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king Henry pays no regard to the imaginary line of division made 1502. between Spain and Portugal by the pope's authority; and that, according to his genius and former practice, he does not pretend to give one penny toward the enterprise. “It therefore,” he subjoins,“ succeeded no better than Cabot's voyage ; for private adventurers rarely have abilities and patience sufficient to perfect such undertakings, unless supported by the public.”l
but is re
COLUMBUS, leaving Porto Bello, entered the river Yebra on the 1503. 9th of January. The beauty and fertility of the adjacent country invited him to begin a plantation. Remaining at Yebra, he sent Columbus his brother Bartholomew with 68 men in boats to the river Vera- resolves to guay, whence they proceeded to the river Duraba. Finding colony at abundance of gold here, it was concluded to establish a settle- Veraguay ; ment. The Spaniards actually began to erect houses ; but their insolence and rapacity incensed the natives, who, falling upon
pulsed by them, killed several of their number, and obliged them to relin- the natives. quish the design. These Indians were a more hardy race, than those of the islands; and this was the first repulse sustained by the Spaniards. But for this adverse occurrence, Columbus would have had the honour of planting the first colony on the continent of America. Leaving this hostile region, he now sailed for Hispaniola ; but by the violence of a storm was obliged to He is shiprun his ships ashore at Jamaica. In his distress at this island, wrecked at he sent some of the hardiest of his men to Hispaniola, to represent his calamitous situation to the governor, and to solicit vessels to carry him and his people away; but he remained at Jamaica eight months, without the least intelligence from his messengers, or assistance from the governor. The natives becoming exasperated at the delay of the Spaniards, the burden of whose support was intolerable, the inventive genius of Columbus had
1 Hume's Hist. England, c. 26. Anderson, Hist. Commerce, ii. 7. Forster's Voyages, 289, 431. Řymer's Fædera, xiii. 37, and Hazard's Hist. Collections, i. 11-19, where the commission is preserved. Its title is, “ De Potestatibus ad Terras Incognitas Investigandum ;” its address, “ Dilectis Subditis nostris, Hugoni Elyot et Thoma Ashehurste, Mercatoribus Villæ nostræ Bristolliæ, ac, Dilectis nobis, Johanni Gunsalus et Francisco Farnandus, Armigeris, in Insulis de Surrys, sub obedientia Regis Portugaliæ oriundis” &c. It is dated at Westminster on the 9th of December. This was the first charter for a colony granted by the crown of England. See Bozman's History of Maryland, sect. 2. It gave the patentees license, not only to discover new countries, but to take out with them any English subjects, to inhabit and settle in them. « Volumus quod omnes et singulæ tam Viri quam Feminæ hujus regni nostri, terras et insulas hujusmodi sic noviter inventas visitare et in eisdem inhabitare cupientes et desiderantes, possint." Evans, in his Picture of Bristol, says, “Eliot was ranked among the most eminent navigators of his age, though it does not appear that he made any considerable additions to the discoveries of Cabot.”
2 P. Martyr, 214, 215. “ Figere ibi pedem fuit consilium: sed incolæ futuram perniciem olfacientes, vetuerunt. Facto agmine, cum horrendo clamore ruunt in nostros, qui domus ædificare jam cæperant."
1503. recourse to an admirable device, to regain his authority. As
sembling the principal Indians around him, he caused them to Foretells an understand, that the God, whom he served, provoked at their eclipse.
refusal to support the objects of his favourite regard, intended to inflict on them a speedy and severe judgment, of which they would soon see manisest tokens in the heavens ; for on that night the moon should withhold her light, and appear of a bloody hue, as an omen of their approaching destruction. His menacing prediction was ridiculed; but its actual accomplishment, at the precise time foretold, struck the barbarians with terror. This eclipse of the moon, which he had happily foreseen by his skill in astronomy, established his character, as a prophet. The affrighted Indians brought him instantly a plenty of provisions ; they fell at his feet, and besought him in the most suppliant manner, to intercede with the great Spirit to avert the threatened calamity. Apparently moved by their entreaties, he consoled them ; but charged them to atone for their past transgression by their future generosity. The eclipse went off; and from that day the natives were superstitiously cautious of giving offence to the Spaniards.
1504. When the fortitude and skill of Columbus had been tried to
the utmost extent, in repressing the mutinies of his own people, and the violence of the Indians; a ship, generously fitted out by
a private person at Hispaniola, arrived at Jamaica, and carried is taken off him to St. Domingo. Convinced that a dispute with a governor, maica.
in his own jurisdiction, could bring him little advantage or honour, he hastened his preparation for returning to Spain.
On the 2d of September he sailed from Hispaniola. Having Sept. 2.
encountered the most terrible storms in the voyage, and sailed Heseains after losing his mainmast 700 leagues, he with difficulty reached the port of St. Lucar. Here, to his inexpressible grief
, he learnt that his friend and patroness, queen Isabella, was dead. December. She had steadily favoured and supported, while the Catholic
king had opposed and injured him. The value of the Indies becoming daily more apparent, and also the largeness of the share that must fall to the admiral by virtue of the stipulated articles, it had been the selfish policy of Ferdinand to fix the absolute dominion in himself, and to dispose of all the employments, which belonged to the admiral, according to his own pleasure. The conduct of Isabella was more just and generous, as became the greatness of her character. This illustrious woman,
was no less eminent for virtue, than for wisdom; and whether we consider her behaviour as a queen, as a wife, or as a mother,
Arrives there in
1 Life of Columbus, c. 95—103. Herrera, d. 1. lib. 6. c. 5. Purchas, i. 731. Robertson, b. 2. Belknap, Biog. i. 118, 119.
she is justly entitled to the high encomiums bestowed on her by 1504. the Spanish historians.” 1
Bastidas, with the leave of king Ferdinand, went with two Terra ships, to discover that part of Terra Firma, where lay Cartha- Firma: gena. Landing on the island Codego, he took 600 of the natives ; proceeded to the Gulf of Uraba ; and returned to St. Domingo, laden with slaves.?
Some adventurous navigators from Biscay, Bretagne, and NewfoundNormandy, in France, came this year in small vessels, to fish on ery. the banks of Newfoundland; and these were the first French vessels that appeared on the coasts of North America.3
The Indians of Hispaniola having made several attempts to 1505. recover their liberty, the Spaniards considered their conduct as War rerebellious, and took arms, to reduce them to subjection. In newed with violation of a treaty which they had made with the natives, of Hispanithey made war with the cazique of Higuey, a province at the ola. eastern extremity of the island. The cazique, after signalizing himself in defence of his countrymen, was ignominiously hung. Xaraguay, a province extending from the fertile plain where Leogane is now situated to the western extremity of the island, experienced greater treachery and cruelty. It was subject to Anacoana, a female cazique, who was highly respected by the natives, and who had been uniformly friendly to the Spaniards, but was now accused of a design to exterminate them. Her accusers were some of the descendants of Roldan, who had settled in her country, and were exasperated against her for endeavouring to restrain their excesses. Ovando, the Spanish governor, under pretence of making her a respectful visit, marched toward Xaraguay with 300 foot and 70 horsemen. She re
1 Life of Columbus, 94—118. Europ. Settlements, i. 55–60. Univ. Hist. xli. 347. Belknap, Disc. on Discovery of America, 115. Bacon's History of Henry VII. Robertson's History Charles V. ii. b. 1. Mezeray, referring to Isabella, says, “The Spaniards extol her above all other heroines.” Hist. France, 542.
2 P. Martyr, 105. Harris' Voy: i. 270. Carthagena was a name that had been given to that port by Columbus, on account of its resemblance to a port of that name in Spain. Codego lay near the port; and, Martyr says, that this was the Indian name: “ Insulain vocant incolæ Codego.
3 Anderson, Hist. Commerce, ii. 9. Brit. Emp. in America, Introd. xlvi. Encyc. Methodique, Georg. Art. CANADA. This fishery appears to have been immediately productive. The French is : “ Dès 1504, les Basques, les Bretons et les Normands, utiles
et audacieux navigateurs, se hasardoient avec de foibles barques sur le banc de Terreneuve, et nourissoient une partie de la France du fruit de leur pêche.” Ibid. These fishermen are said to have discovered at this time the Grand Bank of Newfoundland. Ibid. Commerce, Art. COMMUNAUTE DE BIENs. The account in Champlain's Voyages is : “Ce furent les Bretons & les Normands, qui en l'an 1504. descouvrirent les premiers des Chrestiens, le grand Banc des Moluques, & les Isles de Terre neufve, ainsi qu' il se remarque és histoires de Niflet, & d' Antoine Maginus."
1505. ceived him with every token of honour, and feasted him several
days. Amidst this security, the Spaniards, at a preconcerted signal, drew their swords, and rushed on the defenceless and astonished Indians. Their princess was instantly secured. Her attendants were seized and bound, and left to perish in the flames of the house, where they were assembled, which was set on fire. Anacoana was carried in chains to St. Domingo, where,
after the formality of a trial, she was condemned to be hanged. Their com- This atrocious conduct toward the Haytin princes completely plete and
humbled the natives, who, in all the provinces of Hispaniola, final subjugation. now submitted, without farther resistance, to the Spanish yoke."
1506. COLUMBUS, exhausted by age, fatigues, and disappointments,
died at Valladolid on the 20th of May, in the 59th year of his Columbus. age. This great man departed this life with a composure, cor
responding to the magnanimity of his character, and with sentiments of devotion, becoming his supreme and habitual respect for religion. His corpse was removed to Seville, and buried in the cathedral church of that city with great funeral pomp ; and by order of king Ferdinand," whose jealousy his death had extinguished,” was honoured with a marble monument, upon which was engraven the following Epitaph :
A CASTILLA Y A LEON
In English : “ To Castile and to Leon Columbus gave a New
1 Robertson, b. 3. B. de las Casas, in his Relation, says, that after this unjust war ended, with such a destruction and massacre, the Spaniards, having reserved few beside the women and children, divided these among themselves; some keeping 30, others 40, others 100, some 200, according to the interest they had with the tyrant [governor) of the island. Oviedo says, that, in 1535, only 43 years after the discovery of Hispaniola, and when he himself was on the spot, there were not left alive in that island above 500 of the original natives, old and young. Edwards, W. Indies, i. c. 3.
2 Life of Columbus, by his son Ferdinand, c. 108. Herrera, d. 1. lib. 6. c. 15. Robertson, b. 2. Belknap, Biog. Art. COLUMBUS. Memorials of Columbus, Hist. Memoir. Columbus was of good figure, rather of tall and large stature, of a long visage and majestic aspect. He had an aquiline nose, rather high cheek bones, grey eyes, and a clear and ruddy complexion He was a man of strong and active body, of a lofty mind, and sound judgment. He was witty and pleasant, agreeable in speech, moderately grave, mild, and affable. His conversation was discreet, and conciliated affection; and his presence, having an air of authority and grandeur, attracted respect. He was uniformly temperate in his living, and modest in his dress. He was greatly skilled in navigation, understood Latin, and composed verses. He was a man of undaunted courage, and fond of great enterprises. Herrera supposes, that if, in ancient times, he had performed such an enterprise as the discovery of a new world, not only would temples and statues have been erected to his honour, but some star would have been dedicated to him, as there was to Hercules and to Bacchus :-“ le dedicá ran alguna estrella en los signos celestes, como à Hercules, y à Baco."
A regular form was given to ecclesiastical government in 1506. America, by the nomination of clergymen of all ranks, to take charge of the Spaniards settled there, as well as of the natives, Affairs of who should embrace Christianity. Pursuant to bulls of the pope, Father Garcia de Padilla was nominated the first bishop of St. Domingo. Their catholic majesties ordered the cathedral church of that city to be magnificently built at their own expense.
Jean Denys, a Frenchman, sailed with his pilot Camart, a Map of St. native of Rouen, from Honfleur to Newfoundland, and drew a
Lawrence. map of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and of the coast of the adjacent country.
FERDINAND, king of Spain, erected a court, entitled Casa de 1507. Contratacion, or Board of Trade, composed of persons eminent Spanish for rank and abilities, to which he committed the administration Board of
Trade. of American affairs.3
The inhabitants of Hispaniola, computed to have been, when Hispaniola. Columbus discovered the island, at least one million, were now reduced to sixty thousand. The natives of the Lucayo islands, Lucayo
islands. to the number of twelve hundred thousand, wasted in the mines of Hispaniola and Cuba, or by diseases and famine, had previously become extinct.5
JUAN DIAZ DE Solis and Vincent Yañez Pinzon sailed from 1508. Seville, with two caravels, to the cost of Brazil, and went to Voyage of the 35th degree, south latitude, where they found the great river De Spins
1 Herrera, d. 1. lib. 6. c. 19, 20. 2 Forster, Voy. 431, 432 Conduite des François, Note 9. Anderson, ü. 9. Univ. Hist. xxxix. 406. Cabot's discovery of Canada, it is supposed, thus early attracted the attention of the French.
3 Herrera, d. 1. lib. 7. c. 1. Robertson, b. 3.
4 Robertson, b. 3. B. de las Casas, Relat. 23. Purchas, i. 914; where the writer says, that in three or four months, while he was in a certain town in one of the West India Islands, 6000 children died for the want of their parents, who were sent to the mines.
5 Purchas, i. 904. The Spaniards, understanding it to be the opinion of the Lucayans, that departed souls, after certain expiations on cold northern mountains, would pass to a southern region, persuaded them to believe that they had come from that place, where they might see their departed parents and children, acquaintance and friends, and enjoy every delight. Thus seduced, they went with the Spaniards to Hispaniola and Cuba. But, when they discovered that they had been deceived; that they had come to dark mines, instead of Elysian fields; that they should not find any one of their parents or friends, but be compelled to submit to a severe government, and to unwonted and cruel labours; abandoned to despair, they either killed themselves, or, obstinately rejecting food, they breathed out their languid spirits. P. Martyr, 481. “ Quando vero se deceptos fuisse conspexerunt, nec parentibus aut optatorum cuiquam occurrerent, sed gravia imperia et insuetos ac sævos labores subire cogerentur, in desperationem versi, aut seipsos necabant, aut electa inedia languidos emittebant spiritus, nulla ratione aut vi persuasi, ut cibum sumere vellent. Ita miseris Lucais est finis impositus."