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covers Brazil.

1500. Before Pinzon reached Europe, the coast which he had dis

covered, had been taken possession of by the nation to whom it was allotted. The fertile district of country, “ on the confines of which Pinzon stopped short,” was very soon more fully discovered. Pedro Alvarez Cabral, sent by Emanuel, king of Portugal, with 13 ships, on a voyage from Lisbon to the East Indies,

in order to avoid the calms on the Guinea shore, fetched a comApril 23.

pass so far westward, as, by accident, to discover land in the Cabral dis.. 10th degree south of the equinoctial line. Proceeding along

the coast several days, he was led from its extent to believe, that it must be a part of some great continent; and, on account of a cross which he erected there with much ceremony, he called it,

The Land of the Holy Cross; but it was afterward called Brasil. May 1.

Having taken possession of it for the crown of Portugal, he Tabice.pos despatched a ship to Lisbon with an account of this important

discovery, and pursued his voyage.

The Portuguese king, on receiving the intelligence, sent ships, to discover the whole country, and found it to be the land of America. A controversy hence arose between hiin and the king of Spain; but they being kinsmen and near friends, it was ultimately agreed, that the king of Portugal should hold all the country that he had discovered, which was from the river of Maragnon, or Amazons, to the river of Plate.2

The implacable enemies of Columbus renewing their com

women fought with as much courage in defence of those parts, as the men."
Dr. Robertson, who says, that Pinzon “ seems to have landed on no part of the
coast beyond the mouth of the Amazons," meant, doubtless, to the north of
that river.-The Pinzons were natives of Palos, excellent seamen, and among
the first people of the place. Vincent Yañez supplied an eighth of the expenses
of this expedition, in which two of the brothers embarked also, one as captain,
the other as master of the Pinta.--A river in Guiana is still named after him, the
Wiapoc of the French; but Pinzon's name ought to be preserved. Southey.
In Raynal's Atlas, No. 20, I find a river, “F. d'eyapock," about 4° north of the
equator, which seems to be the Pinzon of the Spaniards. The river, which
was named after him," was the original boundary between the Spanish and the
Portuguese ; and Charles V. ordered a pillar to be erected beside it. After the
French settled in Guiana, this pillar was known only by tradition ; but in 1723,
an officer of the garrison of Para discovered it.” Southey, c. 1. from Berredo.
1 Herrera,

d. 1. lib. 4. c. 6. Purchas, i. 825. Robertson, b. 2. Forster, 263. Prince, A. D. 1500. Bibliotheca Americana, 50. Alcedo, Art. Porto Seguro. Forster says, “it was named Brasil from a certain wood which dyes red; a name previously known to the Arabians.” The trade to this coast for that valuable wood became, soon after, so well known, “ that in consequence the coast and the whole country obtained the name of Brazil.” Southey, Hist. Brazil, c. 1. The port and territory, now first discovered by the Portuguese, the commander called Seguro; where the Cross then erected, or its representative, “is still shown, and the inhabitants of that town pride themselves because it is the spot where Brazil was taken possession of for Portugal and Christianity." Southey, from Lindley's Narrative. It is said by this historian, “ that name has been transferred to a place four leagues south, where the city has been built ; and the port in which Cabral anchored is now called Cabralia."

2 Purchas, v. 1437. Southey, Brazil, i. 8.

A new govo ervor ar

chains.

plaints against him, the king and queen of Spain sent Bovadilla 1500. as a judge, with power to inquire into his conduct; and with authority, if he should find the accusations proved, to send him Aug. 23. into Spain, and to remain himself, as governor. Bovadilla, on his arrival at Hispaniola, thoroughly executed his commission. rives at He assumed the government of the colony, and sent Columbus Hispaniola, home in chains. The captain of the vessel, in which Columbus home Cosailed, touched with respect for his years and merit, offered to Jumbus in take off his irons ; but he did not allow it. 6. Since the king has commanded, that I should obey his governor, he shall find me as obedient to this, as I have been to all his other orders. Nothing, but his commands, shall release me. If twelve years' hardship and fatigue; if continual dangers, and frequent famine; if the ocean, first opened, and five times passed and repassed, to add a new world, abounding with wealth, to the Spanish monarchy; and if an infirm and premature old age, brought on by those services, deserve these chains as a reward; it is very fit I should wear them to Spain, and keep them by me as memorials to the end of my life.” He accordingly kept them until his death. “I always saw those irons in his room,” says his son Ferdinand, " which he ordered to be buried with his body."

Portugal, at that time still in her glory, disregarding the donation made by the pope, and the compromise for half the world, to which she had reluctantly agreed, viewed all the discoveries, made by Spain in the New World, as so many encroachments on her own rights and property. Under the influence of this Cortereal's national jealousy, Gaspar de Cortereal, a Portuguese, of respect- voyage to able family, inspired with the resolution of discovering new coun- land ; protries, and a new route to India, sailed from Lisbon, with two ceeds to ships, at his own cost. In the course of his navigation, he arrived at Newfoundland, at a bay, which he named Conception Terra Bay; explored the whole eastern coast of the island; and pro- since, Ter

, ceeded to the mouth of the great river of Canada. He after- ra de Corwards discovered a land, which he at first named Terra Verde, tereal; but which, in remembrance of the discoverer, was afterwards called Terra de Cortereal. That part of it, which, being on the

Canada; discovers

1 Life of Columbus, c. 85, 86. Herrera, d. 1. lib. 4. c. 7—10. Europ. Settlements, i. 43–45. Belknap, on the Discovery of America. Columbus was peremptorily commanded by the royal authority to deliver up all the fortified places; and he was required to submit himself to Bovadilla in this extraordinary letter of credence: “The King and the Queen: D. Christopher Columbus, our Admiral of the ocean: We have commanded the Commendador Francisco de Bobadilla, the bearer of this, to speak to you, on our part, of certain things which he will mention; we desire you to give him faith and credence, and to comply therewith. Madrid, May twentysixth, the year ninetynine.--I the King. -I the Queen.-By command.-Miguel Perez de Almazan.” Translated from the original in Navarrete's Coleccion, ii. 240. North American Review, No. LV.

2 Herrera says, they were caravels" con dos caravelas."

dor.

south side of the 50th degree of north latitude, he judged to be

fit for cultivation, he named Terra de Labrador. Returning, and Labra- and communicating the news of his discovery to bis native coun

try, he hastened back, to visit the coast of Labrador, and to go

to India through the Straits of Anian, which he imagined he had On his re- just discovered. Nothing, however, was afterwards heard of turn to this him. It is presumed that he was either murdered by the Esquicountry, he is lost. maux savages, or perished among the ice. On this disastrous

event, a brother of Cortereal undertook the same voyage, with two ships; but probably met with a similar fate, for he was heard of no more.

1501. The king of Portugal, on receiving intelligence of Cabral's Voyage of discovery, fitted out three ships to explore the country, and gave Amerigo the command to Amerigo Vespucci, whom he invited for that Vespucci to Brazil. purpose

from Seville. They sailed in May, and, after a very tempestuous voyage of three months, made land in 50 south latitude. Having coasted on northward till they advanced as far as 32°, they left the coast, and struck out to sea. Standing to the southward till they reached 52°, they found it expedient to return, and they reached Lisbon after a voyage of sixteen months.2

1502. RodiGERO DE BAstidas, in partnership with John de la Cosa, Voyages of fitted out two ships from Cadiz. Sailing toward the western Bastidas, continent, he arrived on the coast of Paria ; and, proceeding to

the west, discovered all the coast of the province since known

by the name of Terra Firma, from Cape de Vela to the Gulf of and Ojeda. Darien. Ojeda, with his former associate Amerigo Vespucci,

went on a second voyage. Unacquainted with the destination of Bastidas, he held the same course, touched at the same places, and proceeded to Hipaniola. These voyages tended to increase the ardour for discovery 3

1 Forster, Voy. 460, 462. Harris, Voy. i. 270. Purchas, i. 915. Venegas, California, i. 118. Life of Columbus, c. 9. Anderson, A. D. 1500. The Straits of Anian, confounded by many geographers with Beering's Straits, meant, in the 16th century, Hudson's Straits. They took the name of Anian from one of the two brothers, embarked on board the vessel of Gaspar de Cortereal. Humboldt, New Spain, ii. 250 ; who refers to the learned researches of M. de Fleurieu, in the historical Introduction to the Voyage de Marchand, tom. i. p. v.

2 Southey's Brazil, c. 1. Neither Hakluyt, Purchas, Harris, nor Perrier, mentions any voyage of Amerigo. The Atlas Geographicus gives us two from Grynæus, the first in 1497, the second in 1500; but Herrera says, they were proved to be mere impositions of Amerigo, and that he only went twice with Ojedo. Prince, A. D. 1501. Grynæus, c. 114—124. Collection of Voyages, Lond. 1789. Bibliotheca Americana has a book with this title: “ Americi Vesputii Navigatio tertia a Lisbonæ portu cum tribus Conservantiæ Navibus ad Novum Orbem ulterius detegendum, die Maii decima 1501.”

3 Robertson, b. 2. Prince Chron. Jocelyn, Voy. 270. Harris (i. 270.), citing Galvano, places the voyage of Bastidas in 1502. After collating the accounts

.

Columbus exhibited so many charges at the court of Spain 1502. against Bovadilla, demanding justice at the same time for the injuries which he had done him, that their Catholic majesties resolved to send another governor to Hispaniola. Nicholas de Ovando, knight of the order of Alcantara, being appointed to this office, he sailed on the 13th of February for America, with Feb. 13. 32 ships, in which 2500 persons embarked, with the intention A new of settling in the country. This was the most respectable arma- Spanish ment, hitherto fitted out for the New World. On the arrival of embarks for this new governor, Bovadilla, whose imprudent administration America threatened the settlement with ruin, resigned his charge; and persons. was commanded to return instantly to Spain, to answer for his conduct. Ovando was particularly charged by the queen, that the Indians of Hispaniola should be free from servitude, and protected, like the subjects of Spain ; and that they should be carefully instructed in the Christian faith. By coinmand of their majesties, both Spaniards and Indians were to pay tithes; none were to live in the Indies, but natives of Castile ; none to go on discoveries, without leave from their highnesses; no Jews, Moors, nor new converts, to be tolerated in the Indies; and all that had been taken from the admiral and his brothers, was to be restored to them. In the large fleet, that now arrived, came over ten Franciscan friars; and these were the first ecclesiastics of that order, who came to settle in the Indies.

Columbus, acquitted at the court of Spain with the promise of restitution and reward, required but few incentives to engage once more in discoveries. His ambition was, to arrive at the

May 11. East Indies, and thus to surround the globe. On this prospect, Fourth and he was fitted out in May on his fourth and last voyage, under the last voyage royal patronage, with a squadron of four vessels, having 150 per- bus. sons on board, among whom were his brother Bartholomew, and his son Ferdinand, the writer of his life. In 21 days after his departure from Cadiz he arrived at Dominica; and in 26, at Hispaniola. Soon after his arrival at this island, apprehending June 29. an approaching storm, he advised a fleet, then ready for sea, not Hispaniola. to leave the port; but his advice was disregarded. The fleet, consisting of 28 sail, within 40 hours after its departure was overtaken by a terrible tempest; and of the whole number of vessels, four only were saved. Among those that were lost, Shipwreck was the ship in which was Bovadilla, the governor, who had of Bovadil

with Southey, who assigns a voyage of Amerigo Vespucci, in which Ojeda is not mentioned, to the year 1501, this appeared the most probable order of dates.

1 Herrera, d. 1. lib. 4. c. 12, 13; & lib. 5. c. 1. Robertson, b. 2.

2 Life of Columbus, c. 77, 78. P. Martyr (102, 206.) says, there were 170 men : “cum hominibus centum septuaginta.” Herrera, d. 1. lib. 5. c. 1, 2. Belknap, Biog. i. 116, 117. Cuarto y último Viage de Cristobal Colon.

1502. sent Columbus, in a tyrannical and scandalous manner, to Spain.

Roldan and the greater part of the enemies of Columbus were swallowed up at the same time, with the immense wealth, which they had unjustly acquired. The fate of the Indian king of Magua, now also lost, was less horrible than the outrage that preceded it. He had offered to till the ground, to the extent of fifty miles, for the Spaniards, if they would spare him and his people from the mines. A Spanish captain, in return for this generous proposal, ravished his wife; and the unhappy king, who secreted himself, was taken and sent on board the fleet, to

be carried to Spain.” Aug. 14. After the storm, Columbus sailed to the continent, and disDiscovers covered the Bay of Honduras, where he landed; then proceeded Honduras, along the main shore to Cape Gracias a Dios; and thence to the

isthmus of Darien, where he hoped, but in vain, to find a passage to the South Sea. At the isthmus he found a harbour, which he

entered on the second of November; and, on account of its Porto Bello. beauty and security, called it Porto Bello.

Porto de la Plata, or the Haven of Silver, 35 leagues north

of St. Domingo, was built this year by Ovando.4 Letters pa

Hugh Elliot and Thomas Ashurst, merchants of Bristol, with

two other gentlemen, natives of Portugal, obtained letters patent Henry VII. from Henry VII. for the establishment of colonies in the countries

newly discovered by Cabot. Whether they ever availed themselves of this permission, and made any voyages to the New World, neither their contemporaries, nor subsequent writers, in

On this charter of license, Anderson observes, that

tent from

form us.

1 Life of Columbus, c. 88. Europ. Settlements, i. c. 7. Belknap, Biog. i. 116. Herrera says, the fleet consisted of 31 ships; Spotorno says 28, of which 24 were lost. I have followed Spotorno, and a Spanish copy of Ferdinand Columbus. On board the ship, in which Bovadilla perished, was a mass of gold, estimated at 200,000 pesos, which was designed as a present to the Spanish king and queen. Herrera says; “alli se hondieron los docientos mil pesos, con el monstruoso grano de oro." P. Martyr ascribes the loss of the ship partly to the weight of the gold : “præ nimio gentium et auri pondere, summersa interiit." De Nov. Orb. 101. Purchas remarks, this is “a fit emblem for Christians, who, when they will lade themselves with this thick clay, drown the soule in destruction and perdition.” Pilgrims, i. 723.

2 Purchas, i. 913. The name of the Indian king was Guarinoex: “ allí acobò el Cazique Guarinoex.” Herrera. Vega Real was built upon the very spot where he resided.

3 Herrera, d. 1. lib. 5. c. 6, 7. Robertson, b. 2. Prince, Introd. Belknap's Biography, i. 118. Columbus called Honduras, Punta de Caxinas. The following description of Porto Bello, by Ferdinand Columbus, was probably from personal observation: “ The country about that harbour, higher up, is not very rough, but tilled, and full of houses, a stone's throw or a bow shot one from the other; and it looks the finest landscape a man can imagine.”-A water spout near Porto Bello, 13 December, excited great alarm among the Spaniards. “ If they had not dissolved it,” says the writer, “ by saying the Gospel of St. John, it had certainly sunk whatsoever it fell upon." "Life of Columbus, c. 92.

4 Univ. Hist. xli. 518. This haven was formerly reckoned the second place of consequence in Hispaniola ; but in 1763 it was a mere fishing village.

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