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1655. The Onondagas sent deputies to Quebec, accompanied by a
large number of their nation, to solicit missionaries of the French. Missionaries were accordingly sent to that tribe of natives; and
several of the heads of it became their proselytes." May. 8.
Edward Winslow, distinguished in the annals of Plymouth Death of E. colony, died on board the English fleet in the West Indies, in the Winslo, & N. Rogers.
61st year of his age. Nathaniel Rogers, minister of Ipswich, died.3
sufficiently break up full so much land for the Indians in such place as they shall appoint within such plantation as shall there be appointed them, as they have of planting ground about a hill called Robbins hill; and that the Indians shall have use of their planting ground aforesaid free of all damages until the petitioners shall have broken up the land for the Indians as aforesaid.”-From the same Records is extracted, in connexion with the preceding grant : “ 2dly. For the Plantation petitioned for by Mr. Eliot, the court judgeth it meet to be granted them
and for the stating of both, that capt. Willard and capt. Johnson be appointed to lay out the said Plantation or Township, &c.”
1 Univ. Hist. xxxix. 457, 458. Charlevoix, Nouv. France, i. 320.
? Morton, 1655, and Edit. Note. Hutchinson, i. 187. Belknap, Biog ii. Art. Winslow. Cromwell appointed three commissioners to superintend and direct the operations of Penn and Venables in their expedition to the W. Indies, of whom Winslow, then in England, was chief, His reputation was so great, and he found so much employment, that he had never returned home after his departure as agent in 1646. The commanders disagreed in their tempers and views; and the commissioners could not controul them. Winslow participated the chagrin of the defeat, but not the pleasure of the subsequent victory. In the passage between Hispaniola and Jamaica, the heat of the climate threw him into a fever, which, aggravated by his dejection, terminated his life. His actions form his best eulogium. “ The New England's Memorial and our whole early history, bear testimony to the energy, activity, and well directed exertions of Edward Winslow." His efforts in behalf of the Indians illustrate his benevolence and piety. The Society for propagating the Gospel among the Indians, formed through his influence at London, continued, under the name of the London Society till the American Revolution. He published “Good News from New England, or a True Relation of things very remarkable at the Plantation of Plimouth in New England,” with an Account of the religious and civil laws and customs of the Indians, at London, 1624. This work is abridged in Purchas's Pilgrims, b. 10. c. 5; and reprinted in Mass. Hist. Soc. viii. 239— 276; and (2d Series) ix. 74–104; and his Account of the Natives of New England in the Appendix to vol. 2. of Belknap's Biography. His “ Glorious Progress of the Gospel among the Indians" was printed at London in 1649. Bibliotheca Americana. In New England bis name will never be forgotten. His portrait, an excellent painting, was in the possession of the late Dr. Josiah Winslow, who inherited the old family estate at Marshfield, called Caresrull farm. He showed it to me, at his hospitable mansion. The eye is black and expressive, and the whole countenance very interesting. The portrait is taken with whiskers. Josiah Winslow, son of Edward (also governor of Plymouth colony), is drawn without them. “ Beards were left off early in New England, and about the same time they were in Old. Leveret is the first governor, who is painted without a beard. He laid it aside in Cromwell's court. Hutchinson, i. 153.
3 Mather, Magnal. b. 3. c. 14. He was second son of Mr. John Rogers of Dedham in England, who was a grandson of Job Rogers, the first martyr in queen Mary's reign. Alden, Religious Societies in Portsmouth. Mather says, Nathaniel was born while his father was minister of Haverhill, about the year 1598. At the time of his death, therefore, he would be about 57. He was educated at the Grammar school in Dedham, and, at the age of 14, admitted into Emanuel college, in Cambridge. He was ordained at Ipswich in 1638. He 1656.
The first quakers, who appeared in New England, arrived in Quakers July. The general court of Massachusetts, considering thein banished. alike hostile to civil and to ecclesiastical order, passed sentence of banishment on 12 persons of that sect, the whole number then in the colony."
Oliver Cromwell, protector, made proposals to the colony of Proposal Massachusetts for the removal of some of its inhabitants to
Jamaica. Jainaica; but the general court very respectfully declined compliance.
General Gookin, of Cambridge, was chosen tɔ be ruler of the Ruler of praying Indians in Massachusetts. He was the first English Indians magistrate appointed for the natives.3
Cromwell granted, under the great seal of England, to Charles Acadie Saint Etienne, William Crown, and Thomas Temple forever, granted to the territory denominated Acadie, and part of the country com- and others. monly called Nova Scotia, extending along the coast to Pentagoet and to the river St. George. It was erected into a province, independent of New England and of his other dominions, and the three grantees were appointed its hereditary governors.
wrote a Vindication of the Congregational Church government. Dr. Mather had it in his hands, “ a brief Manuscript, written in a neat Latin style whereof he was an incomparable master;" and he has preserved a handsome specimen of it in his “ Life” in the Magnalia.
1 Hutchinson, i. 197, 198. Neal, N. Eng. i. 311. Hazard, i. 630—632, where the act is entire. An act was passed, laying a penalty of £100 on the master of any vessel, who should bring a known quaker into any part of the colony; and requiring him to give security to carry him back again, the quaker to be immediately sent to the house of correction, receive 20 stripes, and be kept to hard labour until transportation. A penalty was enacted of £5 for importing, and the same for dispersing or concealing quakers' books; and for defending the doctrines of their books 40 shillings for the first offence; £4 for the second ; and for the next, commitment to the house of correction, “till there be convenient passage for them to be sent out of the land." Another law was passed the next year (1657) against bringing quakers into the jurisdiction, or harbouring them in it. Hutchinson, i. 198. This law is in Hazard, ü. 554.
2 The Letter of the general court to Cromwell is in Hutchinson, i. 192, and Hazard, i. 638.
3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Society, i. 177.
4 Chalmers, b. 1. 187. Hazard, i. 616-619, from Memoires de l'Amerique. " Thus, for the first time, was introduced that confusion with regard to Acadie and Nova Scotia, which so perplexed statesmen in aftertimes,
by considering those as two different countries, that were in truth the same; the former containing the latter and more, and Acadie advancing westward till it met with the settlements of New England. For it ought always to be remembered, that the southern boundary of Acadie, as established by the grant of Henry IV, in 1603, was the 40th degree of north latitude ; that the southwestern limits of Nová Scotia, as appointed by the patent of James I. in 1621, was the river St. Croix. And thus was the stream of St. George now affixed as the outmost extent of both towards the south-west.” Ibid. 188.
New Amsterdam, afterward called New York, was laid out in several small streets.
Miles Standish, the hero of New England, died at Duxbury, at an advanced age.”
Death of M.
1657. Indian plot.
The governor and council of Plymouth, about this time, hearing that Alexander, son and successor of Massasoit, was conspiring with the Narragansets against the English, sent for him to the court. Major Winslow, with 8 or 10 men, surprising bim, and requiring his attendance, he was persuaded by one of his own chief counsellors to go to the governor's house; but his indignation at the surprisal threw him into a fever. On his promise to come back to Plymouth, if he should recover, and,
in the mean time, to send his son as a hostage, he had leave to Alexander. return; but he died before he reached, home.3 Lands given
The Indians at Ponkipog having sold all their land, the town of Dorchester, at the request of Mr. Eliot of Roxbury, empowered four persons to lay out a plantation at Ponkipog, not exceeding 6,000 acres of land, and gave that tract for the exclusive
use and benefit of the Indians.4 License to
Massachusetts legislature granted a license to certain persons, supply the, to supply the eastern Indians with arms and ammunition for
hunting, on paying an acknowledgment to the public treasury.5
A ship, with many passengers, was lost in a voyage from BosShip lost.
ton to England. Among the number of worthy and respectable T.Mayhew. persons lost, was Mr. Thomas Mayhew, who had been the
principal instrument in the conversion of the natives on Martha's Vineyard.
to the Indians.
natives with arms.
1 Smith, N. York, i. 22.
2 Morton, 262, and Judge Davis's Note. Hubbard, c. 63. Belknap, Biog ii. Art. STANDISH. Mass. Hist. Soc. ii. 4. Hubbard says, Standish was allied to the noble house of Standish in Lancashire, and inherited some of the virtues of that honourable family, as well as the name. In the military annals of Plymouth, he stands preeminently distinguished. Dr. Belknap says, after the encounter at Mount Wollaston in 1628, we have no particular account of him. We find, however, that, so late as 1653, he was placed at the head of the troops provisionally raised by Plymouth colony; and that he was chosen one of the assistants of that colony, as he long as he lived. A sword, supposed to be the sword of Standish, is preserved in the cabinet of the Massachusetts Historical Society. In Ancient Vestiges, a MS. used by Judge Davis, there is this remark : “ Šo late as 1707, I find that Sir Thomas Standish lived at Duxbury, the name of the family seat in Lancashire.” The Editor of Morton, who, though living in Boston, is at home in Old Plymouth, subjoins : “ The name of Standish continues in the towns of Halifax, Plimpton, Middleborough, and Pembroke.”
3 Hubbard, Indian War, 49, 50.
5 Belknap, N. Hamp. i. 160.
Several gentlemen on Rhode Island and other associates made 1657. the Petaquamscut purchase of the chief sachems of the Narraganset country. The island of Canonicut was also purchased Canonicut: of the Indians by William Coddington, Benedict Arnold, and others.
A question about the subjects of baptism having been much Council of agitated, and the magistrates of Connecticut having, the last year, ministers sent several of their number to Massachusetts for consultation, the magistrates of both jurisdictions now united in calling together several of the ablest ministers of each colony. assembly of 26 ministers met at Boston on the 4th of June ; June 4. when several questions, concerning the subject of baptism, were Boston. proposed to them. The result of their discussions and deliberations was presented to the governments of each jurisdiction.”
William Bradford, governor of Plymouth, Edward Hopkins, Death or w. formerly governor of Connecticut,4 and Theophilus Eaton, Bradford, &
c. 63, and 75, p. 655. Mather says, the ship wherein he took passage was never heard of. He was the son of the first settler and governor of the island of Martha's Vineyard. See A. d. 1642.
1 Callender, 39. Brit. Emp. ii. 135, 148. Mass. Hist. Soc. v. 217. The smaller islands had been purchased before.
2 Hubbard. c. 41, 64. Mather, Magnal. b. 5. 63. “ The Letters of the Government,” says Mather, “ procured an Assembly of our principal ministers on June 4, 1657, who by the 19th of that month prepared and presented an elaborate Answer to twenty one questions, which was afterwards printed in London." See A. D. 1662.
3 Morton, 1657 and Notes. Hutchinson, i. 206. Gov. Bradford died in the 69th year of his age. Piety, wisdom, and integrity, were prominent traits of his character. Though not of a liberal education, he was a laborious student, and of respectable attainments. He very assiduously studied the Hebrew language; the French and Dutch languages were familiar to him; and he had considerable knowledge of the Latin and Greek. From the time of his first election in 1621, he was annually chosen governor, as long as he lived, excepting three years. See Belknap, Biog. ii. 217—251. Art. BRADFORD. Hubbard (c. 63.] says, “ he was the very prop and glory of Plymouth colony during all the whole series of changes that passed over it.”
4 Trumbull, i. 232 Mr. Hopkins was governor several years, and highly esteemed, as a wise and upright magistrate, and as a man of exemplary piety and extensive charity. Having occasion to go to England, he was there chosen first warden of the English fleet; then commissioner of the admiralty and navy; and finally a member of parliament. These unexpected preferments induced him to send to New England for his family, and to spend the remainder of his days in his native country, where he died, Ætat. LVIII. He gave £500 out of his estate in England to trustees in New England," for the upholding and promoting the kingdom of the Lord Jesus Christ, in those parts of the earth ;" which donation was considered as made to Harvard college, and the grammar school in Cambridge, and, by virtue of a decree in chancery, was paid in 1710. The money has been laid out in real estate in a township in Massachusetts, named, in honour of the donor, Hopkinton. The legislature of Massachusetts has made such addition to the fund, that six bachelors may now reside at Harvard College, and seven boys be instructed at the grammar school. Mr. Hopkins' whole estate in New England, estimated at about £1000 sterling (Hutchinson, i. 101, says, “ at least £2000."], was appropropriated to the support of the grammar schools in New Haven and Hartford. Mass. Hist. Soc. vii. 22.
1657. governor of New Haven, died this year. George Fenwick,
first settler of Saybrook, died in England.
Southerton, This year, a considerable settlement was made at Pequot since named Stonington,
between Mistic and Pawcatuck rivers, by several families from settled. Massachusetts. The settlers, finding that there was a controversy
between Connecticut and Massachusetts about a title and jurisdiction, entered into a voluntary contract to govern themselves, until it should be determined to which colony they should submit. The commissioners for the United Colonies, observing that the Pequot country would accominodate two plantations, determined, that Mistic river be the boundary between them; and that those people, already settled by cominission, from either of the two
governments, be not molested.3 Order about
The general court of Massachusetts ordered, that no person public should publicly and constantly preach to any company of people, preaching. whether in a church state or not, or be ordained to the office of a
teaching elder, where any two organic churches, council of state, or general court, should declare dissatisfaction at such public service, either in reference to doctrine or practice, the offence being declared to such people, church, or person, until the offence be orderly removed : and that, in case of the ordination of any teaching elder, timely notice be given to three or four of the neighbouring organic churches, for their approbation."
1 Hubbard, c. 42. Trumbull, Conn. i. 231. Gov. Eaton died 7 Jan. in his 67th year. He was born at Stony Stratford, in Oxfordshire. For several years he was agent for the king of England at the court of Denmark; and afterward a very respectable merchant in London. He came to New England in 1637. [See that year.] He was one of the original patentees of Massachusetts, and soon after his arrival was chosen one of the magistrates of the colony. On the settlement of New Haven, he was chosen governor of that colony ; and was annually reelected until his death. In private life he was very amiable; his public character was distinguished for integrity and dignity, wisdom and piety.
2 Hutchinson, i. c 1. Note. Winthrop, i. 306, Edit. Note. Mr Fenwick came from England in 1639, with design to take possession of the lands upon Connecticut river for the lords Say and Brook, and founded the town of Saybrook. See A. d. 1635 and 1639. The Connecticut people purchased of him the title of the lords 5 December, 1644; and he then joined with the colony, and was chosen an assistant. Returning soon after to England, he was honour. ably noticed, and received promotions. In 1648, gov. Winthrop writes to his son : “ Mr. Fenwick is made a colonel and governour of Tinmouth castle.” ii. 357. By his last will, proved in Sussex in England 27 April, 1657, he gave £500 to the public use of the country of New England, if his loving friend Mr. Edward Hopkins should think fit, and to be employed as he should order and direct.
3 Trumbull, i. 233—235. Gov Trumbull, MS. State and Origin of Connecticut. Backus, N. Eng. i. 343. See Note XXXIV.
4 Hazard, i. 490. The Ecclesiastical Constitution of Massachusetts, composed of laws made at different times by the legislature of that colony, is inserted ibid. 488-493.