of Pascataqua river, and also through Merrimack river to the farthest head thereof, and so forward up into the land westward, until 60 miles were finished, and from thence to cross over land to the end of the 60 miles accounted from Pascataqua river, together with all islands and islets within five leagues distance of the premises. This tract of land was afterward called NEW HAMPSHIRE."

A commission having been given by Charles I. to David Kertk3 and his valiant kinsmen, to conquer the American dominions of France, Kertk had attacked Canada in July 1628, and still carried on his military operations with vigour. Louis and Thomas Kertk, appearing again at this time off Point Levi, sent an officer on shore to Quebec, to summon the city to surrender. Champlain, who had the chief command, knowing his

this “

1 Higginson, New England's Plantation, in Collections of Mass. Hist. Soc. i. 123, 124. Hubbard, N. Eng. c. 21. Chalmers, b. 1. 143. Josselyn, Voy. 251. Prince, 263, 264. The brief account of N. Eng. Plantation, first printed in London, is said in the title page to be “written in the year 1629 by Mr. Higgeson, a Reverend Divine now there resident.” It is “reprinted” in the Hist. Collections “ from the third edition, London, 1630.” The church Covenant is preserved in Bentley's History of Salem, Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. vi. 283, Appendix, No. Iv; in Mather's Magnalia b. 1. 18, 19; and in the Appendix to Mr. Upham's Dedication Sermon, 1826. In an account of the first Century Lecture, held at Salem August 6, 1729, “ in the meeting house of the first church here, in commemoration of the good hand of the Lord in founding that church, on August 6, 1629, just one hundred years ago,” it is remarked, that

was the first congregational church that was completely formed and organized on the whole American continent.” Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iv. 219.

2 Hazard, Coll. i. 290—293, where there is a copy of the Grant from the File in the Secretary's Office of New Hampshire. Belknap, Hist. New Hampshire, i. c. 1. See A. D. 1623. An instrument, purporting to be a "Deed from four Indian sagamores to John Wheelwright and others, 1629,” is pronounced a forgery. Dr. Belknap has inserted it in vol. i. Appendix, No. 1. of his History. That very intelligent and respectable historian believed it to be genuine ; and, until very lately, it appears to have been doubted by none. The inquisitive and indefatigable Editor of Winthrop's Journal, James Savage, Esq. is acknowledged by competent judges to have proved the supposed Indian deed, a forgery. See Savage's Edition of Winthrop, i. 201, 290, and Note H in the Appendix. “Since the failure of the Wheelwright deed, the above grant [to captain John Mason] must be considered the basis of our history, so far as any grants are concerned." Mr. Farmer's Letter to me, from Concord, N. Hampshire.

3 The English writers commonly write the name Kirk: I write it as he wrote it himself. It is a French name. Charlevoix says, Kertk was a native of France, and a protestant refugee in England; “ David KERTK, François, natif de Dieppe, mais Calviniste et refugié en Angleterre.” Nouv. France, i. 165.

Quebec is taken from

by the

1629. means to be inadequate to a defence, surrendered the city by

capitulation. The terms of this capitulation were very favouraJuly 19.

ble to the French colony; and they were so punctually and

honourably fulfilled by the English, that the greater part of the the French French chose to remain with their captors, instead of going, as Kertks.

had been stipulated, to France. Thus was the capital of New France subdued by the arms of England, just 130 years before its final conquest by the celebrated Wolfe.

Although the subjects of different nations now traded with the

natives in the bay of Delaware ; no settlements appear to have Colony set- yet been formed on either margin of it, by the Dutch or Swedes.3 tled at Man- The Hollanders, resolved to establish a colony at Manhattan, hattan.

appointed Van Twiller governor, who arrived at Fort Amsterdam in June, and began to grant lands the subsequent year; at which

time commenced the first permanent settlement of the Dutch.4 New at- The project for settling Guiana was now revived. Four ships lemputo set with nearly 200 persons arrived there from England ; and pre

parations were made for another embarkation. One hundred English and Irish people went from Holland to the same country, conducted by the old planters. Roger North, who was a principal person in effecting this settlement, seated his colony about 100 leagues in the main land,5

1 Champlain, Voy. sec. part. 157–160 ; 214—220; where are the Letters of correspondence between the Kertks and Champlain, and the Articles of capitulation. See also Treaty about the limits of Acadie, 703. The spirited answer of Champlain at the first summons to surrender in 1628, and Kertk’s ignorance of the real state of the French garrison, are the only apparent causes of the failure of the English in their first attempt on Quebec. Charlevoix (Nouv. France, i. 166.] says, the French in Quebec were then reduced to seven ounces of bread each, a day; and that they had but five pounds of powder in the magazine. Some time before the surrender, their provisions were entirely exhausted: “trois mois après que les vivres eurent manqué absolument.” The capitulation was signed by the two younger brothers 19 July, and ratified by the elder 19 August. A copy of it is in Memoires de l'Amerique, ii. 490, with this subscription : "Les susdits articles, accordès avec les sieurs de Champlain & du Pont, tant par les frères Louis & Thomas Kertk, je les accepte & ratifie &c. David KERTK.

Fait à Tadoussac, ce 19 Aout.
style neuf, 1629.”

A peace had already been concluded between France and England, though the news of it had not yet reached Canada. It is afterwards referred to, in articles of agreement between the English and French ministers, “pour restitution des choses qui ont esté prises depuis le Traité fait entres les deux Couronnes," in Denys, 238—253. See A. D. 1632.

2 Univ. Hist. xxxix. 423. Brit. Emp. (Introd.) i. 47. Chalmers, b. 1. 93. 3 Chalmers, b. 1. 227. See A. D. 1627.

4 Smith, N. York, 3. Chalmers [b. 1.570.] supposes, that settlement“ now probably acquired the name of New Netherlands, though this people, like the French and English, were never able to assign to them any specific boundaries." It has been found convenient to use the name of New Netherlands, and to style the Dutch there, a colony ; but neither of these terms appears to be strictly applicable until this time. See a. d. 1613, 1623.

5 Smith, in Churchill, Voy. ii. c. 24. A party of men, sent out for discovery, found many towns well inhabited; most of the people entirely naked; but they

In the Somer Isles there were, at this time, between 2000 and 1629. 3000 inhabitants. Charles Saltonstall, son of Sir Samuel Saltonstall, sailed from England to Barbadoes, with nearly 200 W. India people, accompanied by Sir William Tufton, governor for Bar- islands. badoes, and carrying what was necessary for a plantation. There were now on that island, and going to it, about 1500 or 1600 people ; and in all the Caribbee islands, inclusive of those actually preparing to settle in them, there were nearly 3000. About this time, the English are said to have begun to plant on the island of Providence, the chief of the Bahama islands.?


By the agency of the earl of Warwick and Sir Ferdinando Jan. 13. Gorges, Plymouth colony obtained from the council for New Last patept

PlymEngland its last patent. This patent, dated the 13th of January, outh. conveyed a considerable territory around the original settlement.

The limits of the grant are thus defined : “ All that part of New England lying between Cohasset rivulet toward the north, and Narraganset river toward the south; the great western ocean [the Atlantic] toward the east, and a strait line extending into the main land toward the west from the mouth of Narraganset river to the utmost bounds of a country in New England, called Pokenakut, alias Sowamset; and another like strait line, extending directly from the mouth of Cohasset river toward the west, so far into the main land westward as the utmost limits of Pokenakut, alias Sowamset.” It also conveyed a tract of land on the river Kennebeck, extending from the utmost limits of Cobbiseconte which adjoins that river toward the western ocean, and a place called the Falls at Nequamkike, and 15 miles each side of Kennebeck river, and all the river itself. By this charter the colonists were allowed to make orders, ordinances, and constitutions, for the ordering, disposing, and governing their persons, and distributing the lands within the limits of the patent.3

saw “not any such giant women as the river's name (Amazons) importeth.” Oldys does not expressly notice this settlement of 1629; but says, that “some other little attempts were made there” several years after 1620; and subjoins : “ But how all this spacious and fruitful country has been since shamefully deserted, by the English especially; the quiet possession there by the Spaniards, to this day, is sufficient witness.” Life of Raleghi, 223.

1 Smith, ut supra, c. 22, 25, 26. 2 Anderson, ii. 339; “ till then quite uninhabited." 3 Plymouth Laws, Preface. Prince, 196–198. Hazard, Coll. i. 298–303 ; where is an entire copy of this Patent. It has been erroneously supposed, that the Plymouth colonists, previous to the reception of this charter, had no right to their lands, but what arose from occupancy. The truth is, that, as soon as they knew of the establishment of the Council of New England, they despatched an agent to England to apply for a patent; Sir F. Gorges interested himself in the affair ; and the application was successful. As early as 6 July 1621, the VOL. I.



1630. The colony of Plymouth then contained nearly three hundred

souls. Winthrop

A fleet of 14 sail, with men, women, and children, and procomes with visions, having been prepared early in the year to make a firm Massachu. plantation in New England, 12 of the ships arrived early in July

at Charlestown. In this fleet came governor Winthrop, deputy governor Dudley, with several other gentlemen of wealth and quality. In the same fleet came about 840 passengers, of various occupations, some of whom were from the west of England; but the greatest part from the vicinity of London. The expense of this equipment and transportation was £21,200.

Warham, Maverick, Rossiter, and Ludlow, arriving earlier than May 30. many of the company, were put on shore at Nantasket. Pro

ceeding in a boat to Charlestown, they found there several wigwams, a few English people, and one house with an old

planter, who could speak the Indian language. Ascending Dorchester

Charles river, until it became narrow and shallow, they landed their goods at a well watered place ;4 whence, a few days


merchant adventurers in England wrote to governor Carver of Plymouth. “We have procured you a Charter” &c. This was taken in the name of John Pierce, in trust for the colony. In 1623, Pierce, who had obtained another patent, of larger extent, in his own name, sold it to the company of adventurers. See that year. In 1627, the Plymouth colonists bought of the adventurers in England all their shares, stocks, merchandizes, lands, and chattels. See that year. Prince, 198, 204, 217, 268. Belknap, Biog. i. 366 ; i. 234. Chalmers [b. 1. 87.] says: “ As they had freely placed themselves within the boundaries of the Plymouth company's patent, they necessarily consented to obey its ordinances ; though that body seems never to have exercised any authority over them.On this passage Dr. Belknap has remarked in the margin of Chalmers, with his pen: That body granted them a Charter in 1622, and another in 1629, by virtue of which they had legal authority to govern themselves."

1 Chalmers, b. 1. 97. Neal, N. Eng. i. 128. Callender, R. Island, 10. . 2 Prince says, they were ready in February, but staid at “ Southampton and thereabouts” till May, to take 260 kine, with other live cattle &c. p. 271. Chalmers [b. 1. 151.] says, 17 vessels sailed from Southampton; Prince says, that 17 were employed from February to August; and he distinctly enumerates them in “A list of ships which arrived in New England this year," inserted in his Appendix to 1630, p. 329. It there appears, that 7, at least, sailed from Southampton, perhaps 4 more. About 1500 people had been waiting in different places, to sail.

3 Mr. Dudley was chosen in the place of Mr. Humfrey, who “being to stay behind, is discharged of his deputyship, and in his place Mr. Dudley chosen deputy governor.” Prince, 275; who says, “ This is the last record of the Massachusetts Company in England.” This election was at a meeting on board the Arbella, on the 23 of March. The four principal ships, the Arbella, the Ambrose, the Jewel, and the Talbot, were on the 29th of March, riding at Cowes, and ready to sail. Winthrop’s History, i. 1, 2. Johnson says, the Arbella was the Eagle; “ for so they called the Eagle, which the company purchased, in honour of the lady Arrabella, wife to that godly esquire, Izack Johnson.” Wonderwork. Prov. c. 14. Among the colonists who were distinguished in civil life, beside Winthrop and Dudley, there now came over, Sir Richard Saltonstall, Ludlow, Rossiter, Nowel, T. Sharp, Pynchon, S. Bradstreet, Johnson, Coddington ; the eminent ministers were, John Wilson, George Phillips, John Maverick, and John Warham. Prince, 281.

4 Prince, 277. The “well watered place” was afterward called Watertown. They landed their goods with much labour, " the bank being steep.” The steep

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